Hans Josef Schumm (né Johann Josef Eugen Schumm; 2 April 1896 Stuttgart – 2 February 1990 Los Angeles) was a German-born-turned-American actor, notably, a prolific and critically acclaimed Hollywood screen character actor who appeared in some 95 films – including a co-starring villainous role in a 12-episode serial. He also appeared in 15 TV productions and several stage productions, including one on Broadway. Except for about ten cinema productions, Schumm's body of work in cinema and television was filmed in the United States. On stage and in film, he is credited as Hans Josef Schumm or simply Hans Schumm; but in seven films, he is credited under the pseudonym André Pola — three in 1948, one in 1949, one in 1954, and one 1956. In his private life, he was known as Joseph Schumm and Johann J.E. Schumm.
Hans Josef Schumm
Johann Josef Eugen Schumm
April 2, 1896
|Died||February 2, 1990 93) (aged|
|Other names||Andre Pola|
(film pseudonym in 1948, 1949, 1954, and 1956)
|Occupation||Stage and Hollywood film actor|
20th Century Pictures (2)
1st Motion Picture Unit
(US Army AF) (1)
|Agent||Paul Kohner Agency|
|Height||6 ft 0 in (183 cm)|
While living in Stuttgart, Schumm first visited New York as a merchant at age 27, arriving January 1, 1924. There are at least two attributions for his acting debut, one in 1925 in Meissen, Germany, and one around 1925 in Stuttgart, performing in The Merchant of Venice with Staatstheater Stuttgart. Schumm visited New York again, arriving November 30, 1926, and performed with a German stock company in Milwaukee and Chicago.
Permanent move to New York
Schumm returned a third time to New York, arriving August 26, 1929, to work in German-language theater as a permanent United States resident.
The timing of Schumm's 1929 arrival was 3 years, 5 months before Hitler's seizure of power on January 30, 1933. Germany had been in the throes of severe economic duress from post World War I, which included hyperinflation that began around 1922. His arrival was also sixty-four days after the Great Crash of 1929 on Wall Street. The Great Depression had struck Germany hard in late 1929, and sunk to its trough in early 1932.
Move to Hollywood
By 1931, Schumm was living in Los Angeles, and appeared in two 1932 productions at the Pasadena Community Playhouse. Schumm debuted in cinema in 1933 as an uncredited bit part actor in The Song of Songs, starring Marlene Dietrich.
Die Reichskulturkammer of 1933
Back in Germany, in 1933, by decree of Joseph Goebbels under a newly created agency called Die Reichskulturkammer (DKK), Jewish actors were, among other things, prohibited from performing on German stage. Schumm was not an exile. But he worked within the Hollywood cinema community, particularly German expatriate groups, to help German Jewish exiled actors acclimate in American cinema. In Los Angeles, in 1939, Schumm became one of 60 or more initial members who formed The Continental Players, a short-lived theater company spearheaded by film executives in support of exiled Jewish thespians from Germany and Austria.
World War II era
Schumm's film roles were mostly minor and, during World War II, mostly uncredited; though he was billed as a main actor on some film posters, including his villainous role as "The Mask" in the popular 1942 12-episode movie serial, Spy Smasher. Generally, the Screen Actors Guild for film, and AFTRA for TV and radio, establishes the guidelines for credits. The lack of crediting can be for several reasons, such as (i) small roles, (ii) non-speaking roles, (iii) brevity, (iv) perceived mismatch between the actor and the role (e.g., a famous actor playing an insignificant part), (v) cameos, (vi) extras, (vii) bit part roles. But also, from 1933 until after World War II, film credits for German-expatriates and German-American actors, particularly in Nazi-themed films, was risky for those who had families in Nazi-occupied countries, not only for Jews, but for anyone with American ties that might draw the attention of the SS. Schumm's paternal and maternal relatives were German citizens and resided there. Schumm became a U.S. naturalized citizen February 14, 1941. When Schumm was drafted under the U.S. Selective Service System, he became a conscientious objector.
