Glencore plc is a British–Swiss multinational commodity trading and mining company with headquarters in Baar, Switzerland, and its registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey. The current company was created through a merger of Glencore with Xstrata on 2 May 2013.[3] As of 2015, it ranked tenth in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies.[4]

Glencore plc
Public limited company
Traded asLSE: GLEN
JSE: GLN (from 13 November 2013)
FTSE 100 Component
Metals and Mining
Founded1974 (1974)
(As Marc Rich + Co AG)
FounderMarc Rich
HeadquartersBaar, Switzerland
London, United Kingdom
(Head office – Oil & Gas)

Rotterdam, Netherlands
(Head office – Agricultural products)

Saint Helier, Jersey
(Registered office)
Area served
Key people
Tony Hayward (Chairman)
Ivan Glasenberg (CEO)
ProductsMetals and minerals, energy products, agricultural products
RevenueUS$ 219.754 billion (2018)[1]
US$ 6.193 billion (2018)[1]
US$ 2.616 billion (2018)[1]
Total assets128,485,000,000 US dollar[2] (31 December 2015) 
OwnerQatar Investment Authority (0.0925), Ivan Glasenberg (0.0842), Harris Associates (0.0804), BlackRock (0.0582), Daniel Maté (0.0315), Telis Mistakidis (0.0313), Norges Bank (0.0303) 
Number of employees
158,000 (2018)[1]

As Glencore International, the company was already one of the world's leading integrated producers and marketers of commodities. It was the largest company in Switzerland and the world's largest commodities trading company, with a 2010 global market share of 60% in internationally tradable zinc, 50% in internationally tradable copper, 9% in the internationally tradable grain market and 3% in the internationally tradable oil market.[5][6][7]

Glencore had a number of production facilities all around the world and supplied metals, minerals, crude oil, oil products, coal, natural gas and agricultural products to international customers in the automotive, power generation, steel production and food processing industries.[6] The company was formed in 1994 by a management buyout of Marc Rich + Co AG (itself founded in 1974).[6] It was listed on the London Stock Exchange in May 2011 and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.[8][9] It had a secondary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, but it has withdrawn from January 2018.[10] Glencore's shares started trading on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange in November 2013.[11] The Qatar Investment Authority is its biggest shareholder.[12]


1974–1994: Formation and sale

An Australian ABC (public radio) report said, "Glencore's history reads like a spy novel".[13] The company was founded as Marc Rich & Co. AG in 1974 by billionaire commodity trader Marc Rich. The name is an abbreviation of "Global Energy Commodity Resources".[14] Rich was charged in the US with tax evasion and illegal business dealings with Iran, but pardoned by President Bill Clinton in 2001.[15]

In 1993, commodity trading and marketing company Trafigura was split off from Marc Rich's group of companies.[16] As physical commodities traders like Trafigura, Glencore's main rivals in 2011 were identified as Vitol and Cargill,[17] amongst others.[18] In 1993 and 1994, after failing to take control of the zinc market and losing $172 million, Glencore's founder Marc Rich was forced[15][17] to sell his 51 percent majority share in his own company, Marc Rich & Company AG, to Glencore International, the commodities trading and industrial company.[19]

2005: Dealings with "rogue states"

ABC Radio reported in 2005 that Glencore "has been accused of illegal dealings with rogue states: apartheid South Africa, USSR, Iran, and Iraq under Saddam Hussein", and has a "history of busting UN embargoes to profit from corrupt or despotic regimes".[13] Specifically, Glencore was reported to have been named by the CIA to have paid $3,222,780 in illegal kickbacks to obtain oil in the course of the UN oil-for-food programme for Iraq. The company denied these charges, according to the CIA report quoted by ABC.[13][20]

2005–2011: Glencore, Dan Gertler and the Congo

In 2005, proceeds from an oil sale to Glencore were seized as fraudulent gains as part of an investigation into corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Allen-Mills 17 June 2008).[21]

In the course of the Congo events, Nikanor was merged into Katanga in late 2007 in a transaction valued at US$3.3 billion.[22]

