Heckler & Koch HK416
The Heckler & Koch HK416 is a rifle designed and manufactured by the German company Heckler & Koch. Although its design is based on the AR-15 class of weapons, specifically the Colt M4 carbine family issued to the U.S. military, it uses a proprietary short-stroke gas piston system derived from the ArmaLite AR-18 (the same system was also used in Heckler & Koch's earlier G36 family of rifles). It is the standard assault rifle of the Norwegian Armed Forces, selected by the French Armed Forces to replace the FAMAS, and was the weapon used by SEAL Team Six to kill Osama Bin Laden in 2011.
|Type||Assault rifleCarbineSquad automatic weapon (M27 IAR)AR-15 style rifleDesignated marksman rifle|
|Place of origin||Germany|
|Used by||See Users|
|Manufacturer||Heckler & Koch|
|Variants||HK416D, HK416C, HK416A5, HK416A7, M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle, HK417|
|Mass||2.950–3.850 kg (6.50–8.49 lb)|
|Length||690–1,037 mm (27.2–40.8 in) (stock extended)|
|Barrel length||HK416C: 9 in (230 mm)HK416D: 10.5–20 in (270–510 mm)HK416F: 11–20 in (280–510 mm)M27 IAR: 16.5 in (420 mm)|
|Width||78 mm (3.1 in)|
|Height||236–240 mm (9.3–9.4 in)|
|Action||Gas-operated short-stroke piston, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire||700-900 rounds/min HK416A5: 850 rounds/min|
|Muzzle velocity||730 m/s (9 in) to 917 m/s (19.9 in)|
|Effective firing range||A5 11": 300 metres (330 yd)|
A5 14.5": 500 metres (550 yd)
A5 16.5": 600 metres (660 yd)
A5 20": 800 metres (870 yd)
|Feed system||10, 20, 30-round detachable STANAG magazine, 100-round detachable Beta C-Mag|
|Sights||Picatinny rail-mounted front and rear iron sights, optional removable gas block-mounted flip-up front sight post|
The United States Army's Delta Force, at the request of R&D NCO Larry Vickers , collaborated with the German arms maker Heckler & Koch to develop the new carbine in the early 1990s. During development, Heckler & Koch capitalized on experience gained developing the Bundeswehr's Heckler & Koch G36 assault rifle, the U.S. Army's XM8 rifle project (cancelled in 2005) and the modernization of the British Armed Forces SA80 small arms family. The project was originally called the Heckler & Koch M4, but this was changed in response to a trademark infringement suit filed by Colt Defense.
Delta Force replaced its M4s with the HK416 in 2004, after tests revealed that the piston operating system significantly reduces malfunctions while increasing the life of parts. The HK416 has been tested by the United States military and is in use with some law enforcement agencies. It has been adopted as the standard rifle of the Norwegian Armed Forces (2008) and the French Armed Forces (2017) and is used by many special operations units worldwide.
A modified variant underwent testing by the United States Marine Corps as the M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle. After the Marine Corps Operational Test & Evaluation Activity supervised a round of testing at MCAGCC Twentynine Palms, Fort McCoy, and Camp Shelby (for dust, cold-weather, and hot-weather conditions, respectively). As of March 2012, fielding of 452 IARs had been completed of 4,748 ordered. Five infantry battalions: 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion and 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines, out of Camp Pendleton, Calif.; First Battalion, 3rd Marines, out of Marine Corps Base Hawaii; 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, out of Camp Lejeune, N.C.; and 1st Battalion, 25th Marines, out of Fort Devens, Mass. have deployed the weapon. In December 2017, the Marine Corps revealed a decision to equip every Marine in an infantry squad with the M27.
The HK416 uses a HK-proprietary short-stroke gas piston system that derives from the HK G36, forgoing the concentric to bore gas piston system standard in AR-15 rifles. The HK G36 gas system was in turn partially derived from the AR-18 assault rifle designed in 1963. The HK system uses a short-stroke piston driving an operating rod to force the bolt carrier to the rear. This design prevents combustion gases from entering the weapon's interior—a shortcoming with direct impingement systems. The reduction in heat and fouling of the bolt carrier group increases the reliability of the weapon and extends the interval between stoppages. During factory tests the HK416 fired 10,000 rounds in full-auto without malfunctioning.