In a 2015 retrospective review of Schumm's role as "The Mask" from the 1942 serial Spy Smasher, film critic Boyd P. Magers wrote, "the ultimate screen Nazi was Hans Schumm." An IMDb biographer characterized Schumm as "Nazi swine 'par excellance.'" Magers pointed out that Schumm's career received a considerable boost in the early 1940s when German-born actors were sought, particularly for roles in anti-Nazi films portraying members of the Wehrmacht and SS.
Schumm played a character role in the 1943 film, Hangmen. The film was one of the few attempts by German immigrants in the United States to make a film against the Hitler regime.
Post World War II
After World War II, Schumm performed a role in a 1952-1953 Broadway play, A Red Rainbow.
- The Trapp Family
- The Third Sex (Das dritte Geschlecht) was filmed in Germany in 1957 and released in its original edition in Vienna
- Tales of the Vikings (39 episodes), produced in Munich by Kirk Douglas, Schumm played Thorvald in two episodes
- Question 7
- The Bashful Elephant
- Come Fly with Me
- Captain Sindbad, shot at Bavaria Film Studios
- The Waltz King (1963)
- Before Winter Comes
- Komm nach Wien, ich zeig dir was! (Come to Vienna, I'll Show You Something!)
The Third Sex was produced in West Germany. It was filmed from May 8 to June 3, 1957, and premiered in Vienna on August 29, 1957, in several cinemas. In Germany, the film was first seen in Stuttgart at the Gloria-Palast on October 31, 1957. Schumm played a pediatric psychologist. The film addressed homosexuality, which was controversial at the time. The underlying message, conversion therapy, is on the wrong side of science. Directed by Veit Harlan, the aim was to liberalize public views against homosexuality, and in particular, influence reform of West German laws against it. The film – specifically the version censored by German authorities under Paragraph 175 of the German Criminal Code – had the opposite effect.
Hollywood in the 1960s
Schumm returned to Hollywood and finished his acting career in 1970.
After shooting Das dritte Geschlecht, Schumm returned to Hollywood and finished his acting career in 1970.
Representation and management
Schumm was represented by Paul Kohner.
Family and marriages
Schumm was born April 2, 1896, in Stuttgart, Germany, to Friedrich Schumm (1855–1904) and Petronella (aka Petrauella) Jehle (maiden, aka Yehle aka Fehle; 1855–1936). He had three siblings – two brothers and a sister. His older brother, Gustav "Gustel" Schumm (de) (1888–1966) had been a star rugby and soccer player, and in 1912, for one year, had served as president of VfB Stuttgart and is credited for developing youth soccer in Germany, before and after World War I.
Schumm first married – on July 29, 1931, in Los Angeles – Agnes Mellen Kent (1888–1975), who from a previous marriage, had two daughters – (i) Jessie Marcellina (Elizabeth) Olivieri (1918–1947) and (ii) Josephine Tarquini (1910–2010), that latter having been adopted after being rescued from the 1915 earthquake in central Italy. Agnes Kent was the daughter of New York architect William Winthrop Kent (1860–1955) – who, as architect, was affiliated at various times with (i) Harvey L. Page, (ii) his brother, Edward Austin Kent (who perished on the Titanic), (iii) Heins & LaFarge, and (iv) Jardine, Kent & Jardine. He was one of the architects of the original plan for Cathedral of St. John the Divine, including the Romanesque Revival apse. Agnes was also the granddaughter of Henry Mellen Kent (1823–1894), one of the founders of the Flint & Kent department store in Buffalo. Hans and Agnes divorced. Agnes had been previously married to Umberto Olivieri (1884–1973), a banker for 14 years at Bank of America in San Francisco, a lawyer in Rome, and a language professor for 30 years at Santa Clara University, who, in 1958, at the age of 74 — after returning to Italy and joining the Order of Saint Benedict at the Subiaco Monastery in Rome — became ordained as a Roman Catholic Priest by the Bishop of Tivoli at Subiaco. Hans Schumm was Agnes' second of three husbands.