In 2011 Reuters called Glencore as "the biggest company you never heard of," and described how Glencore and Dan Gertler partnered in Nikanor from 2007 until it merged with Katanga Mining. Reuters called the Nikanor acquisition an example of Glencore's opportunistic, contrarian, well-funded investment approach—focusing on equity participation, controlling interest, and working upstream from trading relationships.[17][23]

The acquisition was the culmination of 18 months of deal-making in Congo... [including fighting off a counterbid by] former England cricketer Phil Edmonds. ... [Starting i]n June 2007, Glencore and partner Dan Gertler, an Israeli mining magnate, paid GB£300 million for a quarter-stake in mining company Nikanor, which was seeking to revive derelict copper mines next to Katanga Mining's properties. That deal gave Glencore exclusive rights to sell all Nikanor's output – an "offtake" agreement.... [Then, on Christmas Eve 2008, ... [having] lost 97 percent of its market value over the previous six months ... in the depths of the 2007 global financial crisis and ... running out of cash, Katanga accepted a deal for about US$500 million in a convertible loan and rights issue. Katanga agreed to issue more than a billion new shares and hand what would become 74% to Glencore. ... [By early 2011], with copper prices regularly setting records above US$10,000 a ton, Katanga's stock market value [had reached] nearly US$3.2 billion.... After a US$108 million loss in 2009, after acquisition it posted a 2010 annual profit of US$265 million.

In May 2011 the company launched an IPO valuing the business at US$61 billion[24] and creating five new billionaires.[25] Trading was limited to institutional investors for the first week and private investors were not allowed to buy shares until 24 May 2011.[26]

In early 2011, Reuters reports included speculation from Liberum's Rawlinson that, after an Initial Public Offering (IPO), Glencore could develop an interest in London/Kazakh-based Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation.[17] Glencore said that, contrary to recent reports, it was not interested in bidding for the under-fire group.[27]

2011: Financial and accounting manipulations

In 2011 five non-government organisations filed a complaint to the OECD against a subsidiary of Glencore over allegations that a mine it owns in Zambia may not be paying enough tax on its profits. The cause for the complaint lay in the financial and accounting manipulations performed by the two companies' subsidiary, Mopani Copper Mines Plc (MCM), to evade taxation in Zambia.[28][29] A draft Grant Thornton report alleged that tax avoidance by Glencore in Zambia cost the Zambian Government hundreds of millions of dollars in lost revenue. The avoidance was alleged to have been facilitated through mechanisms such as transfer pricing and inflated costs at Glencore's Mopani Copper Mine. The Mopani mines are controlled through the British Virgin Islands, a recognised tax haven.[30] Glencore and its own auditor, Deloitte, rejected these allegations.[31][32][33]

Due to weak global prices for the assets Glencore owned, particularly coal and copper producers, and for the commodities in which Glencore traded, the company showed a net operating loss of $676 million for the first half of 2015. As of September 2015 the value of its stock had fallen significantly.[34] Concerns financial analysts cited to explain the falling stock price included a weak global commodity market and Glencore's high level of debt,[35] $30 billion. The company was reducing debt by selling off stock and assets.[34]

2011: Associations with other mining companies

Along with several other major coal producers, Glencore is also a large shareholder in globalCOAL, the online physical coal trading platform. The board of globalCOAL contains a number of power utility shareholders. Relationships also exist with Century Aluminum Co. (CENX; 44% economic ownership interest)[36]) in the US; Glencore partial subsidiary Minara Resources Ltd (AU:MRE), a 70.5% stake in one of Australia's top three nickel producers[36]);[37] and 8.8% in United Company Rusal (HK:486), the Russian aluminium giant that went public in 2010.[36]

In mid-2011, Century was called "one of the most harrowing stocks of the past few years" but identified as a risky but potentially profitable investment for the future.[38]

2011–2012: Initial public offering

Glencore was the subject of an initial public offering (IPO) in May 2011 in a dual listing in London and Hong Kong valued at about $US60 billion. The 1,637-page document revealed invaluable information about this private company that has remained discreet for thirty-seven years. Ivan Glasenberg's shareholding was diluted from 18.1% before the IPO percent to 15.8% afterwards. Daniel Mate and Telis Mistakidis, zinc, copper and lead co-directors were diluted from 6.9% to 6%. Glencore went public to raise gross proceeds of around $10 billion. According to Reuters, Glencore is known for its "opportunistic but lucrative acquisition strategy."[39]

