Greek Americans

Greek Americans (Greek: Ελληνοαμερικανοί, Ellinoamerikanoi) are Americans of full or partial Greek ancestry. Over 1.4 million Americans are of Greek descent.[1] 321,444 people older than five spoke Greek at home in 2010.[12]

Greek Americans
Total population
0.6% of the U.S. population (2010)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Mostly Greek Orthodox, with minorities practicing Byzantine Catholicism and Judaism

Greek Americans have the highest concentrations in the New York City,[2][13][14] Boston,[3] and Chicago[4] regions, but have settled in major metropolitan areas across the United States. In 2000, Tarpon Springs, Florida was home to the highest per capita representation of Greek Americans in the country (25%). The United States is home to the largest Greek community outside of Greece, ahead of Australia, Cyprus, Albania, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom.


Early history

The first Greek known to have been to what is now the United States was Don Doroteo Teodoro, a sailor who landed in Boca Ciega Bay at the Jungle Prada site in present-day St. Petersburg, FL with the Narváez expedition in 1528. [15] [16][17] He was instrumental in building the rafts that the expedition survivors built and sailed from present-day St. Mark's River in Florida until they were shipwrecked near Galveston Island, Texas. Teodoro had been captured by natives as they sailed along the Gulf coast shoreline toward the west, and was never seen again. [18]

In 1592, Greek captain Juan de Fuca (Ioannis Fokas or Apostolos Valerianos) sailed up the Pacific coast under the Spanish flag, in search of the fabled Northwest Passage between the Pacific and the Atlantic. He reported discovering a body of water, a strait which today bears his name: the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which today forms part of the Canada–United States border.

About 500 Greeks from Smyrna, Crete, and Mani settled in New Smyrna Beach, Florida in 1768. The colony was unsuccessful, and the settlers moved to St. Augustine in 1776. The St Photios Greek Chapel exists as a remnant of their presence, and is believed to be the oldest still standing Greek Orthodox religious structure in the United States.[19][20]

19th century

The first significant Greek community to develop was in New Orleans, Louisiana during the 1850s. By 1866, the community was numerous and prosperous enough to have a Greek consulate and the first official Greek Orthodox Church in the United States.[21] During that period, most Greek immigrants to the New World came from Asia Minor and those Aegean Islands still under Ottoman rule. By 1890, there were almost 15,000 Greeks living in the U.S.

Immigration picked up again in the 1890s and early 20th century, due largely to economic opportunity in the U.S., displacement caused by the hardships of Ottoman rule, the Balkan Wars, and World War I. Most of these immigrants had come from southern Greece, especially from the Peloponnesian provinces of Laconia and Arcadia.[22] 450,000 Greeks arrived to the States between 1890 and 1917, most working in the cities of the northeastern United States; others labored on railroad construction and in mines of the western United States; another 70,000 arrived between 1918 and 1924. Each wave of immigration contributed to the growth of Hellenism in the U.S.

Greek immigration at this time was over 90% male, contrasted with most other European immigration to the U.S., such as Italian and Irish immigration, which averaged 50% to 60% male. Many Greek immigrants expected to work and return to their homeland after earning capital and dowries for their families. However, the loss of their homeland due to the Greek Genocide and the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which displaced 1,500,000 Greeks from Anatolia, Eastern Thrace, and Pontus caused the initial economic immigrants to reside permanently in America. The Greeks were de jure denaturalized from their homelands and lost the right to return, and their families were made refugees. Additionally, the first widely implemented U.S. immigration limits against non Western European immigrants were made in 1924, creating an impetus for immigrants to apply for citizenship, bring their families and permanently settle in the U.S. Fewer than 30,000 Greek immigrants arrived in the U.S. between 1925 and 1945, most of whom were "picture brides" for single Greek men and family members coming over to join relatives.[23][24]

20th century

The events of the early 1920s also provided the stimulus for the first permanent national Greek American religious and civic organizations. Greeks again began to arrive in large numbers after 1945, fleeing the economic devastation caused by World War II and the Greek Civil War. From 1945 until 1982, approximately 211,000 Greeks emigrated to the United States. These later immigrants were less influenced by the powerful assimilation pressures of the 1920s and 1930s and revitalized Greek American identity, especially in areas such as Greek-language media.

