The geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its passage from the chin ("genio-" is a standard prefix for "chin") to the hyoid bone.
Anterior view. Geniohyoid muscle labeled at upper center left
|Origin||Inferior mental spine of mandible|
|Artery||Branches of the lingual artery.|
|Nerve||C1 via the hypoglossal nerve|
|Actions||Carry hyoid bone and the tongue upward during deglutition|
|Anatomical terms of muscle|
It arises from the inferior mental spine, on the back of the mandibular symphysis, and runs backward and slightly downward, to be inserted into the anterior surface of the body of the hyoid bone.:346 It lies in contact with its fellow of the opposite side. It thus belongs to the suprahyoid muscles. The muscle is supplied by branches of the lingual artery.
The geniohyoid muscle brings the hyoid bone forward and upwards. This dilates the upper airway, assisting respiration. During the first act of deglutition, when the mass of food is being driven from the mouth into the pharynx, the hyoid bone, and with it the tongue, is carried upward and forward by the anterior bellies of the Digastrici, the Mylohyoidei, and Geniohyoidei. It also assists in depressing the mandible
The inclined position of the geniohyoid muscle has been contrasted to the horizontal position in neanderthals.
- Singh, Inderbir (2009). Essentials of anatomy (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. p. 346. ISBN 978-81-8448-461-8.
- Takahashi, S. (1 December 2002). "Breathing modes, body positions, and suprahyoid muscle activity". Journal of Orthodontics. 29 (4): 307–313. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.514.2998. doi:10.1093/ortho/29.4.307. PMID 12444272.
- Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students (Pbk. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. p. 988. ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2.
- Barney, A.; Martelli, S.; Serrurier, A.; Steele, J. (21 November 2011). "Articulatory capacity of Neanderthals, a very recent and human-like fossil hominin". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 367 (1585): 88–102. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0259. PMC 3223793. PMID 22106429.