Gough's Cave is located in Cheddar Gorge on the Mendip Hills, in Cheddar, Somerset, England. The cave is 115 m (377 ft) deep and is 3.405 km (2.12 mi) long, and contains a variety of large chambers and rock formations. It contains the Cheddar Yeo, the largest underground river system in Britain.
|Depth||.90 m (300 ft)|
|Length||2,135 m (7,005 ft)|
|Access||Show cave open to the public; greater part by diving only|
|Cave survey||University of Bristol Spelaeological Society|
|Registry||Mendip Cave Registry|
The initial sections of the cave, previously known as Sand Hole, were accessible prior to the 19th century. Between 1892 and 1898 a retired sea captain, Richard Cox Gough, who lived in Lion House in Cheddar, found, excavated and opened to the public further areas of the cave, up to Diamond Chamber, which is the end of the show cave today. Electric lighting was installed in the show caves in 1899.
The cave is susceptible to flooding often lasting for up to 48 hours, however in the Great Flood of 1968 the flooding lasted for three days.
Human remains and occupation
The cave contained skeletal remains of both humans and animals, all showing cut-marks and breakage consistent with de-fleshing and eating. Skull fragments represent from 5 to 7 humans, including a young child of about 3 years and two adolescents. The brain cases appear to have been prepared as drinking cups or containers, a tradition found in other Magdalenian sites across Europe.
In 1903 the remains of a human male, since named Cheddar Man, were found a short distance inside Gough's Cave. He is Britain’s oldest complete human skeleton, having been dated to approximately 7150 BC. There is a suggestion that the man died a violent death. Mitochondrial DNA taken from the skeleton has been found to match that of Adrian Targett, a retired history teacher living in the local area in 2018, indicating that Cheddar Man is a very distant relative.
Further genome sequencing indicated that most likely he had blue eyes and "very dark brown to black complexion and dark curly hair". However, a subsequent report in New Scientist announced some scepticism from within the scientific community regarding the findings.
The remains currently reside in the Natural History Museum in London, with a replica in the Cheddar Man and the Cannibals museum in the Gorge. Other human remains have also been found in the cave.
In 2007 a carving of a mammoth, estimated to be 13,000 years old, was found in the cave.
In 2010 further human bones from the cave were examined, which ultra-filtration carbon dating dated to around the end of the ice age 14,700 years ago. A second technique, using 3D microscopy, showed that the flesh had been removed from the bones using the same tools and techniques used on animal bones. According to Professor Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum, this supports theories about cannibalism amongst the people living in or visiting the cave at that time. In February 2011, the same team published an analysis of human skulls of the same date found at the cave around 1987, which they believe were deliberately fashioned into ritual drinking cups or bowls.
Access and description
The first 820 m (2,690 ft) of the cave are open to the public as a show cave, and this stretch contains most of the more spectacular formations. The greater part of the cave's length is made up of the river passage, which is accessible only by cave diving.
Beyond the show cave
Gough's cave contains long stretches of completely flooded river passage. From a point relatively close to the areas of the cave open to the public, the cave-divers' descent into Sump 1a begins through a tight passage known as Dire Straits. The bottom of that passage opens into the river passage, which is several meters across. This has been explored for 335 m (1,099 ft) downstream, whilst upstream a dive of 150 m (490 ft) brings the diver out in a 20 m (66 ft) long chamber named Lloyd Hall (which can now also be reached by an alternative, dry, route).
Another dive of 140 m (460 ft) through Sump 1b, finishing with an ascent through a rising passage, leads to another chamber, 60 m (197 ft) long and 25 m (82 ft) wide at its widest point, and full of large boulders, called Bishop's Palace. This chamber is the largest chamber currently found in the Cheddar caves. Further on, three sump pools (named the Duck Ponds) lead to Sump 2 which is about 27 m (89 ft) deep at its lowest point and 150 m (492 ft) long.
Air is again reached at Sheppard's Crook, which is followed by Sump 3. This sump is 55 m (180 ft) deep and at its bottommost point is about 30 m (98 ft) below sea level. Following Sump 3, a wide ascending passage continues for 370 m (1,214 ft) before reaching an impassable blockage, still below the water's surface.
|Sump||Length of dive||Depth||Emerging into|
|Sump 1a||150 m (492 ft)||18 m (59 ft)||Lloyd Hall|
|Sump 1b||140 m (459 ft)||?||Bishop's Palace|
|Sump 2||150 m (492 ft) with airbells||27 m (89 ft)||Sheppard's Crook|
|Sump 3||370 m (1,214 ft)||55 m (180 ft)||Passage blocked|
- "Gough's Cave". Mendip Cave Registry & Archive. Retrieved 2012-03-30.
- "Gough's Cave". Mendip Cave Registry & Archive. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
- "Cheddar Yeo". Somerset Rivers. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- Witcombe, Richard (2009). Who was Aveline anyway?: Mendip's Cave Names Explained (2nd ed.). Priddy: Wessex Cave Club. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-9500433-6-4.
- Irwin, David John; Knibbs Anthony J. (1999). Mendip Underground: A Cavers Guide. Wells: Bat Products. ISBN 0-9536103-0-6. – which also contains a detailed description of the cave.
- Donovan, D.T. (2006). "Gough's Cave, Cheddar, Somerset. Quaternary Stratigraphy" (PDF). Proceedings of the University of Bristol Spelæological Society. 24 (1): 17–35. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Bello, Silvia M.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Stringer, Chris B.; Petraglia, Michael (16 February 2011). "Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e17026. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017026. PMC 3040189. PMID 21359211. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
- "Gough's Cave excavation". Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "Mendip caves: Cheddar Catchment". British Geological Survey. 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
- Morris, Steven (2018-02-09). "'He's one of us': modern neighbours welcome Cheddar Man". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
- Devlin, Hannah (2018-02-07). "First modern Britons had 'dark to black' skin, Cheddar Man DNA analysis reveals". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
- Barrass, Colin. "Ancient 'dark-skinned' Briton Cheddar Man find may not be true". New Scientist. New Scientist Ltd. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- "Prehistoric cave carving hailed as 'one of most significant examples ever found in Britain'". Daily Mail. 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- McKie, Robin (2010-06-20). "Bones from a Cheddar Gorge cave show that cannibalism helped Britain's earliest settlers survive the ice age". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- Bello, Silvia M.; et al. (February 2011). "Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e17026. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017026. PMC 3040189. PMID 21359211. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- Amos, Jonathan (2011-02-16). "Ancient Britons 'drank from skulls'". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
- Thomas, Alan (1989). The Last Adventure. Wells: Ina Books. ISBN 1-869897-05-6. which contains a first-hand account of the exploration of the river passage by Richard Stevenson
- "Gough's Cave". Mendip Cave Registry & Archive.
- Official website
- The Caves of Cheddar Gorge by Tony Oldham
- Bones from a Cheddar Gorge cave show that cannibalism helped Britain's earliest settlers survive the ice age, Robin McKie, The Guardian, 20 June 2010
- Silvia M. Bello, Rosalind Wallduck, Simon A. Parfitt, Chris B. Stringer. An Upper Palaeolithic engraved human bone associated with ritualistic cannibalism, August 9, 2017.