The HK416 is equipped with a proprietary accessory rail forearm with MIL-STD-1913 rails on all four sides. This lets most current accessories for M4/M16-type weapons fit the HK416. The HK416 rail forearm can be installed and removed without tools by using the bolt locking lug as the screwdriver. The rail forearm is "free-floating" and does not contact the barrel, improving accuracy.
The HK416 has an adjustable multi-position telescopic butt stock, offering six different lengths of pull. The shoulder pad can be either convex or concave and the stock features a storage space for maintenance accessories, spare electrical batteries or other small kit items. It can also be switched out for other variations like Magpul stocks.
The HK416's barrel is cold hammer-forged with a 20,000-round service life and features a 6 grooves 178 mm (7 in) right hand twist. The cold hammer-forging process provides a stronger barrel for greater safety in case of an obstructed bore or for extended firing sessions. Modifications for an over-the-beach (OTB) capability such as drainage holes in the bolt carrier and buffer system are available to let the HK416 fire safely after being submerged in water.
In July 2007, the U.S. Army announced a limited competition between the M4 carbine, FN SCAR, HK416, and the previously-shelved HK XM8. Ten examples of each of the four competitors were involved. Each weapon fired 60,000 rounds in an extreme dust environment. The shoot-off was for assessing future needs, not to select a replacement for the M4. The XM8 scored the best, with only 127 stoppages in 60,000 total rounds, the FN SCAR Light had 226 stoppages, while the HK416 had 233 stoppages. The M4 carbine scored "significantly worse" than the rest of the field with 882 stoppages. However, magazine failures caused 239 of the M4's 882 failures. Army officials said, in December 2007, that the new magazines could be combat-ready by spring of 2008 if testing went well.
In December 2009, a modified version of the HK416 was selected for the final testing in the Infantry Automatic Rifle program, designed to partially replace the M249 light machine gun at the squad level for the United States Marine Corps. It beat the three other finalists by FN Herstal and Colt Defense. In July 2010, the HK416 IAR was designated as the M27, and 450 were procured for additional testing.
The Turkish company Makina ve Kimya Endustrisi Kurumu ("Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation") has considered manufacturing a copy of the HK416 as the MKEK Mehmetçik-1 for the Turkish Armed Forces. Instead, the new MPT-76 rifle has been developed by KALEKALIP with MKEK as the producer, with the Mehmetçik-1 dropped from adoption into the Turkish military.
The French armed forces conducted a rifle evaluation and trial to replace the FAMAS, and selected the HK416F as its primary firearm in 2016. Of the 93,080 rifles, 54,575 will be a "short" version with a 280 mm (11 in) barrel weighing 3.7 kg (8.2 lb) without the ability to use a grenade launcher, and 38,505 will be a "standard" version with a 368 mm (14.5 in) barrel weighing 4 kg (8.8 lb), of which 14,915 will take FÉLIN attachments; standard rifles will be supplied with 10,767 HK269F grenade launchers. 5,000 units are supposed to be delivered in 2017, half of the order delivered by 2022, and the order fulfilled by 2028. The first batch of 400 rifles was delivered on 3 May 2017.
The HK416 was one of the weapons displayed to U.S. Army officials during an invitation-only Industry Day on November 13, 2008. The goal of the Industry Day was to review current carbine technology prior to writing formal requirements for a future replacement for the M4 carbine. The HK416 was then an entry in the Individual Carbine competition to replace the M4. The weapon submitted was known as the HK416A5. It features a stock similar to that of the G28 designated marksman rifle, except slimmer and non-adjustable. The rifle features an improved tool-less adjustable gas regulator for suppressor use, which can accommodate barrel lengths down to 267 mm (10.5 in) without modifications. It also features a redesigned lower receiver with ambidextrous fire controls, optimized magazine and ammunition compatibility, a repair kit housed inside the pistol grip, and a Flat Dark Earth color-scheme. The stock has a fixed buttplate and no longer has a storage space, as well as the sling loops removed from it. The V2 HK Battle grip is incorporated, which has the V2 grip profile with the storage compartment of the V1 grip for tools. The handguard uses a new hexagonal-shaped cross bolt that cannot be removed by the bolt locking lugs, but instead by the takedown tool housed inside the grip. It has a "heavy duty castle nut", which is more robust than the previous version, therefore making that weak spot more resistant to impact. The Individual Carbine competition was cancelled before a winning weapon was chosen.