Greek immigrants founded more than 600 diners in the New York metropolitan area in the 1950s through the 1970s. Immigration to the United States from Greece peaked between the 1950s and 1970.[25][26] After the 1981 admission of Greece to the European Union, annual U.S. immigration numbers fell to less than 2,000. In recent years, Greek immigration to the United States has been minimal; in fact, net migration has been towards Greece. Over 72,000 U.S. citizens currently live in Greece (1999); most of them are Greek Americans.

The predominant religion among Greeks and Greek Americans is Greek Orthodox Christianity. There are also a number of Americans who descend from Greece's smaller Sephardic and Romaniote Jewish communities.

21st century

In the aftermath of the Greek financial crisis, there has been a resurgence of Greek emigration to New York City since 2010, accelerating in 2015, and centered upon the traditional Greek enclave of Astoria, Queens.[27] According to The New York Times, this new wave of Greek migration to New York is not being driven as much by opportunities in New York as it is by a lack of economic options in Greece itself.[27]


Number of Greek Americans
Year Number

Population by state

Population by state according to the 2011-2015 American Community Survey.[32]

  1.  New York148,637
  2.  California133,680
  3.  Illinois98,509
  4.  Florida90,347
  5.  Massachusetts83,701
  6.  New Jersey63,940
  7.  Pennsylvania62,167
  8.  Ohio54,614
  9.  Texas47,622
  10.  Michigan42,711
  11.  Maryland33,733
  12.  Virginia33,062
  13.  Connecticut30,304
  14.  North Carolina26,877
  15.  Washington25,665
  16.  Indiana23,993
  17.  Arizona21,742
  18.  Colorado20,239
  19.  Georgia19,519
  20.  New Hampshire18,434
  21.  Wisconsin16,386
  22.  Missouri15,920
  23.  Utah14,088
  24.  Oregon13,847
  25.  South Carolina13,552
  26.  Nevada11,977
  27.  Minnesota11,782
  28.  Tennessee11,345
  29.  Alabama8,081
  30.  Rhode Island7,485
  31.  Maine7,164
  32.  Kentucky6,887
  33.  Louisiana6,636
  34.  Iowa6,415
  35.  Kansas5,315
  36.  Oklahoma5,261
  37.  West Virginia4,722
  38.  New Mexico4,110
  39.  Idaho3,869
  40.  Delaware3,851
  41.  Nebraska3,840
  42.  Arkansas3,082
  43.  Montana3,062
  44.  Mississippi3,023
  45.  Vermont2,987
  46.  Hawaii2,479
  47.  District of Columbia2,139
  48.  Alaska2,129
  49.  Wyoming1,701
  50.  South Dakota1,167
  51.  North Dakota675

Biggest communities

Greek-American communities in the US according to the 5 Year Estimates of the (2016 American Community Survey):[33]

USA by Ancestry : 1,282,655
USA by Country of Birth : 135,743

Top CSA's by Ancestry:

  1. New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA: 196,229
  2. Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-RI-NH CSA: 101,263
  3. Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA: 96,333
  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA: 56,566
  5. Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA CSA: 51,105
  6. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA: 39,372
  7. Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA: 37,518

Top CSA's by Country of Birth:

  1. New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA: 38,315
  2. Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI CSA: 14,891
  3. Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-RI-NH CSA: 12,370
  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA: 6,308
  5. Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA: 5,971

Top MSA's by Ancestry:

  1. New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA: 169,341
  2. Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI: 94,796
  3. Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-RI-NH CSA: 67,382
  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA: 42,552
  5. Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD: 31,612
  6. Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL: 24,173

Top MSA's by Country of Birth:

  1. New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA: 34,373
  2. Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI: 14,705
  3. Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-RI-NH CSA: 8,923
  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA: 5,404
  5. Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD: 4,920
  6. Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL: 4,297

Top States by Ancestry:

  1. New York: 146,526
  2. California: 135,321
  3. Illinois: 98,786
  4. Florida: 90,960
  5. Massachusetts: 82,363
  6. New Jersey: 64,347
  7. Pennsylvania: 61,361

Top States by Country of Birth:

  1. New York: 30,077
  2. Illinois: 14,644
  3. California: 12,148
  4. Massachusetts: 11,032
  5. Florida: 10,629
  6. New Jersey: 9,617
  7. Pennsylvania: 6,158
  8. Connecticut: 4,564

Communities by percentage of people of Greek ancestry

The US communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Greek ancestry are:[34]

