Government in exile
A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, in contrast, has lost all its territory.
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Exiled governments tend to occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. On the other hand, the Provisional Government of Free India sought to use support from the invading Japanese to gain control of the country from what it viewed as British occupiers. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. Due to the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, for instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed by groups whose members sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it receives, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some exiled governments come to develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates the formal utilization of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and again at the Glorious Revolution (see James Francis Edward Stuart § Court in exile). The House of Bourbon would be another example because it continued to be recognized by other countries at the time as the legitimate government of France after it was overthrown by the populace during the French Revolution. This continued to last through the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–04 to 1815. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments which were exiled started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exile
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
|Name||Exile since||State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially)||Notes||References|
|1920||The oldest current government (formally, a provisional parliament) in exile, currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; see also Belarusian Democratic Republic|
|1925||The Qajar dynasty went into exile in 1923 and continue to claim the Iranian throne, which is currently claimed by Mohammad Hassan Mirza II who is based in Dallas, United States|
|1979||The Pahlavi dynasty, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland, United States; see also Iranian Revolution; see also National Council of Iran|
|1975||The former government of the Kingdom of Laos; based in Gresham, Oregon, United States|
|2001||Based in Quetta, Pakistan as a continuation of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. After the Taliban were removed from power in the 2001 Afghan war, the veteran high-ranking leaders of the former government including Mullah Mohammed Omar, founder and spiritual leader of the Taliban, fled to Pakistan where they set up Quetta Shura in exile to organize and direct the insurgency and retake Afghanistan.|
Deposed governments of former states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled but whose state no longer exists.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|1963||Independent state||Maluku Province||Based in the Netherlands and formed by members of the exiled government of the Republic of South Maluku which was an unrecognized independent state between 1950 and 1963.|
Current government regarded by some as a "government-in-exile"
However, there are also some who do not accept that the sovereignty of Taiwan was legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war nor that the Republic of China is a government-in-exile, and China's territory does not include Taiwan. The current Democratic Progressive Party in Taiwan is inclined to this view, and supports Taiwanese independence.
Deposed governments of current subnational territories
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|1993||autonomous republic||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial government, led by Vakhtang Kolbaia, whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists|
|1994||autonomous republic||de facto independent state||Azerbaijan provisional government, led by Bayram Safarov, whose territory is under the control of Armenian separatists|
|2008||provisional administrative entity||de facto independent state||Georgian provincial administration, led by Dmitry Sanakoyev, whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists|
|2014||autonomous republic||federal subject (republic)||Ukrainian autonomous republic, whose territory was seized and annexed by Russia in March 2014, following a disputed status referendum; Presidential Representative-in-exile now based in Kherson|
|2014||special city||federal city||Ukrainian special city, whose territory was seized and annexed by Russia in March 2014, following a disputed status referendum|
Alternative governments of current states
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|—||1949||Based in Seoul, the South Korean government's provisional administration for the five pre-1945 provinces which became North Korea at the end of World War II and the division of Korea. The five provinces are North Hamgyeong, South Hamgyeong, Hwanghae, North Pyeongan, South Pyeongan|
Taiwan Affairs Office
|—||1949||As representative body and executive organ, work together with Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (Political Party), All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots (Civil)|
|1974||1993||Led by Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie and based in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area|
|—||2013||Political umbrella coalition of forty Iranian opposition political organizations, led by Prince Reza Pahlavi; based in Maryland, United States|
|—||1981||Political umbrella coalition of five Iranian opposition political organizations, the largest organization being the People's Mujahedin of Iran led by Maryam and Massoud Rajavi; based in Paris|
|—||2003||Proclaimed Severo Moto President of Equatorial Guinea in Madrid|
|1990||1991||Third Republic of Vietnam previously named Provisional National Government of Vietnam was formed in Orange County, California by former soldiers and refugees from the former South Vietnamese. Declared a terrorist organization in Vietnam.|
|—||2012||Opposes the government of the Syrian Arab Republic; based in Istanbul; has ties to some Free Syrian Army groups.|
|—||1993||Opposes communist government in Laos; seek to institute a constitutional monarchy, based in Gresham, Oregon.|
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|1939||1947||Based in Berlin, Germany|
|1963||1969||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|
|1970||2007||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|
|1975||1975||Based in Paris, France|
|2000||2000||Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|1066||2001||Based in Birmingham, UK|
|1996||2005||Reconstituted in 2005 in Belgrade, by the remains of the government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence|
|—||1998||Aims to create a Kurdish entity in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|
|—||1999||Former British territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|
|—||2004||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|
|—||1992||Aims to establish an independent state for the Coptic ethnic group|
|—||2005||Aims to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group|
|Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
From the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988 in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization, it has effectively functioned as the government in exile of the Palestinian State. In 1994, however the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Between 1994 and 2013, the PNA functioned as an autonomy, thus while the government was seated in the West Bank it was not sovereign. In 2013, Palestine was upgraded to a non-member state status in the UN.