- HK416C: The ultra-compact variant, with "C" for Compact. The HK416C has a 228 mm (9.0 in) barrel and is expected to produce muzzle velocities of approximately 730 m/s (2,395 ft/s).
- M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle: A squad automatic weapon variant developed from the D16.5RS adopted in 2011 by the United States Marine Corps. In 2018 the USMC decided to adopt the M27 IAR as their standard battle rifle.
- HK416A5: Improved carbine entered in the Individual Carbine competition. The competition was cancelled without a weapon chosen.
- HK416A7: Variant designed for the German KSK and KSM. Most significant change is a selector which now rotates 90 degrees rather than 180 degrees as on the M16 series.
- HK417: larger caliber variant chambered for 7.62×51mm NATO
Civilian variants of the HK416 and HK417 introduced in 2007 were known as MR223 and MR308 (as they remain known in Europe). Both are semi-automatic rifles with several "sporterized" features. At the 2009 SHOT Show, these two firearms were introduced to the U.S. civilian market renamed respectively MR556 and MR762. There is another variant of the MR556 called the MR556A1, which is an improved version of the former. It was created with input from American special forces units. The MR556A1 lets the upper receiver attach to any M16/M4/AR-15 family lower receiver, as the receiver take-down pins are in the same standard location. The original concept for the MR556 did not allow for this, as the take-down pins were located in a "non-standard" location. The MR223 maintains the "non-standard" location of the pins, disallowing attachment of the upper receiver to the lower receivers of any other M16/M4/AR-15 family of rifles. As of 2012, the MR556A1 upper receiver group fits standard AR-15 lower receivers without modification, and functions reliably with standard STANAG magazines. HK-USA sells a variant under the MR556A1 Competition Model nomenclature; it comes with a 14.5" free-float Modular Rail System (MRS), 16.5" barrel, OSS compensator and Magpul CTR buttstock. The firearm's precision is specified as 1 MOA by Heckler & Koch. In Europe, the MR223A3 variant is sold with the same cosmetic and ergonomical improvements of the HK416A5. The French importer of Heckler & Koch in France, RUAG Defence, have announced that they are going to sell two civilian versions of the HK416F, named the MR223 F-S (14.5″ Standard version) and MR223 F-C (11″ Short version).
Chinese companies Hua Qing Machinery Co., Ltd. and Heng Ray Technology Ltd. have developed a variant called the HR31 with the export designation CS/LR36. The HR31 has four versions based on barrel length: the 11-inch HR31C tactical carbine, 14.5-inch HR31S standard combat rifle, 16.5-inch HR31I infantry automatic rifle, and 20-inch HR31D designated marksman rifle.
|Special Operations Command of the Australian Defence Force||D10RS||2013|
|Command of Tactical Operations (Comando de Operações Táticas, COT) of the Brazilian Federal Police||HK416 A3||—||2012|
|Tactical Intervention Groups (Grupos de Intervenção Tática, GPI) of the Brazilian Federal Police||HK416 A5, HK417||—||2014|
|Combat Divers Group (Grupamento de Mergulhadores de Combate, GRUMEC) of the Brazilian Navy||HK416 A3||—||—|
|Special Operations Command (Comando de Operações Especiais, C Op Esp) of the Brazilian Army||HK416 A3||—||—|
|Special Operations Command of the Croatian Armed Forces||HK416 & HK417||550||2012 & 2015|
|Commandement des Opérations Spéciales - intervention purchase for Afghanistan mission||HK416D||c. 2500||2007|
|French Armed Forces - selected the HK416F as their new standard assault rifle to replace the FAMAS.||HK416F||102,000 to 117,000||2017|
|French Armed Forces||HK417|
|Commando Parachutiste de l'Air of the French Air Force||—||—||—|
|13ème RDP of the French Army||D14.5RS and HK416 A5 – 14.5"||—||—|
|German Special Forces Command (Kommando Spezialkräfte, KSK) of the German Army||HK416 A5, HK417 A2||—||—|
|Kommando Spezialkräfte Marine of the German Navy||—||—|
