- An apostrophe-like sign (also known colloquially as a chupchik) placed after a letter:
- A note of cantillation in the reading of the Torah and other Biblical books, taking the form of a curved diagonal stroke placed above a letter.
|cantillation mark||֜ or ֝||הָאָ֜רֶץ|
|compare with apostrophes|
As a diacritic, the Geresh is written immediately after (left of) the letter it modifies. It indicates three sounds native to speakers of modern Hebrew that are common in loan words and slang: [dʒ] as in judge, [ʒ] as in measure and [tʃ] as in church. In transliteration of Arabic, it indicates Arabic phonemes which are usually allophones in modern Hebrew: [ɣ] is distinguished from [r] and [ħ] is distinguished from [χ]. Finally, it indicates other sounds foreign to the phonology modern Hebrew speakers and used exclusively for the transliteration of foreign words: [ð] as in then, [θ] as in thin, [sˤ]; and, in some transliteration systems, also [tˤ], [dˤ] and [ðˤ]. It may be compared to the usage of a following h in various Latin digraphs to form other consonant sounds not supported by the basic Latin alphabet, such as "sh", "th", etc.
Loanwords, slang, foreign names and transliterations
|Loanwords, slang, foreign names, and transliteration of foreign languages|
|Without Geresh||With Geresh|
|ג||gimel||g||[ɡ]||gap||ג׳||gimel with a geresh||j (or g)||[dʒ]||Jupiter, George|
|ז||zayin||z||[z]||zoo||ז׳||zayin with a geresh||g, j||[ʒ]||Jacques, beige, vision|
|צ||tsadi||ts||[ts]||tsunami, cats||צ׳||tsadi with a geresh||ch||[tʃ]||chip|
Transcriptions of Arabic
There are six additional letters in the Arabic alphabet. They are Ṯāʾ, Ḫāʾ, Ḏāl, Ḍād, Ẓāʾ, and Ghayn. Also, some letters have different sounds in Arabic phonology and modern Hebrew phonology, such as Jīm.
|Distinction when transcribing Arabic|
|Without Geresh||With Geresh|
|Symbol||Name||Translit.||Arabic letter||IPA||Example||Symbol||Name||Arabic letter||IPA||Example||Comments|
|ג||gimel||g||Egyptian / Yemeni Jīm (ج)||[ɡ]||good||ג׳||gimel with a geresh||Jīm (ج)||[dʒ]||Al-Jazeera (الجزيرة)||
|ד||dalet||d||Dāl (د)||[d]||door||ד׳||dalet with a geresh||Ḏāl (ذ)||[ð]||Dhu [a]l-Hijjah (ذو الحجة)||
|ח||heth||ẖ / h, ḥ, or h||Ḥaʾ (ح)||[ħ]||Non existent in English, pronounced like an "h" while contracting the pharynx||ח׳||heth with a geresh||Ḫāʾ (ﺥ)||[χ]||Sheikh (شيخ)|
|ת||tav||t||Tāʾ (ت)||[t]||tail||ת׳||tav with a geresh||ṯāʾ (ث)||[θ]||ʿuthman (عثمان)||
|ס||samekh||s||Sīn (س)||[s]||sun||ס׳||samekh with a geresh||Ṣad (ص)||
|ר||resh||r||Rāʾ (ر)||[r]||ר׳||reish with a geresh||Ghayn (غ)||[ɣ]||Abu Ghosh (أَبُو غوش)||Standard simplified: ר׳ and ע׳ however ר׳ is prescribed by the Academy of the Hebrew Language. Another precise prescribed transcription is גֿ; in some cases of established usage a ג with no diacritics is used.|
|The predominant pronunciation is uvular [ʁ, ʀ], therefore resh is spelled without geresh for that pronunciation. Other accentual variants include an alveolar pronunciation [ɾ, r].|
|ע׳||ayin with a geresh|
Transliteration of foreign names
|Distinction when transcribing foreign names|
|Without Geresh||With Geresh|
|ד||dalet||d||[d]||door||ד׳||dalet with a geresh||English voiced th||[ð]||then|
|ת||tav||t||[t]||tail||ת׳||tav with a geresh||English voiceless th||[θ]||thing|
|ו||vav||v||[v]||vote||וו or ו׳
|vav with a geresh
or double vav
- * ^ Both double-vav and vav with geresh are non-standard and so inconsistently used.
Some words or suffixes with Yiddish origin or pronunciation are marked with a geresh, e.g. the diminutive suffix לֶ׳ה – -le, e.g. יענקל׳ה – Yankale (as in Yankale Bodo), or the words חבר׳ה – [ˈχevre], 'guys' (which is the Yiddish pronunciation of Hebrew חברה [χevˈra] 'company'), or תכל׳ס – [ˈtaχles], 'bottom-line'.
In initialisms, the Geresh is written after the last letter of the initialism. For example: the title גְּבֶרֶת (literally "lady") is abbreviated גב׳, equivalent to English "Mrs" and "Ms".
As a note of cantillation in the reading of the Torah, the Geresh is printed above the accented letter: ב֜. The Geresh Muqdam (lit. 'a Geresh made earlier'), a variant cantillation mark, is also printed above the accented letter, but slightly before (i.e. more to the right of) the position of the normal Geresh: ב֝. As a cantillation mark it is also called Ṭères (טֶרֶס).
|׳||U+05F3||HEBREW PUNCTUATION GERESH|
|֜||U+059C||HEBREW ACCENT GERESH|
|֝||U+059D||HEBREW ACCENT GERESH MUQDAM|
Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, §15f
- Even-Shoshan Dictionary, 2003; Shoshana Bahat and Mordechay Mishor, Dictionary of Contemporary Hebrew, 2007.
- Kordova, Shoshana (3 Mar 2013). "Word of the Day / Chupchik צ'וּפְּצִ'יק". Haaretz. Haaretz Daily Newspaper Ltd. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Rules for the transcription of %5b%5bArabic language|Arabic%5d%5d into %5b%5bHebrew language|Hebrew%5d%5d, pp. 5–6 "(Academy of the Hebrew Language)" Check
- "(Academy of the Hebrew Language)" (PDF). Archived from Rules for the transcription of foreign names into %5b%5bHebrew language|Hebrew%5d%5d, pp. 5–6 the original Check
|url=value (help) on 2008-09-10.
- Transliteration Rules Archived 2008-02-28 at the Wayback Machine issued by the Academy of the Hebrew Language state that both [v] and [w] be indistinguishably represented in Hebrew using the letter Vav. Sometimes the Vav is indeed doubled, however not to denote [w] as opposed to [v] but rather, when spelling without niqqud, to denote the phoneme /v/ at a non-initial and non-final position in the word, whereas a single Vav at a non-initial and non-final position in the word in spelling without niqqud denotes one of the phonemes /u/ or /o/. To pronounce foreign words and loanwords containing the sound [w], Hebrew readers must therefore rely on former knowledge and context, see also pronunciation of Hebrew Vav.
- Hebrew Punctuation "(Academy of the Hebrew Language)" Check