In May 2011, United Arab Emirates state-owned Aabar Investments confirmed an investment of $850 million in Glencore International plc as a cornerstone investor with an intention to invest an additional $150 million in the Global Offer. The investment made Aabar the largest cornerstone investor in the initial public offering (IPO) and the largest new shareholder of Glencore after its IPO, giving Aabar a 1.4% stake. The two firms intend to explore areas of co-operation.[40][41]

In November 2012 Abu Dhabi's Aabar Investments, a unit of Abu Dhabi's state-owned United Arab Emirates International Petroleum Investment Company, wrote off more than $392-million of its $1-billion investment into Glencore's IPO less than two years after investing it. Aabar Investments was the largest new shareholder in Glencore.[42]

2012–2013: Merger with Xstrata

Prior to its merger with Xstrata, Glencore is reported to have served as a marketing partner for the company.[43][44] As of 2006, Glencore leaders Willy Strothotte and Ivan Glasenberg were on the board of Xstrata, which Strothotte chaired. According to The Sunday Times, by 2006, Glencore controlled 40% of Xstrata stock and appointed Xstrata CEO, Mick Davis.[43][45] In February 2012, Glencore International Plc, agreed to buy Xstrata Plc for GB£39.1 billion (US$62 billion) in shares. Glencore offered 2.8 new shares for each Xstrata share in agreed all-share "merger of equal". It is the biggest mining takeover ever, and after approval would create an entity with 2012 sales of US$209 billion.[46] In June 2012, Glencore and Xstrata began to reconsider the proposed retention package for their merger, following shareholder opposition to a huge payout for executives. In total, 73 key executives stood to receive over GBP 170 million under the initial retention package.[47]

In October 2012, BBC News reported that Glencore had more ships than the British Royal Navy. Glencore's operations in 40 countries handled 3% of the world's oil consumption. Xstrata's operations in more than 20 countries employed 70,000 people. According to mining analyst John Meyer, if the two companies merged into Glencore Xstrata, they would be the 4th largest commodities trader in the world.[48]

Just before completing its forced April 2013 takeover of mining rival Xstrata as it awaited Chinese regulatory approval for its long-planned merger, the world's largest diversified commodities trader, the annual income of Glencore fell 25% percent, as its trading division offset the impact of weak commodity prices. Including the impact of an impairment related to a reclassification of its holding in Russian aluminium producer RUSAL, net income fell 75%.[49] On 2 May 2013, it completed the merger with Xstrata.[3] On 20 May 2014, Glencore Xstrata changed its name to Glencore plc.[50] After the merger with Glencore, Xstrata CFO Trevor Reid announced that he would no longer work as employee but would become a consultant. After 11 years of involvement, this marked a massive shift in the company's strategy and Xstrata was entering a post-Reid era.[51]

Investments in Colombia

Swiss public television (TSR) reported in 2006 that allegations of corruption and severe human rights violations were being raised against Glencore due to the alleged conduct of its Colombian Cerrejón mining subsidiary. Local union president Francisco Ramirez accused Cerrejón of forced expropriations and evacuations of entire villages to enable mine expansion, in complicity with Colombian authorities. A representative of the local Wayuu Indians also accused Colombian paramilitary and military units, including those charged with Cerrejón mining security, of forcibly driving the Wayuu off their land in what she described as a "massacre".[52]

A BBC investigation in 2012 uncovered sale documents showing the company had paid the associates of paramilitary killers in Colombia. In 2011, a Colombian court was told by former paramilitaries that they stole the land so they could sell it to Glencore's subsidiary Prodeco, to start an open-cast coal mine; the court accepted their evidence and concluded that coal was the motive for the massacre. Glencore disputed the court's ruling.[53][54]

Glencore/Xtrata's "huge coal operation in Colombia, Prodeco, was fined a total of nearly $700,000 in 2009 for several environmental violations [running in earlier years], including waste disposal without a permit and producing coal without an environmental management plan."[17]