Schumm then married – on September 23, 1935, in Santa Ana, California – Gloria F. Smith (aka Gloria Smith Beery, née Florence W. Smith; 1916–1989). Gloria Schumm filed for divorce late September 1943 in Los Angeles County. Their divorced became final on December 8, 1944. Gloria and Hans then remarried August 21, 1947, after Gloria realized that she was pregnant from, she claimed, actor Wallace Beery, which Beery denied. Gloria gave birth on February 7, 1948, to Johan Richard Wallace Schumm. On February 13, 1948, Gloria Schumm, on behalf of Johan Schumm, as plaintiff, filed a paternity suit against Beery, who, through his lawyer, Norman Ronald Tyre (1910–2002) – Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown – initially offered $6,000 as a settlement, but denied being the father.
Gloria Schumm, again, filed for divorced from Hans Schumm on April 2, 1953, in Los Angeles County. Gloria, in her private life, sometimes used Wallace Beery's surname and, as a bit part actor, sometimes used her stage name, Gloria Whitney. Gloria, again, divorced Hans Schumm January 11, 1978, in Los Angeles County.
United States citizenship
Schumm applied to become a naturalized citizen of the United States on November 13, 1940, in Los Angeles, and was admitted as a citizen February 14, 1941. The two affiants attesting to Schumm's identity and residency were Stuttgart-born Alfred Theodor Hummel (1876–1946) and John Harrison Rodney Pain (1884–1966), a British-born American gardner and woodwork artisan. Schumm was approximately 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, weighed approximately 198 pounds (90 kg), and had brown hair and brown eyes — according to his 1942 U.S. draft registration card.
Schumm died at 93 years and 10 months on February 2, 1990. He was dead on arrival at Kaiser Permanente Hospital in Los Angeles from heart failure after being stricken at the Hollywood nursing home where he had been living. His body was cremated with his ashes buried in the actors’ rose garden at Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery.
Links to stills
- Three stills from "The Primitive Touch," a TV episode from The Web; CBS/Getty Images, May 14, 1954 New York, New York
- Screen Actors Guild, member
- Screen Extras Guild (between 1946 and 1992, background actors in film and television were largely represented by the Screen Extras Guild. SEG was disbanded on 1 June 1992 and transferred its jurisdiction to SAG)
- Edwin Forrest Society, The Actors Fund, member (estate benefactor)
Selected cinematic and TV clips
- Psychologist (Hans Schumm), Christa Teichmann, Klaus' mother (Paula Wessely), Werner Teichmann, Klaus' father (Paul Dahlke)
- Scene: "Cure for Homosexuality," Klause's parents with the psychologist (German censored version with English subtitles)
|Episode Title||Writer(s)||Director||Role||Original air date||Network||Production Co.|
|Space Patrol||1 : 37||"Photograph of a Traitor"||Norman Jolley (1916–2002)||Dick Darley (1923–2016)||Brewer||August 8, 1951||ABC||American Broadcasting Company|
|Dick Tracy (fr)
|2 : 6
2 : 7
|"Dick Tracy and Pruneface:" Part 1
"Dick Tracy and Pruneface:" Part 2
|Robert Leslie Bellem (story suggested by)
Chester Gould (comic strip characters)
William Lively (1907–1973) (story suggested by)
William Lively (1907–1973) (teleplay)
|Thomas Carr||October 24, 1951
October 31, 1951
(aka Time Square Playhouse)
Robert E. Lee
|Sobey Martin||June 20, 1952||Ziv Television Programs|
|Chevron Theatre||1 : 33||"Mightier Than the Sword"||Arthur Weiss||Richard Irving (1917–1990)||August 29, 1952||MCA TV/Revue Productions|
|Biff Baker, U.S.A.||1 : 15||"Flight to Geneva"||Barry Shipman
Fenton Earnshaw (1912–1970)
Howard J. Green (1893–1965)
Richard Irving (1917–1990)
|Rozan||February 53, 1953||CBS||Revue Productions|
|The Ray Milland Show||1 : 5||"The Faculty Dance"||Joe Connelly