  1. Tarpon Springs, Florida 25.00%
  2. Campbell, Ohio 9.30%
  3. Lincolnwood, Illinois 7.60%
  4. Plandome Manor, New York 7.50%
  5. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 7.20%
  6. Allenwood, New Jersey 6.60%
  7. South Barrington, Illinois 6.00%
  8. Palos Hills, Illinois 5.40%
  9. Nahant, Massachusetts 5.30%
  10. Alpine, New Jersey; Holiday, Florida; and Munsey Park, New York 5.20%
  11. East Marion, New York 5.00%
  12. Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan and Grosse Pointe Township, Michigan; Palos Park, Illinois; and Upper Brookville, New York 4.90%
  13. Harbor Isle, New York 4.70%
  14. Lake Dalecarlia, Indiana 4.50%
  15. Barnum Island, New York 4.40%
  16. Peabody, Massachusetts 4.30%
  17. Livingston Manor, New York and University Gardens, New York 4.20%
  18. Oak Brook, Illinois 4.00%
  19. Dracut, Massachusetts 3.90%
  20. Harwood Heights, Illinois and Oyster Bay Cove, New York 3.80%
  21. Fort Lee, New Jersey; Hiller, Pennsylvania; Ipswich, Massachusetts; Long Grove, Illinois; Oakhurst, New Jersey; and Yorkville, Ohio 3.70%
  22. Broomall, Pennsylvania; Garden City South, New York; Norwood Park, Chicago, Illinois (neighborhood); and Plandome, New York 3.60%
  23. Flower Hill, New York; Manhasset, New York; Monte Sereno, California; Norridge, Illinois; Palisades Park, New Jersey; Palos Township, IL; and Windham, New York 3.50%
  24. Morton Grove, Illinois; Terryville, New York; and Wellington, Utah 3.40%
  25. Banks Township, PA (Carbon County, PA); Harmony, Pennsylvania (Beaver County, PA); Plandome Heights, New York; and Watertown, Massachusetts 3.30%
  26. Niles, Illinois and Niles Township, Illinois 3.20%
  27. Groveland, Massachusetts 3.10%
  28. Albertson, New York; Caroline, New York; Graeagle, California; Lynnfield, Massachusetts; Marple Township, Pennsylvania; and Stanhope, New Jersey 3.00%
  29. Foster Township, Pennsylvania; Manhasset Hills, New York; West Falmouth, Massachusetts; Winfield, Indiana; and Worth Township, Indiana (Boone County, IN) 2.90%

Communities by percentage of those born in Greece

The U.S. communities with the largest percentage of residents born in Greece are:[35]

Greek speakers in the US
^a Foreign-born population only[40]
  1. Horse Heaven, Washington 3.8%
  2. Tarpon Springs, Florida 3.2%
  3. Palos Hills, Illinois 3.1%
  4. Harbor Isle, New York 3.1%
  5. Campbell, Ohio 3.1%
  6. Lincolnwood, Illinois 2.7%
  7. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 2.5%
  8. Bedford Park, Illinois 2.3%
  9. Twin Lakes, Florida 2.3%
  10. Holiday, Florida 2.1%
  11. Great Neck Gardens, New York 2.1%
  12. Norridge, Illinois 2.0%
  13. Palos Park, Illinois 1.9%
  14. Barnum Island, New York 1.9%
  15. Munsey Park, New York 1.8%
  16. Foxfield, Colorado 1.7%
  17. Cedar Glen West, New Jersey 1.7%
  18. Raynham Center, Massachusetts 1.6%
  19. Broomall, Pennsylvania 1.6%
  20. Flower Hill, New York 1.6%
  21. Alpine, New Jersey 1.6%
  22. Millbourne, Pennsylvania 1.6%
  23. Niles, Illinois 1.6%
  24. Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan 1.6%
  25. East Marion, New York 1.6%
  26. West Falmouth, Massachusetts 1.6%
  27. Golden Triangle, New Jersey 1.5%
  28. Palisades Park, New Jersey 1.5%
  29. Garden City South, New York 1.5%
  30. Harwood Heights, Illinois 1.5%
  31. Watertown, Massachusetts 1.5%
  32. Morton Grove, Illinois 1.5%
  33. East Ithaca, New York 1.4%
  34. Fort Lee, New Jersey 1.4%
  35. Saddle Rock, New York 1.4%
  36. Oakhurst, New Jersey 1.4%
  37. Plandome Manor, New York 1.3%
  38. White Lake, North Carolina 1.3%
  39. Old Brookville, New York 1.2%
  40. Plandome Heights, New York 1.2%
  41. South Barrington, Illinois 1.2%
  42. North Lakeville, Massachusetts 1.2%
  43. Terryville, New York 1.2%
  44. Jefferson, West Virginia 1.2%
  45. Ridgefield, New Jersey 1.2%
  46. East Norwich, New York 1.2%
  47. Skokie, Illinois 1.1%
  48. Arlington Heights, Pennsylvania 1.1%
  49. Pomona, New York 1.1%
  50. Spring House, Pennsylvania 1.1%
  51. Hickory Hills, Illinois 1.1%
  52. Cliffside Park, New Jersey 1.1%
  53. Friendship Village, Maryland 1.1%
  54. Kingsville, Maryland 1.1%
  55. Arlington, Massachusetts 1.1%
  56. Mount Prospect, Illinois 1.1%
  57. Midland Park, New Jersey 1.0%
  58. Lake Dalecarlia, Indiana 1.0%
  59. Pinedale, Wyoming 1.0%
  60. Glenview, Illinois 1.0%
  61. Dunn Loring, Virginia 1.0%
  62. West Kennebunk, Maine 1.0%
  63. Shokan, New York 1.0%
  64. Beacon Square, Florida 1.0%
  65. Peabody, Massachusetts 1.0%
  66. Dedham, Massachusetts 1.0%
  67. North Key Largo, Florida 1.0%
  68. Hillside, New York 1.0%
  69. Orland Park, Illinois 1.0%
  70. Eddystone, Pennsylvania 1.0%
  71. South Hempstead, New York 1.0%
  72. Redington Beach, Florida 1.0%
  73. Hillsmere Shores, Maryland 1.0%