Glencore/Xtrata's activities in Colombia under their subsidiary, Prodeco, was investigated by the Netherlands-based NGO, Pax for Peace. They found that, "From 1996 to 2006, residents of the Cesar mining region of Colombia, from which European power utilities source most of their coal, have suffered greatly from paramilitary violence ... Prodeco mining companies have supported the paramilitary forces with finance, equipment and information. The mining companies deny any involvement, but those victims of human rights violations who stand up for their rights, are still being threatened." The coal mined by Prodeco is termed "Blood Coal." Pax released a report and included the testimony of victims and the paramilitary that attacked the indigenous population.[55]

Investments in Ecuador

"In Ecuador, the current government has tried to reduce the role played by middlemen such as Glencore with state oil company Petroecuador" due to questions about transparency and follow-through, according to Fernando Villavicencio, a Quito-based oil sector analyst.[17]

Investments in Zambia

According to a Reuters article in 2011 "[O]fficials in Zambia believe pollution from Glencore's Mopani mine is causing acid rain and health problems in an area where 5 million people live."[17] The upgrade of the Mopani Mines asset plant was completed in March 2014 eliminating the emissions of 97 per cent of sulphur dioxide emissions in line with the recommended international standards by the World Health Organisation (WHO).[56] The emissions were reported to exceed the WHO-recommendations by a factor of 70 up to 2013.[57] The emissions now exceed the recommendations by 3% of 70 = 210%.[lower-alpha 1]

In January 2019, a delegation from the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs under the leadership of Ignazio Cassis made a controversial visit to the Mopani Copper Mines that also produce cobalt ores. The Swiss government had previously issued human rights guidelines for firms operating in the commodity sector, which is of strategic importance to both countries. The visit was heavily criticized by Amnesty International and Swiss watchdog groups while the federal councilor defended his stance, pointing out the modernization of production facilities, improved health care and better training for young workers.[58][59]

Investments in Brazil

In June 2018 Glencore purchased a 78% stake in Ale Combustíveis S.A., a Brazilian fuel distribution company. Through Ale Glencore aimed to expand its fuel distribution network by forging agreements with unbranded gas stations.[60]

Investments in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The company's Luilu copper refinery uses acid to extract the copper. For three years after taking over the mine, it continued to allow the waste acid to flow into a river. The chief executive, Ivan Glasenberg, was interviewed for Panorama by John Sweeney and said 'It was impossible to remedy any way faster'[61] Glencore said the pollution started long before the company took over the refinery and that it has now ended.[61] A reporter for The Guardian found children as young as ten years underground at the Tilwezembe mine, which the company had said in a 2008 prospectus that it had closed due to falling copper prices. Prices rebounded later. CEO Glasenberg said the company does not profit from child labor, and the child miners went with artisanal mining by nearby residents that Glencore was trying to prevent. But Panorama tracked a shipment of copper from the mine to Groupe Bazano plant and from that plant to a Glencore smelter in Zambia.[62]

Glencore was also accused of acquiring illicit "conflict minerals"[63] In a detailed letter sent to Global Witness, the company denied any wrongdoing.[63]

Glencore acquired stakes in the Kansuki mine in Congo's southern Katanga Province in 2012. According to Global Witness, Congo's government transferred a 75% stake in Kansuki mine in secret and at vastly undervalued prices in July 2010 to a company in which Dan Gertler, who is a close friend of President Joseph Kabila, has an interest. Just a month later, in August 2010, Glencore took half the shares of the company that acquired that 75% stake, becoming the operator of the mine. Glencore is financing the entire development of the Kansuki mine, thereby carrying the costs for the other partner companies, which are associated with Mr Gertler.[64] Glencore said at the time "During the period when these transactions took place, Glencore had decided in general not to increase its shareholdings in DRC projects."[65]

Glencore acquired a 50% share in SAMREF Congo SPRL in 2007, a Congolese-registered company holding 80% of the Mutanda Mine.[66] According to Global Witness, SAMREF recommended on 1 March 2011 that Congo's state-run company Gécamines, holding the other 20% of the Mutanda Mine, sell this share to an entity also associated with Dan Gertler and went on to question the links between Glencore and Dan Gertler.[67] Glencore has been designated operator of the Mutanda Mine.[64] Glencore has responded a number of times to Global Witness regarding these allegations.[68]