Bob Mosher (1915–1972)
|Charles Barton||October 15, 1953||CBS||Revue Productions|
|Kraft Television Theatre||7 : 25||"The Cuckoo Clock"||Gerald Savory||German piano teacher||February 17, 1954||NBC||J. Walter Thompson|
|The Web||4 : 33||"The Primitive Touch"||Art dealer||May 23, 1954||CBS||Mark Goodson|
|The Phil Silvers Show||5 : 5||"A.W.O.L."||Nat Hiken, Terry Ryan, Barry Blitzer||Albert De Caprio (1916–2000)||Janos Varga
(Hungarian father of Imre, who is about to marry Martha)
|October 18, 1955||CBS||CBS|
|Rheingold Theatre||5 : 9||"Rendezvous at Dawn"||Charles Early
|Arthur Crabtree||Sabolek||November 19, 1956||NBC||Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Productions|
|Tales of the Vikings||1 : 2
1 : 25
|"The Black Stone"
|Robert "Bob" Mitchell (1918–1992) (original story)
Sidney Morse (1920–2003) (original story)
Robert "Bob" Mitchell (1918–1992) (teleplay)
|George M. Cahan (1919–1991)||Thorvald||September 15, 1959
February 23, 1960
(produced in Munich
by Kirk Douglas)
|Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color||10 : 5
10 : 6
|"The Waltz King" Part I
"The Waltz King" Part II
|Maurice Tombragel (fr) (script)
Fritz Eckhardt (original story)
|Steve Previn||Ferdinand Dommayer (de)||October 27, 1963
November 3, 1963
|NBC||Walt Disney Productions|
|Around 1925||The Merchant of Venice||("Hans Schumm, formerly of the Stuttgart State Theatre Company")||Stuttgart State Theatre Company|
|1926||(The German Stock Company)||("Hans Schumm, formerly of the Stuttgart State Theatre Company")||Pabst Theater, Milwaukee|
|January 7 – 16, 1932||Berkeley Square
|John L. Balderston||Gilmore Brown
|("Hans Schumm, formerly of the Stuttgart State Theatre Company")||Pasadena Community Playhouse|
|January 21 – 30, 1932||Once in a Lifetime||Moss Hart
George S. Kaufman
|Pasadena Community Playhouse|
|May 25 – June 12, 1939||William Tell||Adaptation of Friedrich Schiller's 1804 original
(two acts and ten scenes)
|Leopold Jessner||El Capitan Theatre|
The Continental Players
|Cast: Louis Adlon; Siegfried Arno (Stuessi); Lutz Altschul (Rösselmann); Norbert J. Kobler (1916–2003), son of German actor and director, Julius Kobler (de); Ernst Lenart (de); Sigmund Nunberg (de); Friedrich Mellinger; Ernst Deutsch (the dictator); Leo Reuss (aka Lionel Royce) (William Tell); Norbert Schiller (de), great-great-great nephew of the playwright (Baumgarten); Gerhard Schaefer (Arnold von Melchtal); Hans Schumm; Walter O. Stahl (de); Rudolf Steinbock (de); Christiane Grautoff (de) (Ernst Toller's wife) (Hedwig, Tell's wife); Eva Hyde (aka Heyde; née Heymann; 1910–1955) (Armgard); Hermine Sterler (Gertrude); Alexander Granach (Stauffacher); Bobby Moya (young Tell).|
|Leopold Jessner, director; Ralph Freed, text; Rudi Feld, art director (costumes and set design); Ernst Toch, music score; Ingolf Dahl, conductor; Simon Mitchneck, Phd (1893–1986), English and voice coach (linguist).|
|January 31, 1949||Totentanz
(Dance of Death)
|August Strindberg||Kurt||New Studio Theater|
1743 North New Hampshire Boulevard
|Cast included Walter Wicclair (de) as the captain and Efriede Borodin (de) as Alice.|
|September 22, 23, 24, 1949||Faust
|Goethe||Walter Wicclair (de)||Assistant Director||University of Southern California|
Department of German
|Cast included Norbert Schiller (de) as Faust, Walter Wicclair (de) as Mephistopheles, Laura McCann (de) as Gretchen, Else Baeck-Neft (de) as Martha, and Franz Roeh as Wagner, Marcel Lerner as the student. Others in the cast included Otto Waldis (de), Sigurd Bernau, L.H. Lasch, and Renee Henning.|
|March 16, 1949
|Noël Coward||Bennet Chase||Coronet Theater|
366 North La Cienega Boulevard
(guest performances were also give in San Francisco with the same cast)
