Glottolog

Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany.

Glottolog
ProducerMax Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (Germany)
Links

Glottolog provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several respects:

  • It attempts to only accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct. Varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested".[note 1]
  • It attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid.
  • Bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages.
  • To a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them.

The language names used in the bibliographic entries are identified by ISO 639-3 code or Glottolog's own code (Glottocode); apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic centre, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, Ethnologue and other online language databases

Edition 2.2 was published online in 2013 and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License. Edition 2.4 was published in 2015, 3.0 in 2017, 3.3.2 in August 2018, 3.4 in April 2019, 4.0 in June 2019. The latest version is 4.1, released in November 2019.

Language families

Glottolog is more conservative in its classification than most online databases in establishing membership of languages and groups within families but more liberal in considering unclassified languages to be isolates. Edition 4.1 lists 420 oral-language[note 2] families and isolates as follows:[1]

List of Glottolog genealogical families
NameRegion[note 3]Languages
Atlantic-CongoAfrica, North America1,432
AustronesianAfrica, Eurasia, Oceania, South America1,275
Indo-EuropeanAfrica, Australia, Eurasia, North America, Oceania, South America589
Sino-TibetanEurasia496
Afro-AsiaticAfrica, Eurasia373
Nuclear Trans New GuineaOceania314
Pama-NyunganAustralia, Oceania248
OtomangueanNorth America180
AustroasiaticEurasia159
Tai-KadaiEurasia94
DravidianEurasia80
ArawakanNorth America, South America78
MandeAfrica75
TupianSouth America71
Uto-AztecanNorth America69
Central SudanicAfrica64
Nuclear TorricelliOceania55
NiloticAfrica54
UralicEurasia48
AlgicNorth America46
Athabaskan-Eyak-TlingitNorth America45
Pano-TacananSouth America45
QuechuanSouth America45
TurkicEurasia44
CaribanSouth America42
Hmong-MienEurasia39
SepikOceania36
Nakh-DaghestanianEurasia34
MayanNorth America33
Lower Sepik-RamuOceania30
Nuclear-Macro-JeSouth America30
ChibchanNorth America, South America27
TucanoanSouth America26
SalishanNorth America25
Timor-Alor-PantarOceania23
DogonAfrica20
Lakes PlainOceania20
Mixe-ZoqueNorth America19
Ta-Ne-OmoticAfrica19
YamOceania19
SiouanNorth America18
AnimOceania17
Mongolic-KhitanEurasia17
BorderOceania15
JaponicEurasia, Oceania15
North HalmaheraOceania15
Khoe-KwadiAfrica14
AnganOceania13
NduOceania13
NubianAfrica13
Tor-OryaOceania13
TungusicEurasia13
ChapacuranSouth America12
Eskimo-AleutEurasia, North America12
GunwinyguanAustralia12
TotonacanNorth America12
Cochimi-YumanNorth America11
IroquoianNorth America11
Miwok-CostanoanNorth America11
SurmicAfrica11
Western DalyAustralia11
Geelvink BayOceania10
Great AndamaneseEurasia, Oceania10
HeibanicAfrica10
IjoidAfrica10
MabanAfrica10
NyulnyulanAustralia10
SaharanAfrica10
SkoOceania10
SonghayAfrica10
WorrorranAustralia10
ChocoanSouth America9
DaganOceania9
South BougainvilleOceania9
Greater KwerbaOceania8
Kiowa-TanoanNorth America8
KoiarianOceania8
MailuanOceania8
Narrow TalodiAfrica8
TuuAfrica8
BosaviOceania7
Chukotko-KamchatkanEurasia7
DajuicAfrica7
HuitotoanSouth America7
MatacoanSouth America7
MuskogeanNorth America7
PomoanNorth America7
ArawanSouth America6
BainingOceania6
BarbacoanSouth America6
ChumashanNorth America6
East StricklandOceania6
GoilalanOceania6
Kadugli-KrongoAfrica6
KartvelianEurasia6
KiwaianOceania6
Left MayOceania6
NambiquaranSouth America6
South Bird's Head FamilyOceania6
WakashanNorth America6
ZaparoanSouth America6
Abkhaz-AdygeEurasia5
CaddoanNorth America5
ElemanOceania5
GuahiboanSouth America5
GuaicuruanSouth America5
KomanAfrica5
KxaAfrica5
Lengua-MascoySouth America5
MirndiAustralia5
MisumalpanNorth America5
NimboranicOceania5
PauwasiOceania5
SahaptianNorth America5
South OmoticAfrica5
West Bird's HeadOceania5
XincanNorth America5
YanomamicSouth America5
YarebanOceania5
YeniseianEurasia5
YuatOceania5
ArafundiOceania4
AymaranSouth America4
Blue Nile MaoAfrica4
ChichamSouth America4
ChinookanNorth America4
ChonanSouth America4
Eastern JebelAfrica4
Eastern Trans-FlyOceania4
HuaveanNorth America4
Iwaidjan ProperAustralia4
Jodi-SalibanSouth America4
KamakananSouth America4
MaiduanNorth America4
Mangarrayi-MaranAustralia4
ManingridaAustralia4
NaduhupSouth America4
North BougainvilleOceania4
SentanicOceania4
Suki-GogodalaOceania4
TamaicAfrica4
TangkicAustralia4
Turama-KikoriOceania4
WalioicOceania4
YokutsanNorth America4
YukaghirEurasia4
AinuEurasia3
BororoanSouth America3
CahuapananSouth America3
CharruanSouth America3
DizoidAfrica3
East Bird's HeadOceania3
GiimbiyuAustralia3
GumuzAfrica3
JarrakanAustralia3
KalapuyanNorth America3
Kamula-ElevalaOceania3
Katla-TimaAfrica3
KawesqarSouth America3
KayagaricOceania3
