Hải Dương Province
Hải Dương (Vietnamese: [ha᷉ːj zɨəŋ] (
Hải Dương Province
Tỉnh Hải Dương
Location of Hải Dương within Vietnam
|Coordinates: 20°55′N 106°20′E|
|Region||Red River Delta|
|• People's Council Chair||Bùi Thanh Quyến|
|• Total||1,648.4 km2 (636.5 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicities||Vietnamese, Hoa, Sán Dìu, Mường|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
|ISO 3166 code||VN-61|
Hải Dương is Sino-Vietnamese for "ocean sun" (海陽). The name first appeared officially in 1498. In feudal times, Hải Dương indicated a vast area from east of Hanoi to the South China Sea. This area corresponds to all of modern Hải Dương, Hải Phòng, most of Hưng Yên and the southwestern corner of Quảng Ninh.
The province is located in the Red River Delta of north-eastern Vietnam, about mid-distance from Hanoi to Hai Phong. Two famous pagodas, Côn Sơn and Kiếp Bạc, are situated in this province. The province is known for its lychees and for the traditional sweet bánh đậu xanh (mung bean paste).
- Hải Dương is located in the center of North Vietnam. The natural area of the province is 1,661.2 km2, ranked 51st of the total area. Hải Dương province borders six provinces: Bắc Ninh, Bắc Giang, and Quảng Ninh in the north; Hưng Yên in the west; Hải Phòng in the east; and Thái Bình to the south.
- There are important roads and railways running through the province, including Highways No. 5, No. 18, No. 183 and No. 37.
Hải Dương is subdivided into 12 district-level sub-divisions:
- 10 districts:
They are further subdivided into 13 commune-level towns (or townlets), 227 communes, and 25 wards.
- Hải Dương lies in the tropical monsoon climate with typical cold winter, potential heat and high humidity. Two types of wind mainly come from the south east and the north east. The Climate is divided into four distinct seasons. From early February to early April, the spray and rain after a period of transition from the dry season to the rainy season. The rainy season lasts from April to October.
- The annual average rainfall is 1,300 millimetres (51 in) to 1,700 millimetres (67 in).
- The average temperature 23.3 °C.
- Hours of sunshine in the year is 1,524 hours.
- Relative humidity averaged is at 85 to 87 per cent.
- Over the last 20 years, Hải Dương province has been experiencing a big change in its demographics. During this period, the rate of fertility decreased dramatically from a high rate at 6.7 per cent to 2.14 per cent between 2000 and 2008. The same pattern is found with the mortality rate. This is a result of the success of the family planning program and the improvement of the health care system in the province as well as innovations in medicine. In addition, life expectancy also increased over time. These changes have take place at a speed that is much quicker than the world average rate and the rate of many other places in Asia.
- The number of persons aged 60 years or older in Hải Dương Province is estimated to be 600.000 in 2010. This number is projected to grow to nearly 800.000 by 2050, at which time it will be equal to the population of children under 15. This historic crossover of an increasing share of older persons and a declining share of children will mark the first time that the number of children and older persons are the same.
- There are many ethnic groups of which the Kinh make up 90 per cent of the population. Major religions helping fulfill the spiritual needs of the Vietnamese include Buddhism, Catholic and Protestant churches, Confucianism, Caodaism and the Hòa Hảo faith. With that being said, ancestor worship is probably the predominant "religion", although they may not realize it.
- Hải Dương is located in the Red River Delta and originated from the civilization of the Red River. Hải Dương has had many changes in names throughout history.It was a part of Duong Tuyen (in the period of King Hung), Giao Chi and Giao Chau (in the 1st millennium); Nam Sach Lo, Hong Lo (under period of Ly and Trần Dynasty); Hong Chau, Nam Sach (in the 16th century); Thua Tuyen, *Hải Dương (in the 10th year of Quang Thuan King).