All of the above created an ambiguous situation, in which there are two distinct entities: The Palestinian Authority, exercising a severely limited amount of control on the ground under the tutelage of an Israeli military occupation; and the State of Palestine, recognized by the United Nations and by numerous countries as a fully sovereign and independent state, but not able to exercise such sovereignty on the ground. Both are headed by the same person—as of February 2016, President Mahmud Abbas—but are judicially distinct. For example, a dissolution of The Palestinian Authority and resumption of full rule on the ground by Israel would not in itself affect the State of Palestine, which could continue to exist as a government-in-exile diplomatically recognized by the UN and by numerous countries.
The historic country "Yakthung Laje Limbuwan (Kirat)" had its own territory that fall on presently in the western part of the north-east India and eastern part of the Nepal. The ten Limbu Kings had ruled over long years in the territory then after, the Gorkha king had practiced to invade many more times but failed to overrun to it and the two countries made treaty in 1774 A.D. The treaty led to form the Nepal with the division of equal kingship and ruling occupation. No sooner than the treaty was violate by the Gorkha kings that led to devastate the Yakhung laje Limbuwan territory and misused the power over the contemporary Limbu Yakhung rulers that is why, the thirty two thousands of Limbus were fled away to be safe from the atrocities and torture made by the Gorkha kings. So, they had to left their motherland and exiled in different countries like Burma, Bhutan and India. As well as, the territory had divided into two countries because of the Sugoulee treaty that held in 1815 A.D. between Nepal and East India Company while the eastern part the Mechi river to Teesta river has given to the East India Company. The Yakthung rulers were not asked and for the historic tasks made by Gorkha King. Unfortunately, the Yakthung Limbus were divided into two nationals and lost their land original Yakthung Limbuwan nationality.
Now, the Yakthung Limbuwan nationalists claiming their land while it is remained as stateless nation for long time. The different movements and revolutions are being held for the Limbuwan land however, the unification of the divided nationalities and the territory were not much on loud sound till yet. But, Yakhung Laje Limbuwan National Council (YLLNC) has formed to unite the nationalities and to form the independent Yakhung Laje Limbuwan country in the presidency of Mr. Nir Kumar Sambahangphe Limbu in 2018. The council has proclaimed the independent and sovereign country "Yakhung Laje Limbuwan" but the two governments of India and Nepal has made deaf ear on the issues that would led to compel to form the government in exile for Yakthung Laje Limbuwan.
Exiled governments with ambiguous status
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|1959||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net|
|1949||Seeking independence for Xinjiang as "East Turkestan"; based in Washington, DC|
|2015||Formed in Moscow, Russia, by former Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov, with the intention of holding new elections in Ukraine.|
|1976||Proclaimed on February 27, 1976, following the Spanish withdrawal from what was until then Spanish Sahara. Not strictly a government in exile since it does control 20–25% of its claimed territory. Nevertheless, often referred to as such, especially since most day-to-day government business is conducted in the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community, rather than in the proclaimed temporary capital (first Bir Lehlou, moved to Tifariti in 2008).|
Past governments in exile
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|1555||1559||After the Italian city-state of Siena was defeated in the Battle of Marciano and annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 700 Sienese families did not concede defeat, established themselves in Montalcino and declared themselves to be the legitimate Republican Government of Siena. This lasted until 1559, when Tuscan troops arrived and annexed Montalcino, too.|
|1622–1623*||1648°||In the early stages of the Thirty Years' War, Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, occupied the Electoral Palatinate and was awarded possession of it by the Emperor. In late 1622 and early 1623, the fugitive Frederick V, Elector Palatine organised a Palatinate government-in-exile at The Hague. This Palatinate Council was headed by Ludwig Camerarius, replaced in 1627 by Johann Joachim Rusdorf. Frederick himself died in exile, but his son and heir Charles Louis was able to regain the Lower Palatinate following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.|
|1649||1660°||Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|1866||1878||On September 20, 1866, Prussia annexed Hanover. Living in exile in Austria, at Hietzing and Gmunden, King George V of Hanover never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and from 1866 to 1870 maintained at his own expense an exile Hanoverian armed force, the Guelphic Legion. George was forced to give up this Legion after the Prussian lower chamber passed in 1869 a law sequestering his funds. George V died in 1878. Though his son and heir Prince Ernest Augustus retained a formal claim to be the legitimate King of Hanover until 1918 (when all German Royal Families were dethroned), he does not seem to have kept up a government-in-exile.|
|1893||1895||Royal government exiled following the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893, dissolved after the abdication of Queen Liliuokalani in response to the Hawaiian Counter-revolution of 1895.|
|1971*||1972°||Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.|
|1919*||1948°||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan's defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|1948||1959||The All-Palestine government was proclaimed in Gaza in September 1948, but was shortly relocated to Cairo in fear of Israeli offensive. Despite Egyptian ability to keep control of the Gaza Strip, the All-Palestine Government was forced to remain in exile in Cairo, gradually stripping it of its authority, until in 1959 it was dissolved by President Nasser's decree.|
|1958*||1962*||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|1962*||1992°||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament|
|1995*||2013°||The Government of Free Vietnam was an anti-communist political organization centered in Garden Grove, California and Missouri City, Texas. It was disbanded in 2013.|
|1966*||1989°||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence.|
|1949||1992||Relocated to Taipei, Taiwan in 1949 after Sinkiang fell to the communists. Office was abolished in 1992.|
|1982*||1993°||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