In March 2018, it was reported that Glencore would sell one third (13,800 tonnes) of its cobalt output to China's battery recycler GEM. 18,000 tonnes are to be sold in 2019, and 21,000 in 2020. During the FT Commodities Global Summit in Lausanne, Switzerland, CEO Glasenberg stated "if cobalt falls into the hands of the Chinese, yeah you won’t see EVs being produced in Europe etc." Yet, Glasenberg then said that he was prepared to sell DRC cobalt mines to China if the price was good. Concurrently, a Chinese take-over of some of the mines became a real possibility due to a legal dispute about royalty payments to Gertler and Gécamines.[69] The DRC supplies 60% of the world's cobalt ore, while China produces more than 80% of the world’s refined cobalt.[70] In December 2018, Bloomberg reported that the Chinese battery firm GEM withdrew from its purchase contract with the commodities trader due to a price crash and oversupply of cobalt ore and recycled sources. In November 2018, export stopped due to uranium contamination at the Kamoto Project; the company planned to fix this with a 25 million USD ion-exchange refining plant.[71]

In a June 2018 "debt-for equity swap",[72] Glencore's Katanga Mining Ltd. agreed to a recapitalization plan involving a US$5.6 billion debt write-off and a $150 million payment to the Congolese state mining company Gécamines. According to company sources, Gertler will receive a royalty of about 25 million euros in 2018.[73]

Later in June 2018, Glencore also announced that it had resumed paying royalties to Gertler's Ventora Development in unpaid and future royalties from the subsidiaries Mutanda Mining ($695 million) and Kamoto Copper Co ($2.28 billion). Gertler had sued Glencore in a Congolese court after payments stopped when he was sanctioned by the U.S. government in December 2017. The mines produce copper and cobalt, needed for lithium-ion batteries in mobile devices and electric vehicles. Glencore and Gertler were in a legal dispute, threatening the strategic supply of the metals and ownership of the mining entities. Glencore paid the royalties in a currency other than dollars to skirt sanctions, and discussed the deal with Swiss and U.S. authorities. Glencore also settled a dispute involving the Kamoto copper and cobalt mine, but differences remain about tax and royalty payment.[74]

In July 2018, the DRC enforced a new mining code, which forced Glencore to pay higher taxes. In response, the company began talks with the Congolese government. In August, CEO Glasberg announced that Glencore was considering legal action.[75]

Western Sahara

In 2013 and 2014, a subsidiary of Glencore Xstrata was awarded two offshore drilling licences off the coast of occupied Western Sahara. The licences are awarded in clear violation of international law, as described by the UN in 2002.[76]

Paradise Papers

On 5 November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Glencore loaned $45 million to Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler in exchange for his help with officials of the Democratic Republic of Congo in negotiations over a joint venture with state-owned Gécamines at the Katanga copper mine, in which one of the board members was Glencore major shareholder Telis Mistakidis. Glencore, which had effectively taken over Katanga, agreed to vote for the joint venture. The loan document specifically provided that repayment would be owed if agreement was not reached within three months. Gertler and Glencore have denied wrongdoing. Appleby had worked for Glencore and its founder Marc Rich on major projects in the past, even after his indictment in 1983.[77][78] Rich was indicted in the United States on federal charges of tax evasion and making controversial oil deals with Iran during the Iran hostage crisis.[79] He received a controversial presidential pardon from U.S. President Bill Clinton on 20 January 2001, Clinton's last day in office.[80]

The Australian branch of Glencore has been demonstrated to have carried out some $25 billion in cross-currency interest rate swaps, complex financial instruments the Australian Taxation Office suspects of being used to avoid paying taxes in Australia.[81] Glencore is also a co-owner of large coal freighters fleet SwissMarine.[82]

Reactions to U.S. Sanctions

In April 2018, the company started to limit its exposure to Oleg Deripaska by canceling the plan to swap an 8.75 percent stake in aluminum producer United Co. Rusal for shares in another one of Deripaska’s companies, London-listed En+ Group Plc. The commodities trader also announced that Chief Executive Officer Ivan Glasenberg had resigned from Rusal’s board.[83] However, it received some of Deripaska's shares in Rusal under an agreement between Deripaska and the US Treasury Department that reduced Deripaska's influence over the aluminum producer in return for the removal of his name from the sanctions list.[84]

Investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice

On 3 July 2018, the company announced that it received a subpoena from the U.S. Department of Justice "to produce documents and other records with respect to compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and United States money laundering statutes". The requested documents relate to the Glencore Group’s business in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Venezuela from 2007 to present.[85] In May 2018, Bloomberg reported that Britain's Serious Fraud Office may also open a bribery investigation into Glencore's dealing with Dan Gertler and DRC President Joseph Kabila.[86]

U.S. Commodities Futures Trading Commission investigation

In April 2019 the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission notified the company of an investigation into whether the company violated parts of the Commodity Exchange Act, or regulations concerning corrupt practices related to commodities.[87]

Financial data

Financial data in USD billions[88]
Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Revenue 232.694 221.073 170.497 152.948 205.476 219.754
Net Income −7.298 2.444 −8.114 −1.187 5.162 2.616
Assets 154.932 152.205 128.485 124.600 135.593 128.672
Employees 190,000 181,349 156,468 154,832 145,977 158,000


In May 2014 the company announced it would close its underground Newlands coal mine in Queensland, Australia in late 2015. The mine, begun in 1983, produced 2.8 million tonnes of thermal coal in 2013. The company had earlier suspended operations at its Ravensworth underground mine following falling coal prices, escalating production costs, and a higher Australian dollar. [89][90][91]

In February 2019, Glencore announced it would reduce production at one of its biggest copper and cobalt mines operations in Congo.[92] The country's Mutanda mine produced 199,000 tons of copper and 27,000 tons of cobalt in 2018, accounting for roughly one-fifth of global cobalt production. The production curbs are likely temporary, as the company is exploring new mining techniques for the site.[92]


Glencore engages political lobbyists in various jurisdictions where it has interests. In South Australia, the company is represented by Capital Hill Advisory.[93]

On 6 March 2019, it was revealed by The Guardian Australia that Glencore, aided by consulting firm CT Group, had engaged in a large-scale, globally coordinated lobbying campaign to promote coal use "by undermining environmental activists, influencing politicians and spreading sophisticated pro-coal messaging on social media."[94] The campaign was started in 2017 and ran until 2019, when it was shut down in February, according to Glencore.[94]

Board of directors

As of October 2014:[95]


  1. The article cited states that (i) 3% (100%-97%) of the sulfur-dioxid still passes through the filters and (ii) that the total amount before the filter is 7000% of the WHO-recommendation. As 3% x 7000% is 210%, the emissions are over twice the recommendation.