- Hải Dương Province was established in 1831 and was first called "Thanh Dong" (East Province) which mean "the city to the east of Thăng Long citadel".
- In the early 20th century, the patriotic movement was expanded in Hải Dương.
- In the 1930s, Hải Dương people carried out two resistance wars against French imperial and the American empire and then achieved victory after prolonged fighting.
- In 1968, Hải Dương was merged with Hưng Yên to become Hải Hưng Province.
- In January 1997, Hai Hung was separated into Hải Dương and Hưng Yên.
- In August 1997, The Government decided to upgrade Hải Dương from town to city. Since 1997, Hải Dương has had 11 districts and a city./.
Nowadays, Hải Dương is among the most industrialized and developed provinces in Vietnam. Hải Dương, Ho Chi Minh City and Bình Dương are the three most attractive locations for foreign investments in Vietnam.
- Hải Dương province is located in the center of the North Delta. Which has good conditions in transportation, Agriculture, industrial production; Hải Dương province has an important role in the social economic development of the country. Its natural land area and sources are favorable condition for developing economy. More than 800.000 of the 1.7 million population are employed, with over 500.000 employed in the agriculture industry. This is a benefit for the social and economic development of Hải Dương.
- In recent years, Hải Dương has prioritized developing agriculture and industrial production. Hải Dương received domestic and international investment in over 50 industrial areas in the whole province. There are foreign business partners from Britain, Germany, France, Hong Kong … Hải Dương also developed agriculture in the direction of economic, industrialization and modernization.
- For the past years, Hải Dương has provided big cities such as: Ha Noi, Hai Phong and consumers throughout Viet Nam with special produces such as lichi or traditional specialties such as green bean cake.
- In recent years, Agriculture in Hải Dương has developed quickly and steadily.
Population and new urban areas
- According to statistics of Haiduong Statistical Yearbook 2008, Hải Dương has area 1,651.8 km2. Population of the whole province are: 1,732,814 persons. Population density is 1,049 per/km2. Average population in 2007 by sex and by region:
- By sex: Male: 842,002 persons, Female: 890,812 persons
- By region: Urban: 279,850 persons, rural: 1,452,964 persons
- The rate of population growth (percentage):
- Whole province: 9.60%
- Urban: 10.38%
- Rural: 9.50%
- Number of person at working age: 1,094,272 persons
New urban areas
- Presently Hải Dương City has two new urban areas. The first one is located in eastern Hải Dương, it has an area of 108 ha and consists of two wards: Ngoc Chau and Hai Tan.
- The second is in western Hải Dương, and has an area of 433 ha. It is located in the territory of Thanh Binh ward and Tu Minh commune. Both of the two new urban areas are invested by Nam Cuong Group in year 2002.
- Currently there are many families living here but the cost of land and the cost of building the homes is quite high in comparison with living standard in Haiduong. The two new urban area extending Haiduong city is one of main reasons Hải Dương City became a second level city on May 16, 2009.
Haiduong's education system is divided into 5 categories: pre-primary, primary, intermediate, secondary, and higher education.
- Kindergarten and kindergarten for children from 2 to 5 years old to form thinking for children and creating the daily habits needed for this age group, although not all children must learn at this level.
- Primary school level starts at age 6 years: Level I consists of 5 levels, from grade 1 to grade 5. This is a grade school and required for all students.
- Secondary level education: Level II includes 4 levels, from grade 6 to grade 9. Students must learn: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry (grade 8.9), Biology, Technology, written language, History, Geography, Civic Education, Foreign Language, Health, Parenting, Music & Visual Arts.
In addition students have some additional requirements such as: education outside the classroom on time management, direction of education (grade 9), use of school ... To study at higher level student must participate in the examination enrollment process.
- Level III consists of 3 levels, from grade 10 to grade 12. To graduate level III, students must participate in the graduation exam for secondary schools of education and training.