|1939*||1990°||Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland.|
|1953*||1992||Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state. However the government in exile was recognized by the restored Government of Estonia when the government in exile ceased its activity in 1992 and gave over its credentials to the restored Republic of Estonia. A rival electoral committee was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Detmold, in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), but it was short lived.|
|1939||1977||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; first based in Paris, France from 1939 until 1940 when France fell to the Nazis. The exiled government was then moved to Mexico City and stayed there from 1940 to 1946, when it was moved back to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death and democracy in Spain was restored.|
|1921||1954||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|1991||1992||Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358–1808).|
|1920||1992||Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.|
|1976*||2005||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|1998||2009||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|
|1861||1865||State of Missouri||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|
|1861||1865||Commonwealth of Kentucky||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|Restored Government of Virginia||1861||1865|
|East Tennessee||1861||1862||State of Tennessee|
|1914||1918||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
|1990||2012||Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|
|1942||1944°||After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government in exile led by Manuel Quezon in Melbourne, Australia and was administered from Washington, D.C., United States from May 1942 to October 1944.|
|1948*||1949°||Based in Bukittinggi; led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, founded after Operatie Kraai in December 1948.|
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government in exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law. In addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the independent Republic of Malta.
World War II
Governments in London
A large number of European governments-in-exile were set up in London.
The Danish exception
The Occupation of Denmark (April 9, 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently until August 1943 when it was dissolved, placing Denmark under full German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Governments-in-exile in Asia
The Philippine Commonwealth (invaded December 9, 1941) established a government in exile in Australia and the United States.
While formed long before World War II, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea continued in exile in China until the end of the war.
At the fall of Java, and the surrender by the Dutch on behalf of Allied forces on March 8, 1942, many Dutch-Indies officials (including Dr van Mook and Dr Charles van der Plas) managed to flee to Australia in March 1942, and on December 23, 1943, the Royal Government (Dutch) decreed an official Netherlands East Indies Government-in-exile, with Dr van Mook as Acting Governor General, on Australian soil until Dutch rule was restored in the Indies.
Under the auspices of the Axis powers, Axis-aligned groups from some countries set up "governments-in-exile" in Axis territory, even though internationally recognized governments remained in place in their home countries. The main purpose of these was to recruit and organize military units composed of their nationals in the host country.
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|September 16, 1944*||May 10, 1945||Based in Vienna, Austria|
|September 7, 1944*||April 23, 1945°||Members of the collaborationist French cabinet at Vichy were relocated by the Germans to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany, where they became a government-in-exile until April 1945. They were given formal governmental power over the city of Sigmaringen, and the three Axis governments – Germany, Italy and Japan – established there what were officially their Embassies to France. Pétain having refused to take part in this, it was headed by Fernand de Brinon.|
|28/29 March 1945||May 7, 1945||Based in Vienna and Munich.|
|August, 1944||May 8, 1945||Based in Vienna. Headed by Horia Sima|
|Summer of 1944||May 8, 1945||Based in Zagreb. Headed by Sekula Drljević.|
|April 4, 1945||May 8, 1945||Based in Kremsmünster.|
|October 21, 1943*||August 18, 1945||India's First Independent Government in exile to fight with and get territorial independence from British-Raj. It was based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this provisional Indian government in exile, established in Singapore but later given control of Japanese-controlled territory in far eastern India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian Government has also issued its currency notes and started establishing bilateral relationships with anti-British countries. Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army INA was official military of Government of India led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. This government was disestablished in 1945 following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II. INA kept fighting for independence of India, which led to create revolt by Indian Navy against British Govt in India and that forced British to think about leaving India.|
|June 11, 1945||August 17, 1945°||After the Allied forces liberated the Philippines from Japanese occupiers and the reestablishment of the Philippine Commonwealth in the archipelago after a few years in exile in the United States, the Second Philippine Republic became a nominal government-in-exile from June 11, 1945 based in Nara / Tokyo. The government was later dissolved on August 17, 1945.|
Persian Gulf War
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Ta'if. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the Western world in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
Municipal councils in exile
Following the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the displacement of many Greek Cypriots from North Cyprus, displaced inhabitants of several towns set up what are in effect municipal councils in exile, headed by mayors in exile. The idea is the same as with a national government in exile – to assert a continuation of legitimate rule, even though having no control of the ground, and working towards restoration of such control. Meetings of the exiled Municipal Council of Lapithos took place in the homes of its members until the Exile Municipality was offered temporary offices at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia. The current Exile Mayor of the town is Athos Eleftheriou. The same premises are shared with the Exile Municipal Council of Kythrea.