  1. "Annual Report 2018" (PDF). Glencore. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  2.; annual report.
  3. "Glencore finishes takeover of Xstrata". Financial Times. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  4. "Glencore Xstrata". Fortune Global 500. 2013.
  5. "Glencore: Taking over the world?". Aljazeera – Counting the Cost. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  6. Pidd, Helen; Glaister, Dan; Smith, David; Cobain, Ian (19 May 2011). "The rise of Glencore, the biggest company you've never heard of". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  7. "Glencore's share of global commodity markets". The Telegraph. London. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  8. "Glencore's shares flat on first conditional trading day". BBC News. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  9. "Glencore jumps into FTSE 100". The Independent. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  10. Thomas, Denny (25 May 2011). "Glencore's Hong Kong shares down 2.8 pct on trading debut". Reuters. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  11. "Glencore widens investment appeal". FT. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  12. "An Ivan for an Igor: Glencore stuns the oil-trading business with a deal to take a big stake in Rosneft". The Economist. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  13. Stephen Long (11 February 2005). "Swiss link undermines Xstrata's bid for WMC". ABC Radio. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  14. Kishan, Saijel and Casey, Simon (31 July 2007). "Glencore parries attacks on secrecy as debt rises". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 February 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0.
  16. Leigh, David (16 September 2009). "Inside Trafigura: Accusations, sour deals and friends in high places". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
  17. Onstad, Eric; Laura MacInnis; Quentin Webb (25 February 2011). "The biggest company you never heard of". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  18. "Glencore's trading rivals fact box". Reuters. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  19. "Glencore Buys Out Founder". The New York Times. 10 November 1994. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  20. Peter Koenig (25 September 2005). "Secretive Swiss trader links City to Iraq oil scam". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  21. Allen-Mills, Tony (17 June 2008). "Congo sapped of riches as Denis menaces Boulevard Saint-Germain". The Australian. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  22. Pagnamenta, Robin (7 November 2007). "Nikanor and Katanga Mining merge to create $3.3bn African giant". The London Times. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  23. Onstad, Eric; Laura MacInnis; Quentin Webb (25 February 2011). "The biggest company you never heard of". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  24. "Glencore flotation values company at about $61bn". BBC News. 4 May 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  25. White, Garry (5 May 2011). "Glencore float will create five new billionaires". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  26. "Retail investors stay away from Glencore's flotation". London Evening Standard. United Kingdom. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  27. "Xstrata falls after Glencore results raise earnings doubts". Financial Times. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  28. "Tax evasion in Zambia: Five NGOs file an OECD complaint against Glencore International AG and First Quantum Minerals for violation of OECD guidelines". Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  29. Ford, Liz (15 April 2011). "Mining firm under fire over tax payments in Zambia". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  30. Keane, Bernard (18 April 2011). "Glencore and the cautionary tale of Zambia". Crikey.
  31. "Glencore denies allegations over copper mine tax". The Guardian. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  32. "Glencore comments on Mopani tax payments" (PDF). Glencore. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  33. "Pilot audit report – Mopani Copper Mines plc" (PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  34. Chad Bray (29 September 2015). "Glencore Shares Recover a Bit After Plunging Monday". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  35. Stanley Reed (1 October 2015). "Glencore Isn't Out of the Woods Yet". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  36. Lesova, Polya, "Commodities giant Glencore readies landmark IPO: Listing may value firm at ,0 billion, give it cash for acquisitions", MarketWatch, 13 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  37. "Glencore ist größtes Privatunternehmen Europas". Handelsblatt (in German). 16 August 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  38. Spain, William, "5 risky stocks with big potential payoffs", MarketWatch, 27 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  39. "Glencore $11 billion IPO to make billionaires of bosses". Reuters. 4 May 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  40. MacLellan, Kylie; Barreto, Elzio (4 May 2011). "Glencore $11 billion IPO to make billionaires of bosses". London. Reuters.
  41. "Aabar Investments intends to invest a total of $1.0 billion in Glencore's IPO and will be the largest cornerstone investor in the company" (PDF). United Arab Emirates: Aabar Investments. May 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  42. "Abu Dhabi's Aabar writes down Glencore stake". Mining Weekly. Reuters. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  43. Peter Koenig (25 September 2005). "Secretive Swiss trader links City to Iraq oil scam". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  44. Schärer, Alex (13 December 2001). "Die Erben des Marc Rich" (in German). WochenZeitung. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  45. See also Xstrata: Investor disclosure Archived 4 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 October 2006
  46. Kayakiran, Firat; Riseborough, Jesse (7 February 2012). "Glencore Agrees to Buy Xstrata for $62B in Shares". Bloomberg.
  47. "Xstrata gives cautious blessing to $33 billion Glencore bid". Reuters.
  48. Rebecca Marston (1 October 2012). "Glencore and Xstrata: How much power would they have?". BBC News.