|GSG 9 (Grenzschutzgruppe 9 der Bundespolizei, GSG-9) of the German Federal Police||HK416 A5, HK417 A2||—||—|
|Hesse State Police||G38 semi-automatic 14.5"||2,005 rifles ordered||—|
|ZuZ Special forces of the German Customs Service||HK416 A5||—||—||—|
|Georgian Special Forces||—||—||—|
|Counter Terrorism Center||HK416A5||—||—|
|Detasemen Jala Mangkara (Denjaka) tactical diver group of the Indonesian Navy||HK416||—||—|
|Kopaska (Komando Pasukan Katak) Frogman of the Indonesian Navy||HK416||—||—|
|Detachment 88 of the Indonesian National Police||HK416||—||—|
|Army Ranger Wing (ARW) of the Defence Forces||HK416A5, HK417 A2||—||2010|
|Emergency Response Unit (ERU) of the Garda Síochána||HK416A5|
|COMSUBIN (Comando Raggruppamento Subacquei e Incursori Teseo Tesei, COMSUBIN) of the Italian Navy||—||—||—|
|9th Parachute Assault Regiment||—||—||—|
|GIS (Gruppo di Intervento Speciale, GIS) of the Carabinieri||—||—||—|
|Special Forces Group (Japan), Japan Ground Self-Defense Force||HK416, HK417||—||—|
|Joint Special Operations Command (Jordan)||HK416||—||—|
|Special Operations Force||HK416A5||—||—|
|Pasukan Khas Laut (PASKAL) special operations warfare unit of the Royal Malaysian Navy||D16.5RS||180||2010|
|Pasukan Gerakan Khas counter-terrorism divisions of the Royal Malaysia Police||D10RS, D14.5RS||—||2006|
|Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency||HK416A5||—||—|
|Korps Commandotroepen of the Royal Netherlands Army||D10RS, D14.5RS, HK416A5||—||2010|
|Unit Interventie Mariniers of the Netherlands Marine Corps (Maritime Special Operations Forces)||—|
|Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten of the Royal Marechaussee||—|
|Dienst Speciale Interventies of the Dutch National Police||—|
|Norwegian Armed Forces||HK416N, HK416K, HK416S (specialized DMR version of HK416N, modified in Norway)||40,000 + 11,000||2008|
|Philippine Marine Corps Marine Special Operations Group (MARSOG)||HK416D
|Policja||D10RS, C||—||2006, 2011|
|Special Operations Troops, Portuguese Army||HK416A5||-||-|
|Tactical Actions Group (GAT), Maritime Police||-||-|
|Republic of Singapore Navy||HK416||—||—|
|5th Special forces regiment||HK416, HK417||—||2010|
|Korea National Police SWAT||HK416||364||2017|
|Republic of Korea Navy Special Warfare Flotilla||HK416 D10RS||2010|
|Special Naval Warfare Force||HK416 A5||—||2018|
|Joint Special Operations Command
(units include Delta Force, DEVGRU, 24th STS)
|CIA Special Activities Center|
|United States Army Asymmetric Warfare Group||—||—||—|
|NASA Emergency Response Teams||—||—||—|
|FBI Hostage Rescue Team||—||—||—|
|Los Angeles Police Department Metropolitan Division||All members (A, B, C, E, H, G and K-9 Platoons) use 416 modified to semi-auto, but only SWAT (D Platoon) uses select fire version||—||—|
|United States Marine Corps||M27 IAR||4,476||2011-2012|
|Kentucky State Police Special Response Team||HK416||—||2008|
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Special operations forces, including "tier one" units such as the Army's Delta Force and the Navy's SEAL Development Group – or SEAL Team Six – have used their own funds to purchase the Heckler & Koch-built 416, which uses a gas-piston operating system less susceptible to failure than Colt's gas-operated design.
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Members of the elite unit linked up with German arms maker Heckler & Koch, which replaced the M4’s gas system with one that experts say significantly reduces malfunctions while increasing parts life. After exhaustive tests with the help of Delta, the H&K 416 was ready in 2004. Members of the elite commando unit — formally known as 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta — have been carrying it in combat ever since. … In addition to Delta, experts say the 416 is also in use by other specialized Army units, including the Asymmetric Warfare Group, as well as the Navy’s elite SEAL Team 6.
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