Greek-born population

Greek-born population in the US since 2010:[41]

Year Number
2010 135,639
2011 138,269
2012 134,956
2013 137,084
2014 136,906
2015 141,325
2016 135,484

Atlantis newspaper

The Atlantis was the first successful Greek-language daily newspaper published in the United States.[42] The newspaper was founded in 1894 by Solon J. and Demetrius J. Vlasto, descendants of the Greek noble family, Vlasto.[i][43] The paper was headed by a member of the Vlasto family until it closed in 1973. Published in New York City, it had a national circulation and influence. Atlantis supported the royalist faction in Greek politics until the mid-1960s. Atlantis editorial themes included naturalization, war relief, Greek-American business interests, and Greek religious unity.[42]

Greek nationality

Any person who is ethnically Greek born outside of Greece may become a Greek citizen through naturalization by proving that a parent or grandparent was born as a national of Greece. The Greek ancestor's birth certificate and marriage certificate are required, along with the applicant's birth certificate and the birth certificates of all generations in between until the relation between the applicant and the person with Greek citizenship is proven.


There are hundreds of regional, religious and professional Greek American organizations. Some of the largest and most notable include:

  • The American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association is the largest community organization of Greek Americans. It was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1922 to counter the anti-Greek attacks by the Ku Klux Klan during that time period. Its current membership exceeds 18,000.
  • The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America is the religious organization most closely associated with the Greek American community. It was established in 1921, and is under the leadership of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The church operates the Greek Orthodox Youth of America, the largest Orthodox Christian youth group in the United States.
  • The American Hellenic Institute, an advocacy group for Greek Americans, and its lobbying arm, the American Hellenic Institute Public Affairs Committee.
  • The Next Generation Initiative, a foundation that works with prominent Greek American leaders and executives to offer educational opportunities such as internships and master classes through a network of more than 5,500 Greek American students and 2,500 professors on 200+ college campuses.
  • The Council of Hellenes Abroad is a Greek government sponsored umbrella organization for Greek immigrant organizations worldwide.
  • The Hellenic Society Paideia has been promoting Hellenism and Orthodoxy since 1977 by placing Greek and Byzantium classes in high schools and universities, offering study abroad programs to Greece year round, and with various building projects throughout the country. Anywhere from 200-500 students travel to Greece with Paideia per year. Information specifically for the study abroad programs can be found at Currently "Paideia" is constructing a Classical Greek Amphitheater at the University of Connecticut and a Center for Hellenic Studies at the University of Rhode Island.[45]
  • The National Hellenic Student Association (NHSA)[46] is the independent network of the Hellenic Student Associations (HSAs) across the United States. By linking all the Greek, Greek-American and Cypriot students of the American educational institutions, the organization can promote ideas and projects and enrich the Hellenic spirit on campuses nationwide.
  • Many topika somatea or clubs representing the local regional homeland of Greeks in America. Among the scores of such clubs, larger "umbrella" organizations include the Pan Macedonian Association (one example is the Drosopigi Society, in Rochester, New York, hailing from the village of Drosopigi in Northern Greece outside of the city of Florina) the Panepirotic Federation, the Pan Cretan Association, the Pan-Icarian Brotherhood, the Pan Pontian Federation of U.S.A-Canada, the Chios Societies of America & Canada, the Cyprus Federation of America, the Pan-Laconian Federation of the USA & Canada, the Pan-Messinian Federation of the USA & Canada, the Pan-Arcadian Federation of America and several associations of refugees from areas in the former Ottoman territories.
  • The National Hellenic Museum

