HMS Thetis (N25)
HMS Thetis (N25) was a Group 1 T-class submarine of the Royal Navy which served under two names. Under her first identity, HMS Thetis, she commenced sea trials on 4 March 1939. She sank during trials on 1 June 1939 with the loss of 99 lives. She was salvaged, repaired and recommissioned as HMS Thunderbolt serving in the Atlantic and Mediterranean theatres until she was lost with all hands on 14 March 1943. This makes Thetis one of the few military vessels that have been lost twice with their crews in their service history.
|Builder:||Cammell Laird & Co Limited, Birkenhead|
|Laid down:||21 December 1936|
|Launched:||29 June 1938|
|Commissioned:||26 October 1940|
|Fate:||sunk during trial dive, 1 June 1939|
|Refit:||raised and refitted, 1939–40|
|Fate:||sunk 14 March 1943|
|Class and type:||T-class submarine|
|Length:||275 ft (84 m)|
|Beam:||26 ft 6 in (8.08 m)|
|Range:||4,500 nmi (5,200 mi; 8,300 km) at 11 kn (13 mph; 20 km/h)|
|Test depth:||300 ft (91 m)|
Thetis was built by Cammell Laird in Birkenhead, England and launched on 29 June 1938. After completion, trials were delayed because the forward hydroplanes jammed, but eventually started in Liverpool Bay under Lieutenant Commander Guy Bolus. Thetis left Birkenhead for Liverpool Bay to conduct her final diving trials, accompanied by the tug Grebe Cock. As well as her normal complement of 59 men she was carrying technical observers from Cammell Laird and other naval personnel, a total of 103 men. The first dive was attempted at about 14:00 on 1 June 1939. The submarine was too light to dive, so a survey of the water in the various tanks on board was made. One of the checks was whether the internal torpedo tubes were flooded.
Lieutenant Frederick Woods, the torpedo officer, opened the test cocks on the tubes. Unfortunately, the test cock on tube number 5 was blocked by some enamel paint so no water flowed out even though the bow cap was open. Prickers to clear the test cocks had been provided but they were not used. This combined with a confusing layout of the bow cap indicators — they were arranged in a vertical line with 5 at the bottom (2,1,4,3,6, and then 5) and the "Shut" position for tube 5 on the dial was the mirror image of tube 6 above it — led to the inner door of the tube being opened. The inrush of water caused the bow of the submarine to sink to the seabed 150 ft (46 m) below the surface. How the outer door (bow cap) to Tube 5 became open to the sea is a question that will probably never be answered: Woods maintained that until at least 10 minutes before he opened the tube all the indicators were at "Shut".
An indicator buoy was released and smoke candle fired. By 16:00, Grebe Cock was becoming concerned for the safety of Thetis and radioed HMS Dolphin submarine base at Gosport. A search was immediately instigated. Although the stern remained on the surface, only three RN personnel (Lieutenant Frederick Woods, Captain Harry Oram and Leading Stoker Walter Arnold) and one Cammell Laird man (Fitter Frank Shaw) escaped before the rest were overcome by carbon dioxide poisoning caused by the crowded conditions, the increased atmospheric pressure and a delay of 20 hours before the evacuation started. Ninety-nine lives were lost in the incident: 51 crew members, 26 Cammell Laird employees, 8 other naval officers, 7 Admiralty overseeing officers, 4 Vickers-Armstrong employees, 2 caterers and a Mersey pilot. The crew waited before abandoning the vessel until she had been discovered by the destroyer Brazen, which had been sent to search for her and which indicated her presence by dropping small explosive charges into the water.
In order to effect an escape from the stricken vessel, the escaping crew were required to enter the submarine’s only escape chamber, which could only accommodate one person at a time. As the pressure outside the submarine was greater than the pressure inside, this had to be equalised before the outer door of the escape chamber was opened. The escape chamber was flooded with the occupant having to wait until the chamber was completely full of water. Only then would the pressure within the escape chamber be equal to the outside sea pressure.
In the case of HMS Thetis, 4 members of the ship’s company, three RN personnel (Lieutenant Woods, Captain Oram and Leading Stoker Arnold) and one Cammell Laird’s employee (Fitter Shaw) successfully used the escape chamber. During the 5th attempt to escape the occupant of the chamber panicked and tried to open the outer escape hatch before the chamber had completely flooded. As a result, the increased pressure outside the submarine caused an in-rush of sea water, thus drowning the escapee. Because the outer escape hatch remained partially open it rendered the escape chamber inoperative, preventing the escape of any other crew members.
The incident attracted legal action from one of the widows, who brought a claim of negligence against the shipbuilders, for not removing the material blocking the valve. Unfortunately for her the Admiralty successfully invoked Crown Privilege (now termed Public Interest Immunity) and blocked the disclosure of, amongst other items, 'the contract for the hull and machinery of Thetis as evidence in court, on the basis that to do so would be 'injurious to the public interest'. The case is one of interest in English law, as the judges in this case accepted the Admiralty's claim at face value with no scrutiny, a ruling later overturned.
The Liverpool & Glasgow Salvage Association were commissioned to salvage the sunken submarine. On completion of the salvage operation the bell from Thetis was presented to the Liverpool & Glasgow Salvage Association by the Admiralty. One further fatality occurred during salvage operations, when Diver Petty Officer Henry Otho Perdue died from "the bends" on 23 August 1939. On Sunday 3 September, Thetis was intentionally grounded ashore at Traeth Bychan, Anglesey. It was the same day that war was declared. Human remains that had not already been removed by the salvage team were now brought out to a Naval funeral, with full honours.