  49. "Glencore, Xstrata profits down as impairments bite". London, UK. Reuters. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  50. "Glencore drops Xstrata". The Australian. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  51. Xstrata/Glencore Have to Get On Without CFO Trevor Reid Archived 22 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine CFO Insight Magazine. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012
  52. Frank Garbely; Mauro Losa (29 June 2006). "Paradis fiscal, enfer social" (in French). Télévision Suisse Romande. Retrieved 22 October 2006.
  53. "Panorama questions over Glencore mines". BBC. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  54. "Glencore response to BBC Panorama Broadcast" (PDF). Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  55. "Stop Blood Coal – Peace organisation PAX". Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  56. "Mopani completes smelter upgrade project". UK Zambians. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  57. "Clean Air: Privilege, Not a Right in Mufulira, Zambia". The World Mind. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  58. "Swiss diplomacy chief begins Africa tour with Glencore mine visit". Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  59. Glencore macht Cassis zur Werbefigur - und der findets ok (in German). Blick. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  60. Samora, Roberto. "Glencore seeks to grow Brazil fuel distribution unit - Ale CEO". U.K. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  61. "Glencore linked to acid waterfall in DR Congo". BBC News. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  62. John Sweeney (14 April 2012). "Mining giant Glencore accused in child labour and acid dumping row". Guardian.
  63. Matthews, C.M. (9 May 2012). "Glencore Accused of Opaque Dealing in Congo". The Wall Street Journal.
  64. "Secrecy Surrounding Glencore's Buisiness Deals in the Democratic Republic of Congo" (PDF). Global Witness. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  65. "Mining firms face scrutiny over Congo deals". The Guardian. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  66. "Company Overview of SAMREF Congo SPRL". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  67. "Global Witness Q&A on Glencore in the Democratic Republic of Congo". Gobal Witness. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  68. "Glencore response to Global Witness" (PDF). Glencore. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  69. Julia Payne, Dmitry Zhdannikov (20 March 2018). "Chinese control of cobalt supply is risk for car industry: Glencore". Reuters Commodities. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  70. D. Ford (March 2018). "China’s GEM Locks Up Large Share of Hot Commodity: Cobalt" ElectronicDesign Markets - Automotive. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  71. Desai, Pratima & Daly, Tom (December 2018). Exclusive: Chinese battery firm halts purchases of cobalt from Glencore - sources. Reuters Business News. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  72. Hume, Neil "Glencore writes off $5.6bn to end DRC dispute", Financial Times, June 12, 2018. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  73. Glencore settles with Gertler over Congo royalties (14 June 2018). Reuters Business News. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  74. "Glencore settles with Gertler over Congo royalties". Reuters. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  75. Editorial, Reuters. "Glencore says mining industry considers legal action on new DRC..." U.S. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  76. "Glencore with 2 licences off occupied Western Sahara". Western Sahara Resource Watch. 23 October 2014.
  77. Ben Doherty; Oliver Zihlmann (5 November 2017). "Revealed: Glencore's secret loan to secure DRC mining rights". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  78. Bastian Obermayer; Edouard Perrin; Frederik Obermaier; Oliver Zihlmann; Petra Blum; Will Fitzgibbon (5 November 2017). "Room Of Secrets Reveals Glencore's Mysteries: Law firm's internal files reveal oil, mineral and grain trader Glencore signed secret deals and loaned millions to a high-risk business partner". ICIJ. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  79. Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin‘s Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0.
  80. Honigsbaum, Mark (13 May 2001). "Profile: Marc Rich | From the Observer | The Observer". The Guardian. London: GMG. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  81. Ben Doherty (5 November 2017). "Glencore's Australian Arm moved Billions Through Bermuda: Paradise Papers reveal use of cross-currency interest rate swaps, which are under investigation by the tax office". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  82. "The ships Glencore wanted to keep 'hush hush' - ICIJ". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  83. Glencore Cancels Rusal Share Swap as Glasenberg Leaves Board. Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  85. "Subpoena from United States Department of Justice". Glencore Media News. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  86. "Swiss mining giant Glencore may face UK probe over Congo deals". AFP news Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  87. Jack Farchy; Elena Mazneva (25 April 2019). "Glencore Faces New Corruption Investigation With CFTC Probe". Bloomberg. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  88. "Glencore Bilanz, Gewinn und Umsatz | Glencore Geschäftsbericht | A1JAGV". Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  89. "Glencore to close Newlands coal mine". Australian Mining. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  90. "Newlands coal mine in Australia to be shut, says Glencore". Australian News.Net. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  91. Cole Latimer (27 March 2015). "Glencore to suspend production at Ravensworth underground coal mine". Australian Mining. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  92. Patterson, Scott (19 February 2019). "Glencore to Cut Production at Major Copper, Cobalt Mine". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  93. "South Australian Register of Lobbyists - CapitalHill Advisory" (PDF). 30 January 2018.
  94. Knaus, Christopher (6 March 2019). "Revealed: Glencore bankrolled covert campaign to prop up coal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  95. "Board of Directors". Glencore. Retrieved 20 November 2014.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.