Notable people

See also


  1. "Total Ancestry Reported". United States Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  2. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  3. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  4. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  5. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  6. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  7. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  8. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  9. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  10. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2011-2013 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  11. "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2010-2012 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
  12. "Greek: Source: American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Public Use Microdata Sample, 2006–2010". Modern Language Association. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  13. "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  14. "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2009 - Supplemental Table 2". Retrieved April 24, 2010.
  15. MacDougald, James (2018). The Pánfilo de Narváez Expedition of 1528. St. Petersburg, FL: Marsden House. ISBN 978-1-4834-8671-0.
  16. "Cabeza de Vaca's La Relacion". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  17. "Cabeza de Vaca's La Relacion". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  18. Adorno, Rolena; Pautz, Patrick (September 15, 1999). Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca: His Account, His Life, and the Expedition of Panfilo de Narváez. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1463-7., 3 vols.
  19. Leonard, M. C. Bob. "The Floridians: British Colonialism in Florida 1763-1783". Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  20. Polopolus, Leonidas C. "A Brief History of Hellenism in Florida". University of Florida, Center for Greek Studies. Archived from the original on February 24, 2002.
  21. "History of the Holy Trinity Cathedral". Archived from the original on May 20, 2007.
  22. Barkan, Elliott Robert (1999). A Nation of Peoples: A Sourcebook on America's Multicultural Heritage. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 252–253. ISBN 978-0-313-29961-2.
  23. Κατατρεγμένοι Έλληνες από τη Μ. Ασία στις ΗΠΑ [Persecuted Greeks from Asia Minor in the USA] (in Greek). Archived from the original on August 7, 2004.
  24. Frangos, Steve (March 12, 2005). "Picture Bride Era in Greek American History". The National Herald. Retrieved March 24, 2017 via Preservation of American Hellenic History.
  25. Berger, Joseph (March 16, 2008). "Diners in Changing Hands; Greek Ownership on the Wane". New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  26. Kleiman, Dena (February 27, 1991). "Greek Diners, Where Anything Is Possible". New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2009. ... Greeks became a visible presence in the diner and coffee shop business in the late 1950s after several waves of immigration. They congregated largely on the East Coast, where the food service industry provided an easy economic foothold for many immigrants who were often unskilled and unable to speak English. As with immigrants from many nations, one relative would send word of opportunity back home, encouraging others to come to America
  27. Annie Correal and Colleen Wright (July 5, 2015). "Greeks in New York Talk and Cheer, Then Debate Future After Referendum". The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
  28. "Rank of States for Selected Ancestry Groups with 100,00 or more persons: 1980" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  29. "1990 Census of Population Detailed Ancestry Groups for States" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. September 18, 1992. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  30. "Ancestry: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  31. "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  32. "2011-2015 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables". Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  33. "2016 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  34. "Ancestry Map of Greek Communities". Retrieved August 12, 2008.
  35. "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Greece (population 500+)". Retrieved August 12, 2008.
  36. "Appendix Table 2. Languages Spoken at Home: 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  37. "Detailed Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for Persons 5 Years and Over --50 Languages with Greatest Number of Speakers: United States 1990". United States Census Bureau. 1990. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  38. "Language Spoken at Home: 2000". United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  39. "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home by English-Speaking Ability for the Population 5 Years and Over: 2011" (PDF). US Census Bureau. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2019.
  40. "Mother Tongue of the Foreign-Born Population: 1910 to 1940, 1960, and 1970". United States Census Bureau. March 9, 1999. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  41. Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results".
  42. Judith Felsten "Atlantis, National Daily Newspaper 1894-1973", Atlantis, National Daily Newspaper 1894-1973, The Research Library of the Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies, December 1982
  43. Magny, Claude Drigon. Livre D'or De La Noblesse Européenne, Ed. 2. Paris: Aubry, 1856, pg. 441.
  44. "Page 56287 – The National Herald".
  45. "paideiausa". paideiausa. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  46. "NHSA". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
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