|Kitty Mattern (de) playing Helen Prynne co-starred with Hans Schumm playing Bennet Chase. In a love scene, Mattern and Schumm reportedly drove realism to an intensity that that was unusual for the era. Others in the cast included Norbert J. Kobler playing Victor Prynne, Inga Grothe playing Sybile Chase|
|November 1949 source||Raub der Sabinerinnen (de)
(Rape of the Sabine Women)
|Paul and Franz Schönthan (de)||Coronet Theater|
|Cast included Else Baeck-Neft (de) as Rosa, Efriede Borodin (de) as Marianne, Walter Wicclair (de) as Professor Gallwitz, and Hans Schumm as Dr. Neumeister.|
|June 1951||The Swallow's Nest||Zoë Akins||Robert Milton||Pasadena Community Playhouse|
|Cast included Billie Burke, Marjorie Steele (1930–1988) (Mrs. Huntington Hartford in her acting debut), Onslow Stevens, George Phelps, Lumsden Hare, Roy Gordon (1884–1972).|
|May 5 – 23, 1952
|The Red Rainbow||Myron C. Fagan||Myron C. Fagan||Boris Sarno, the producer
(a thick accented nemesis of the character J. Kerrigan Kane)
|Beaux Arts Theater|
West 8th Street and Beacon Avenue
|Opened January 14, 1953||The Road to Rome||Robert E. Sherwood
by Preston Sturges)
|Eddie Firestone||The Players|
(Sturges's dinner theater
|Cast: Carolyn Jones (Amytis, Grecian wife of the Roman dictator), Robin Hughes (Hannibal), Richard Hale (Hasdrubal), Mike Freeman (Maharbal), Clayton Cole (Hannibal's brother), Nico Lek (1901–1983) (Fabius, the dictator), Margaret Brewster (Fabius' mother), Pat Golden (the sergeant), Keith McConnell (Scripio), Taylor Flanikan (slave), Francesca Leland (slave)|
|September 14 – 26, 1953||The Red Rainbow||Myron C. Fagan||Myron C. Fagan||Boris Sarno, the producer||Royal Theatre|
|The play is a murder-mystery involving the infiltration of communism in American life (see Red-baiting and McCarthyism). The production was partly financed by the Cinema Education Guild of Hollywood, Inc., which has been chronicled as a notoriously ill-fated McCarthyistic organization founded and headed by Myron C. Fagan (president). His son, executive producer of the play, Bruce Vincent Fagan (1918–2001) was the organization's secretary. Schumm's 1953 affiliation with Fagan notwithstanding, it is not known whether he seriously shared Fagan's views given that he went on to work with actors, directors, and producers who Fagan later infamously named before a stage audience, and on radio, 300 Hollywood stars that he claimed were communists. (FBI file)|
|1955||Radio Play: "Hier geschieht ja doch nichts"
(adaptation from "Mr. Higginbotham's Catastrophe," from Twice-Told Tales)
|Nathaniel Hawthorne||Paul Land
(host at Radio Stuttgart, Süddeutscher Rundfunk, since the late 1930s)
|Neger Josua||Süddeutscher Rundfunk (SDR)|
|Cast: Karin Schlemmer (de) (Helen Longfield), Thomas Flemming (Dominic Pike), Albert Florath (Thompson), Willi Reichmann (Babbler), Kurt Haars (Bullock), Walter Thurau (Davies), Trude Tandar (Mrs. Luly), Hans Mahnke (de) (Der hinkende Sam), Hans Josef Schumm (Josua)|
Notes and references
- Marta Mierendorff papers 0214 "Schumm, Hans," Box 12, Folder 22, University of Southern California (USC), Feuchtwanger Memorial Library; OCLC 709903745
- Marta Mierendorff, PhD — a German-born scholar who, in the latter 1960s, became a faculty member at USC — was a pioneer in the study of exiles. Schumm was not an exile, but, the papers include information on Schumm
- Paul Kohner Agency records, Goose Step, Oscars collections, Margaret Herrick Library
- Deutsches Bühnen-Jahrbuch; Theatergeschichtliches Jahr- und Adressbuch, Berlin: F.A. Günther & Sohn Actien-Gesellschaft, Vol. 42 (1931); OCLC 639875731, 470143388, 637405642; OCLC 496648424, 297250845
- "Arbeitsausschüsse der Fachschaft Bühne," Die Bühne (Redakteur: Dr. Hans Knudsen), 2 Jahrgang, heft 1, 1. Januar 1936, seit 22; OCLC 1019938629
- O – Obmann; St – Obmann Stellvertreter; S – Schriftführer; K – Kassenwart; Vd – Vertrauens -dame; B – Beisitzer; FV – Fachgruppenvertreter.