KolopomOceania3
KuliakAfrica3
KwaleanOceania3
MairasicOceania3
Peba-YaguaSouth America3
ShastanNorth America3
TequistlatecanNorth America3
TsimshianNorth America3
UlmapoOceania3
West BomberaiOceania3
YangmanicAustralia3
ZamucoanSouth America3
Amto-MusanOceania2
AraucanianSouth America2
Baibai-FasOceania2
Bayono-AwbonoOceania2
BogiaOceania2
BoranSouth America2
Bulaka RiverOceania2
BunabanAustralia2
ChimakuanNorth America2
CoosanNorth America2
Doso-TurumsaOceania2
East KutubuOceania2
Eastern DalyAustralia2
FuranAfrica2
GarrwanAustralia2
HaidaNorth America2
HarakmbutSouth America2
Hatam-MansimOceania2
Hibito-CholonSouth America2
HuarpeanSouth America2
Hurro-UrartianEurasia2
InanwatanOceania2
Jarawa-OngeEurasia2
JicaqueanNorth America2
Kakua-NukakSouth America2
KatukinanSouth America2
KeresanNorth America2
Konda-YahadianOceania2
KoreanicEurasia2
Kresh-AjaAfrica2
Kwomtari-NaiOceania2
LencanNorth America2
Lepki-MurkimOceania2
Limilngan-WulnaAustralia2
ManubaranOceania2
Marrku-WurruguAustralia2
Mombum-KonerawOceania2
Namla-TofanmaOceania2
North-Eastern TasmanianAustralia2
Northern DalyAustralia2
NyimangAfrica2
Otomaco-TaparitaSouth America2
PahoturiOceania2
PalaihnihanNorth America2
PiawiOceania2
Puri-CoroadoSouth America2
RashadAfrica2
SenagiOceania2
SomahaiOceania2
South-Eastern TasmanianAustralia2
Southern DalyAustralia2
TarascanNorth America2
Taulil-ButamOceania2
TeberanOceania2
TemeinicAfrica2
Ticuna-YuriSouth America2
Uru-ChipayaSouth America2
Western TasmanianAustralia2
WintuanNorth America2
Yawa-SaweruOceania2
Yuki-WappoNorth America2
AbinomnOceania1
AbunOceania1
AdaiNorth America1
AewaSouth America1
AikanãSouth America1
Alsea-YaquinaNorth America1
AmbakichOceania1
AndaquiSouth America1
AndoqueSouth America1
AnemOceania1
Ap MaOceania1
ArutaniSouth America1
AtacameSouth America1
AtakapaNorth America1
BangimeAfrica1
BasqueEurasia1
BeothukNorth America1
BertaAfrica1
Betoi-JiraraSouth America1
BiluaOceania1
BogayaOceania1
BurmesoOceania1
BurushaskiEurasia1
CamsáSouth America1
Candoshi-ShapraSouth America1
CanichanaSouth America1
CayubabaSouth America1
CayuseNorth America1
ChimarikoNorth America1
ChiquitanoSouth America1
ChitimachaNorth America1
ChonoSouth America1
CoahuiltecoNorth America1
CofánSouth America1
ComecrudanNorth America1
CotonameNorth America1
CuitlatecNorth America1
CulliSouth America1
DamalOceania1
DemOceania1
DibiyasoOceania1
DunaOceania1
ElamiteEurasia1
ElsengOceania1
EsselenNorth America1
EtruscanEurasia1
FasuOceania1
FulniôSouth America1
GaagudjuAustralia1
GuachiSouth America1
GuaicurianNorth America1
GuamoSouth America1
GuatóSouth America1
GuleAfrica1
GuriasoOceania1
HadzaAfrica1
HatticEurasia1
HrusoEurasia1
IberianEurasia1
Irántxe-MünküSouth America1
ItonamaSouth America1
JalaaAfrica1
JirajaranSouth America1
Kaki AeOceania1
KanoêSouth America1
KaporiOceania1
KaramiOceania1
KarankawaNorth America1
KaririSouth America1
KarokNorth America1
Kaure-NarauOceania1
KehuOceania1
KembraOceania1
KenaboiEurasia1
KibiriOceania1
KimkiOceania1
Klamath-ModocNorth America1
Kol (Papua New Guinea)Oceania1
KosadleOceania1
KujargeAfrica1
KunamaAfrica1
KungarakanyAustralia1
KunzaSouth America1
KuotOceania1
KusundaEurasia1
KutenaiNorth America1
KwazaSouth America1
LaalAfrica1
LafofaAfrica1
LaragiaAustralia1
LavukaleveOceania1
LecoSouth America1
LuleSouth America1
MákuSouth America1
MaratinoNorth America1
MaroriOceania1
MassepOceania1
MatanawíSouth America1
Mato Grosso AráraSouth America1
MawesOceania1
Maybrat-KaronOceania1
MeroiticAfrica1
Mimi-GaudefroyAfrica1
MinkinAustralia1
MochicaSouth America1
MolaleNorth America1
MolofOceania1
Mor (Bomberai Peninsula)Oceania1
Mosetén-ChimanéSouth America1
MovimaSouth America1
MpurOceania1
MunicheSouth America1
MureSouth America1
NaraAfrica1
NatchezNorth America1
NihaliEurasia1
NivkhEurasia1
OdiaiOceania1
OmuranoSouth America1
OngotaAfrica1
OtiSouth America1
Oyster Bay-Big River-Little SwanportAustralia1
PáezSouth America1
PankararúSouth America1
PapiOceania1
PawaiaOceania1
PayaguaSouth America1
Pele-AtaOceania1
PirahãSouth America1
PuelcheSouth America1
PuinaveSouth America1
PuméSouth America1
PuquinaSouth America1
PurariOceania1
PyuOceania1
RamanosSouth America1
SalinanNorth America1
SandaweAfrica1
SapéSouth America1
SauseOceania1
SavosavoOceania1
SechuranSouth America1
SeriNorth America1
ShaboAfrica1
Shom PengEurasia1
SiamouAfrica1
SiuslawNorth America1
SulkaOceania1
SumerianEurasia1
TaboOceania1
TaiapOceania1
TakelmaNorth America1
TallánSouth America1
TamboraOceania1
TanahmerahOceania1
TarumaSouth America1
TaushiroSouth America1
Timote-CuicaSouth America1
TimucuaNorth America1
TiniguaSouth America1
TiwiAustralia1
TonkawaNorth America1
TouoOceania1
TrumaiSouth America1
TunicaNorth America1
TuxáSouth America1
UmbugarlaAustralia1
UrarinaSouth America1
UskuOceania1
VilelaSouth America1
WadjiginyAustralia1
WagemanAustralia1
WaoraniSouth America1
WaraoSouth America1
WashoNorth America1
WiruOceania1
XukurúSouth America1
YaleOceania1
YámanaSouth America1
YanaNorth America1
YeleOceania1
YerakaiOceania1
YetfaOceania1
YuchiNorth America1
YuracaréSouth America1
YurumanguíSouth America1
ZuniNorth America1