Students wanting to study in public schools must attend an examination of birth. The exam is held every year, by the Department of Education and Training at the local level. At this level, students also study subjects similar in middle school. However, students in secondary school also take a number of other activities such as business, vocational, among others.
At present Haiduong provincial educational consists of:
- 1 Department of Education and Training
- 12 Offices of Education
- 13 Education centers throughout
- 12 Vocational Centers
And under this place there are a number of schools:
|District (city)||Preschools||Elementary school||Junior high schools||Secondary school||College||University|
|Hải Dương city||18||18||15||6||5||1|
- Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, and increasing life and health through the organized efforts of society. Public health is typically divided into epidemiology, bio-statistics and health services. The problems related to environmental, social, behavioral and occupational health are also important sub-fields in public health.
- The main intervention of public health is to prevent disease. There are many activities about public health. Nowadays, traffic injury and accidents are increasing and there are deaths, it has become one of leading concerns to the global public. The World Health Organization (WHO) notes the increase in injury accidents will be one of three main leading causes of death in the world by 2020. So, prevention of accidents has been a priority for the country. And Hải Dương is one of the first six provinces in Vietnam to construct programs for a Safe Public for Children.
- Safe Public for Children have been constructed in Duc Chinh village, Cam Giang district, Hải Dương province, Viet Nam. An experimental trial project was started in 2004. But, after one year, the Safe Public for Children project had clearly brought results. The injury/accident rate with children decreased clearly. Most of the people in villages truly understood about the program of preventing accidents for children. Children know that injury accidents can happen at any time if they do not know to prevent.
12 year ago (1997), nobody in Hải Dương Province believed that the agricultural products of Hải Dương Province, after a few hours of being transported, could be readied for sale in Ha Noi. But nowadays, it only takes about one hour to go to Ha Noi from Hải Dương. This big change is due to the outstanding development in the traffic network.
- In fact, Transport in Hải Dương province developed very fast. During the last 5 years, the whole land transportation in Hải Dương was upgraded and improved with various project. In 1999, the National Road No 5 connecting Ha Noi and Hai Phong was upgraded to first-class status.
- Today's, there are 649 km of roads under the central management including National Road No 5, 18, 183 and 37 that have been completely build or upgraded. These roads are favorable for traveling and goods transportation within the Hải Dương province. Furthermore,there are 11 provincial asphalt land routes 258 km of length as the whole, 27 land routes at district level with total of 352 km of length, of which 70% have been asphalt.
- Besides, Hải Dương has 10 waterways with nearly 300 km of length under the Central management and six ways with 140 km of length under local management. However, most of transport operations on these waterways have not been planned yet.
- Hải Dương also has 70 km of railway (including 15 km of railways serving for Pha Lai company)
Media, culture, and entertainment
At present, Haiduong has one Provincial Newspaper, publishing Daily, Weekend, and Monthly editions. There are additional magazines published by Departments of the province in related fields. E-newspapers such as www.haiduong.gov.vn, www.truyenhinhhaiduong.com.vn have made it easier to get information about the province than ever before.
Haiduong Provincial People's Voice and Television Broadcasting Center is known as one of the most developed in the Northern region. Cable TV Networks have also been installed, providing customers with more than 40 international channels.
Haiduong is famous for being a "sacred land with pre-eminent people" with hundreds of well-known historical, cultural relics and scenic beauty areas such as Con Son – Kiep Bac, Nguyễn Trãi Temple, Chi Lang Nam Storks island... The province is also a place of many traditional handicraft villages with well-known products for centuries. Cultural Festivals are organized annually during Spring and Autumn, attracting visitors from all over the nation.
Haiduong has over 100 hotels, ranging from 2 stars to luxury 4 stars. Besides, there are many motels and guest-houses of reasonable price and good service. Restaurants serving traditional food are found on almost every street in the city center. Visitors can also enjoy foreign cuisines in specialty restaurants around Bạch Đằng Lake. International restaurants are getting more popular and choice is expanding. You will find Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Italian restaurants in town.