Also in the Famagusta District of Cyprus, the administration of the part retained by the Republic of Cyprus considers itself as a "District administration in exile", since the district's capital Famagusta had been under Turkish control since 1974.
Fictional governments in exile
- In Len Deighton's SS-GB, Britain is defeated and occupied by Nazi Germany. A British government in exile is formed, but finds it far from easy to secure international recognition. Specifically, Deighton refers to this government in exile needing to go to the American courts and wage a prolonged struggle against the London-based Nazi-collaborating government, before securing possession of the British Embassy in Washington.
- In If Israel Lost the War by Robert Littell, Richard Z. Chesnoff and Edward Klein, Israel is defeated in the 1967 Six-Day War and its territory occupied by Arab armies. Thereupon, David Ben-Gurion and Golda Meir set up an Israeli government in exile in America.
- Algis Budrys' The Falling Torch is set in a future time when Earth was conquered and occupied by extra-terrestrial humanoid invaders. Many years later, the Earth government in exile, located at a human colony planet orbiting Alpha Centauri, is holding a regular meeting in an atmosphere of dejection and futility – its hosts being indifferent to Earth's plight and unwilling to offer any real help. The Exile Prime Minister is shown more involved with his successful career as the chef of a luxury hotel than with the seemingly non-existent hope of liberating Earth. This depiction might have drawn on the writer's actual experience as a member of the exile Lithuanian community in the 1950s US, at the time seeing little hope of shaking the Soviet hold of its homeland.
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow Cabinet
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical unrecognized countries
- List of territorial disputes
- List of unrecognized countries
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
- "Princeton University WordNet". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
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- Corp, Edward (2009). A Court in Exile: The Stuarts in France, 1689-1718. Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0521108373.
- "Official website of the Belarusian National Republic". Radabnr.org. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Wilson, Andrew (2011). Belarus: The Last European Dictatorship. Yale University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780300134353. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Gall, Carlotta (January 21, 2007). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge". The New York Times.
- "Taliban shifts to southwest Pakistan". Washington Times. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- Widjojo, Muridan S. "Cross-Cultural Alliance-Making and Local Resistance in the Moluccas during the Revolt of Prince Nuku, c. 1780–1810" PhD Dissertation, Leiden University, 2007 (Publisher: KITLV, Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 1, 2008) Pp. 141–149 ISSN 1979-8431
- Lori Reese (August 28–30, 1999). "China's Christian Warrior". Time. Time Inc. 154 (No. 7/8). Archived from the original on May 11, 2010.
After four years of civil war, Chiang and the nationalists were forced to flee to the island of Taiwan. There they established a government-in-exile and dreamed of retaking the mainland.
"Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975)". BBC. Archived from the original on January 18, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
There Chiang established a government in exile which he led for the next 25 years.
"TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan.
"Establishment of the People's Republic Of China (Oct 1, 1949)". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
......after the inauguration of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Beijing on October 1, 1949, Chiang and the Nationalists installed the rival Republic of China (ROC) as a government in exile on Taiwan.
"Tsai blasted for R.O.C. legitimacy remark". China Post. May 27, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
"Treaty confirmed sovereignty: Ma". Taipei Times. April 29, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
Kerry Dumbaugh (Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division) (February 23, 2006). "Taiwan's Political Status: Historical Background and Ongoing Implications". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
While on October 1, 1949, in Beijing a victorious Mao proclaimed the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Chiang Kai-shek re-established a temporary capital for his government in Taipei, Taiwan, declaring the ROC still to be the legitimate Chinese government-in-exile and vowing that he would "retake the mainland" and drive out communist forces.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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Chiang Kai-shek wanted to fight it out on an all-or-nothing basis. There are also reports that Chiang's advisors convinced him that if the ROC mission stayed to represent Taiwan, Chiang would be under pressure to demonstrate in some constitutional way that his Chinese government-in-exile represented the people of Taiwan rather than the vast population of China. Doing so would require Chiang to dismantle his existing regime (which was elected in 1947 on the Chinese mainland and continued to rule in Taiwan under emergency martial law provisions without benefit of elections), adopt an entirely new constitution, and install an entirely new government.
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