Creoles are classified with the language that supplied their basic lexicon.

In addition to the families and isolates listed above, Glottolog uses several non-genealogical families for various languages:[2]

  • Pidgins (80 languages)
  • Mixed languages (14)
  • Artificial languages (28)
  • Speech registers (10)
  • Sign languages (194, including 1 pidgin,[3] 3 auxiliary sign systems,[4] and 2 unclassified sign languages)[5]
  • Unclassifiable attested languages (122)
  • Unattested languages (67)
  • Bookkeeping: spurious languages, such as retired ISO entries; kept for bookkeeping purposes (395 including 6 sign languages)[6]

Notes

  1. See for example the bookkeeping section for ISO languages that Glottolog has deemed to be spurious distinctions.
    This discrimination does not apply to dialects, many of which have been inherited from MultiTree or other sources without verification.
  2. Sign languages are listed together, including those grouped typologically as village sign languages, as are pidgins and unclassified languages, but without a claim that they are necessarily related.
  3. Geographic regions include "Papunesia" (a portmanteau of Papua (New Guinea) and Austronesia), which refers to the islands of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania, excluding Australia. Here it is replaced with 'Oceania'.

References

  1. "Glottolog Families". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
  2. "Glottolog: About Languoids". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  3. "Glottolog Language: Hawai'i Pidgin Sign Language". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  4. "Glottolog Subfamily: Auxiliary Sign Systems". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  5. "Glottolog Subfamily: Unclassified Deaf Sign Language". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  6. "Glottolog Family: Bookkeeping". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
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