Ground sample distance

In remote sensing, ground sample distance (GSD) in a digital photo (such as an orthophoto) of the ground from air or space is the distance between pixel centers measured on the ground. For example, in an image with a one-meter GSD, adjacent pixels image locations are 1 meter apart on the ground.[1] GSD is a measure of one limitation to image resolution, that is, the limitation due to sampling.[2]

GSD is also referred to as ground-projected sample interval (GSI) or ground-projected instantaneous field of view (GIFOV).[3]


  1. NZ Aerial Mapping Ltd (2009). "Frequently Asked Questions: What Is Ground Sample Distance?". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  2. Jon C. Leachtenauer and Ronald G. Driggers (2001). Surveillance and Reconnaissance Imaging Systems: Modeling and Performance Prediction. Artech House. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1-58053-132-0.
  3. Ronald G. Driggers (2003). Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering. CRC Press. p. 1392. ISBN 978-0-8247-4251-5.
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