- Bamberg Stadttheater: Walter Storm (O), Fritz Milter (St), Hans Schumm (S), Karl Frank (K), Ria Mardeck (Vd).
- Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840-1940, by John Koegel, PhD (born 1956), University of Rochester Press (2009); OCLC 488494395
Koegel, as of 2018, is Professor of Musicology at California State University, Fullerton
- See inline citation 21 for Chapter 5 on p. 504: Biographisches Verzeichnis für Theater, Tanz und Musik; by Paul Stanley Ulrich, Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz GmbH (de) (1997); OCLC 444440441; ISBN 387061479X ISBN 9783870614799 ISBN 3870616733 ISBN 9783870616731
- Vol. 1: A–L
- Vol. 2: M-Z
- Translation: Biographical Index for Theater, Dance and Music: Directory of German-Language Reference Works and Yearbooks
- Disambiguation: Andre Pola (surname also spelled as Polah) (1892–1949) was a Dutch-born violinist who immigrated to America with his Belgian teacher, Eugène Ysaÿe. After concertizing for several years, Polah eventually became head of the violin department at Syracuse University in the late 1920s, conducting the university orchestra as well.
- Schumm appeared only in the censored version of The Third Sex. The director, Veit Harlan, was roundly criticized by American reviewers for having been anti-Semitic. Moreover, the underlying messages of the film (about homosexuality), were criticized then by major media in the U.S., and over sixty years since its release in North America, has been uniformly debunked. It is not known why the scene with Schumm, as psychologist, was replaced with another actor in the English language version; and it is not known whether Schumm – by participating in the German language version – was sympathetic to the director or the film's message.
- The Stuttgart Gloria-Palast was a single-screen movie theater that opened August 2, 1956.
- With respect to the various spellings of Schumm's mother's maiden name, "Jehle" and "Yehle," the German consonant "J" is almost always pronounced in the same manner as the English "Y." Other possible transliterations include:
- Disambiguation: Gloria Whitney – the stage name for Gloria Schumm – is not the same person as the singer, Gloria Whitney (stage name) (née Florence Joan Healy; 1911–1974), featured on national radio broadcasts and sweet-styled dance orchestras from about 1931 to about 1942.
- D-F Distributing Corp. was headed by David Dietz. The Third Sex is the only known film distributed by the firm. David Dietz, however, also, with William H. Horne, distributed (i) Assassin for Hire, (ii) Louisiana Story, and (iii) Magie Africaine.
- Eva Hyde (née Eva Heymann; 1910–1953), an actress, was the third wife of composer Werner R. Heymann, her first husband whom she divorced. In 1952, she married artist Klaus Brill (1913–2007). She was a distant cousin of Werner Heymann.