The loss went beyond that of a submarine's crew. Among the dead were two naval constructors and several of the submarine team from Cammell-Laird. These were experienced designers and builders of submarines who would have been needed during the war.
The Thetis disaster was in marked contrast to the successful rescue of the survivors of USS Squalus, which had sunk off the coast of New Hampshire just a week previously. The Squalus however, unlike the Thetis, sank on an even keel, allowing a diving chamber to be used.
The Thetis clip
The torpedo tubes on British and Australian submarines were afterwards equipped with a "Thetis clip", one of the modifications introduced as a result of the accident. This is a latch which allows a torpedo tube door to be opened no more than a small amount in case it is open to the sea at the bow end. Once it is clear that no flooding will occur the latch can be released and the door fully opened.
The submarine was successfully salvaged and repaired, being commissioned in 1940 as HMS Thunderbolt under the command of Lt.Cdr. Cecil Crouch.
During the next 18 months, she saw service in the Atlantic: In December 1940 she was on patrol in the Bay of Biscay and on 15 December she encountered and sank the Italian submarine Capitano Raffaele Tarantini.
In the autumn of 1942, Thunderbolt was converted with her sister ships Trooper and P311 to carry two "Chariots" (a type of manned torpedo) and their crews for operations against Axis shipping in harbour, and was transferred with them to the Mediterranean in December 1942.
Their first mission, Operation Principal, was undertaken in December 1942, the three boats taking their charges to targets around the Mediterranean. Thunderbolt's objective was shipping in Cagliari, but the operation was not a success, and P311 was lost at La Maddalena, her intended target.
A second operation against Palermo harbour in January 1943 was more successful. On 2–3 January, the manned torpedoes entered the harbour and mined the ships there, sinking the hull of the incomplete light cruiser Ulpio Traiano and the freighter SS Viminale.
On 20 February 1943, Thunderbolt shelled the Albanian sailboat Villanzen Veli off Bari. The British submarine was forced to dive and escape by the combined fire of the Italian auxiliary cruiser Brindisi and a coastal battery, while the sailboat only received light damage.
Appearance in the media
The cause of the loss of Thetis was used in the 1968 film Ice Station Zebra, where the character played by Patrick McGoohan describes a method of sabotaging a submarine by blocking the tube test cocks, allowing the inner door to be opened with the outer door also open.
The loss of the Thetis was the inspiration for part of the "Railway station" episode (episode 2) of British science fiction television series Sapphire & Steel.
In 1997, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a radio play about the Thetis disaster. The play was called Close Enough To Touch and was written by Liverpool writer Fred Lawless. The play was also broadcast on BBC Radio Merseyside and the BBC World Service. In 1999, a play entitled HMS Thetis by Mark Gee in association with David Roberts, was performed at the Liverpool Bluecoat Chambers and at Birkenhead's Pacific Road Theatre. The play starred John McArdle and also the newly employed First Year Apprentices from Cammell Laird Shipyard, (Paul Gillies, Dave Gill, Alan Lane, Chris Motley, Mike Jebb, Steve Taylor, Ollie Dodson, Stuie Dicken, Mark Poland, Ben McDonald, Tony Cummins, Barry Hayes, Chris Hall, Martin King, Graham Crilly, Billy Coburn, Matty Brassey).
In 2000 the documentary "Death in the Bay", produced by BBC Northwest, was broadcast in the UK. It covered the loss of the vessel and the subsequent enquiry, together with interviews with relatives of two of the men lost in the tragedy and the son of a survivor, Leading Stoker Arnold.
- "HMS Thunderbolt (N 25)". uboat.net. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
- Booth, Tony "Thetis Down - The Slow Death of a Submarine", 2008
- Submarine losses 1904 to present day, RN Submarine Museum, Gosport
- Booth, Tony "Thetis Down - The Slow Death of a Submarine", 2008
- Duncan v Cammell Laird  AC 624
- Roberts, David HMS THETIS - Secrets & Scandal
- Brown DK, Nelson to Vanguard p113
- BBC Northwest TV documentary "Death in the Bay" (2000)
- Colombo, Lorenzo (26 December 2017). "Brindisi". Con la pelle appesa a un chiodo. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Colledge. Roskill has Cicogno; but see talk page
- Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) . Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8.
- Hutchinson, Robert (2001). Jane's Submarines: War Beneath the Waves from 1776 to the Present Day. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-710558-8. OCLC 53783010.
- Lawless, Fred (author) (1997). Close Enough To Touch (radio play). BBC Radio 4, BBC World Service.
- Roberts, David (1999). HMS Thetis: Secrets and Scandal, Aftermath of a Disaster. Bebington: Avid Publications. ISBN 0-9521020-0-5. OCLC 58998174.
- Roskill, Stephen Wentworth (1956). The War at Sea, 1939–1945: The Period of Balance. History of the Second World War; United Kingdom military series. London: H.M. Stationery Off. OCLC 236145.
- Warren, Charles Esme Thornton; Benson, James D. (1997) . Thetis: Disaster in Liverpool Bay: The Admiralty regrets. Higher Bebington: Avid Publications. ISBN 0-9521020-8-0. OCLC 43201102.
- Freghieri, Cristina (2009). HMS Thunderbolt. Vissuto e morto due volte (in Italian). Addictions-Magenes Editoriale. ISBN 978-88-87376-45-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to HMS Thunderbolt (1938).|
- Report on the events surrounding the Thetis disaster of 2 June 1939 held at the National Archives of the United Kingdom