Books, periodicals, collections, academic works
- Sammlung Paul Kohner (collection of about 155,000 pages of correspondence, contracts, etc., from the Paul Kohner Agency), Deutsche Kinemathek
- "Hans Schumm" (obituary), Variety, March 7, 1990, p. 70
- Journeys of Desire: European Actors in Hollywood – A Critical Companion, by Alastair Phillips, PhD, & Ginette Vincendeau (2006)Chapter 11: "The Ultimate Irony: Jews Playing Nazis in Hollywood" (essay), by Joseph Garncarz (University of Vienna), pps. 103–113BFI (2006); OCLC 470550238; ISBN 1844571246, 9781844571246, 1844571238; ISBN 9781844571239
Entry: "Schumm, Hans (Hans Josef Schumm)"
- Who's Who in Hollywood (entry: "Hans Schumm") (in Vol. 2 of 2), by David Ragan (born 1925), Facts on File (1992); OCLC 906553204
- Vampire, Monster, Irre Wissenschaftler: So viel Europa steckt in Hollywoods Goldener Horrorfilmära, by Silvia Kornberger, Disserta Verlag (de) (2014), pp. 419–420; OCLC 869019127
- Das Grosse Personenlexikon des Films (de) ("Hans Schumm" is in Vol. 7 of 8), Kay Weniger (ed.), Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf Verlag (2001); OCLC 717359699
- "Es wird im Leben dir mehr genommen als gegeben:" Lexikon der aus Deutschland und Österreich emigrierten Filmschaffenden 1933 bis 1945, by Kay Weniger, ACABUS Verlag (de) (2012), p. 41; ISBN 3862820491
- A Red Rainbow (program notes from the Royal Theatre production on Broadway), "Hans Josef Schumm (Sarno)" (bio), September 14, 1953, New York, (accessible at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, 3rd floor; clippings: "Schumm, Hans Josef: *T-Clip, L-MM")
- "Serial Profiles: Hans Schumm as 'The Mask,'" by Boyd P. Magers (born 1940), "Serial Report," Chapter 86, Western Clippings, 2015; reprinted from the SCOOP (online newsletter), September 18, 2015; OCLC 32602060, 801245552
- Hanns Eisler: Eine Biographie in Texten, Bildern und Dokumenten : mit 235 Abbildungen, by Jürgen Schebera, Schott Music (1998); OCLC 470440541
- Hanns Eisler Goes Hollywood (dissertation; 2011), by Johannes C. Gall, University of Hamburg, Breitkopf & Härtel (2015); OCLC 934476997
- "West Germany Crowded With Yank Film Producers: Low Cost Factor," Variety, August 5, 1953, p. 13
- Review of the book: Grenzverwischer – 'Jud Süss' und 'Das Dritte Geschlecht' – Verschränkte Diskurse von Ausgrenzung (book review), by Jennifer William, PhD, Shofar, Vol. 28, No. 1 (2009); OCLC 356994735; ISSN 0882-8539 (accessible via Project MUSE)Note: Williams, as of 2018, is Professor of German at Purdue University
- History and Genealogy of the Ancestors and Descendants of Captain Israel Jones who Removed from Enfield to Barkhamsted, Conn., in the year 1759, compiled for Asahel Wellington Jones by Linus Newton Parker (1842–1918), Norwalk, Ohio: Laning Co. (1902); OCLC 7263462
- To the Top of the Mountain: The life of Father Umberto Olivieri, "Padre of the Otomis," by William Nicholas Abeloe (1933–1982), Exposition Press (1976); OCLC 2424353; ISBN 0682485586; ISBN 9780682485586
- "California, Southern District Court (Central) Naturalization Index, 1915-1976" (database with images), FamilySearch, November 28, 2014, "Johann Josef Eugen Schumm, 1941;" citing Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, NARA, Los Angeles Branch, Laguna Niguel; FHL microfilm 1558373 (registration/login is free, but required)
- "World War II Draft Cards (4th Registration) for the State of California, 1942" (database with images), FamilySearch, November 8, 2017, "Hans Josef Schumm, 1942"; citing NARA microfilm publication M1936, M1937, M1939, M1951, M1962, M1964, M1986, M2090, and M2097
- The Espionage Filmography: United States Releases, 1898 through 1999, by Paul Mavis, McFarland & Company (2010) (Schumm is cited on 21 pages; see "Schumm, Hans" in "Cast Index" on p. 413); OCLC 910878885, 476156931
- Hollywood 'B' Movies: A Treasury of Spills, Chills & Thrills, by John Howard Reid, Lulu Press Inc. (2005), p. 3–4; OCLC 895215571
- "Film-Panorama: A Voice in the Wind" (film review), by Victoria & Friedrich Torberg (pen name for Friedrich Kantor; 1908–1979), Der Aufbau, Vol. 10, No. 12, March 24, 1944, p. 11; OCLC 30943749
- "German Exile Cinema: 1933–1950," by Jan-Christopher Horak (de) (translated by Jennifer Bishop and Jan-Christopher Horak), Film History, Vol. 8, No. 4 (1996), pps. p. 381 (373–389); ISSN 0892-2160; OCLC 196677607 (accessible via JSTOR at www
.jstor) .org /stable /3815389
- Anti-Nazi-Filme der deutschsprachigen Emigration von Hollywood 1939-1945 (in German), by Jan-Christopher Horak (de), (1984), pps. 81, 136, 255; OCLC 12344138
- "The Cuckoo Clock" (television script), by Gerald Savory, Kraft Television Theatre, February 17, 1954
- "Kalifornien: Leopold Jessner" (from the Marta Mierendorff papers at USC), John M. Spalek (born 1928) & Joseph P. Strelka (de) (eds.), Deutsche Exilliteratur Since 1933, Vol. 1, No. 1, State University of New York Albany (1976), pps. 738–739; OCLC 489704553
- Leopold Jessner - Intendant der Republik: Der Weg eines deutsch-jüdischen Regisseurs aus Ostpreußen by Matthias Heilmann, Max Niemeyer Verlag (de) (2005; 2011); OCLC 979970340
- First West Coast Exhibition, German Language Theater in Exile, Hollywood 1933-1950, Presented at the University of Southern California, Treasure Room, Doheny Library, November 1 – December 15, 1973; OCLC 882702800, 15270868
- Von Kreuzburg bis Hollywood (From Kreuzburg to Hollywood), by Walter Wicclair (de), Henschel Verlag (de) (1975); OCLC 923117470
- Taboo (Hollywood), November 1950, pps. 10–11
- Mrs. Ziegfeld: The Public and Private Lives of Billie Burke, by Grant Hayter-Menzies (born 1944), McFarland & Company (2009) p. 210 (appendix); ISBN 978-0-7864-3800-6(note: the book incorrectly attributes the director of The Swallow's Nest as John Milton; Robert Milton was the director)
- 15 photos from The Swallow's Nest, University of Southern California (1951); OCLC 663250412, 663250303, 822232721; OCLC 857823282
- "Billie Burke Set for W.C.," Billboard, June 9, 1951, p. 42
- Appendix to the Journal of the Senate, Legislature of the State of California 1961 in Regular Session, (Vol. 2) (1961)
- "Divorces Filed," Los Angeles Times, November 2, 1943 (accessible via Newspapers.com at www
.newspapers, subscription required) .com /image /380762757
- "Links Berry to Physician," Long Beach Independent, April 29, 1948, p. 12 (accessible via Newspapers.com at www
.newspapers, subscription required) .com /image /74866244
- "On television: Ray Millard Turns to Comedy" ("The Cuckoo Clock," reviewed) by Evelyn Jones (1929–2014), Boston Herald, February 19, 1954, pg. 43
- "Gilmore Brown Offers 'Berkeley Square' as First 1932 Production," The SaMoJaC (The Corsair), Vol. 3, No 16, January 13, 1932, p. 2
- "Refugees to Act Here – Stage Stars Forced to Leave Nazi Areas Aided by Film Men," Los Angeles Times, May 1, 1939, Part 2, p. 3 (accessible via Newspapers.com at www
.newspapers) .com /image /160145814
- "Red Rainbow Opens Tonight" (preview article), by Sam Zolotow, New York Times, September 14, 1953, p. L24, col 1 (timesmachine
.nytimes, subscription required) .com /timesmachine /1953 /09 /14 /83854295 .html
- Hans Josef Schumm on IMDb
- Hans Schumm on IMDb
- Hans Schumm at the TCM Movie Database
- Hans Schumm at AllMovie (biography by Hans J. Wollstein)
- Hans Schumm at AFI Catalog of Feature Films
- Hans Schumm at Česko-Slovenská filmová databáze (cs)
- Hans Schumm biography, filmography and photos at filmportal.de