General ticket

General ticket representation is voting system, analogous to block voting, but where voters elect parties, not candidates. The parties then select their representatives to fill out elected office.

General ticket systems were used in the US House of Representatives; in France, beginning in the Third Republic; and in Italy.

Use in the United States

For convenience or in order to assure majority control, many states adopted general ticket representation to elect the multiple members of a state delegation to the House of Representatives. In doing so, those states ensured that a group which might be a majority in only a portion of the state would always be outvoted by the larger majority throughout the state. States using this method elected their entire delegation in a statewide manner, either on a single ballot (by means of bloc voting) or on separate ballots for each seat, but always allowing every voter in the state to vote for a candidate for each seat. It was a system used frequently until restricted by the 1842 Apportionment Bill and subsequent legislation, most recently in 1967.[1] After 1842, it has continued to be used in rare instances, typically states with small delegations or admitted to the union since the last census.

The following is a table of every instance of the use of the general ticket in the United States Congress.

Congress Dates State and
number of representatives
1st1789–1791Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3), Pennsylvania (8)
2nd1791–1793Connecticut (5), New Jersey (4), New Hampshire (3)
3rd1793–1795Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Pennsylvania (13), Rhode Island (2)
4th1795–1797Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
5th1797–1799Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
6th1799–1801Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
7th1801–1803Connecticut (7), Georgia (2), New Jersey (5), New Hampshire (4), Rhode Island (2)
8th1803–1805Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2), Tennessee (3)
9th1805–1807Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Jersey (5), Rhode Island (2)
10th1807–1809Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
11th1809–1811Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
12th1811–1813Connecticut (7), Georgia (4), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
13th1813–1815Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
14th1815–1817Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
15th1817–1819Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
16th1819–1821Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (6)
17th1821–1823Connecticut (7), Delaware (2), Georgia (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
18th1823–1825Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2), Vermont (5)
19th1825–1827Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
20th1827–1829Connecticut (6), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
21st1829–1831Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
22nd1831–1833Connecticut (6), Georgia (7), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (6), Rhode Island (2)
23rd1833–1835Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
24th1835–1837Connecticut (6), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), New Hampshire (5), Rhode Island (2)
25th1837–1839New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
26th1839–1841New Hampshire (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
27th1841–1843Alabama (5), Georgia (9), Missouri (2), Mississippi (2), New Hampshire (5), New Jersey (6), Rhode Island (2)
28th1843–1845New Hampshire (4), Georgia (8), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)
29th1845–1847Iowa (2), New Hampshire (4), Missouri (5), Mississippi (4)
30th1847–1849Wisconsin (2)
31st1849–1851California (2)
32nd1851–1853California (2)
33rd1853–1855California (2)
34th1855–1857California (2)
35th1857–1859California (2), Minnesota (2)
36th1859–1861California (2), Minnesota (2)
37th1861–1863California (3), Minnesota (2)
38th to 42nd1863–1873California (3)
43rd to 47th1873–1883Florida (2), Kansas (3)
48th1883–1885Maine (4)
51st1889–1891South Dakota (2)
52nd1891–1893South Dakota (2)
53rd1893–1895South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
54th1895–1897South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
55th1897–1899South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
56th1899–1901South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
57th1901–1903South Dakota (2), Washington (2)
58th1903–1905North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
59th1905–1907North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
60th1907–1909North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2), Washington (3)
61st1909–1911North Dakota (2), South Dakota (2)
62nd1911–1913North Dakota (2), New Mexico (2), South Dakota (2)
63rd1913–1915Idaho (2), Montana (2), UT (2)
64th1915–1917Idaho (2), Montana (2)
65th to 72nd1917–1933Idaho (2), Montana (2)
73rd1933–1935Kentucky (9), Minnesota (9), Missouri (13), North Dakota (2), Virginia (9)
74th1935–1937North Dakota (2)
75th1937–1939North Dakota (2)
76th1939–1941North Dakota (2)
77th1941–1943North Dakota (2)
78th1943–1945Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
79th1945–1947Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
80th1947–1949Arizona (2), New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
81st1949–1951New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
82nd1951–1953New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
83rd1953–1955New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
84th1955–1957New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
85th1957–1959New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
86th1959–1961New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
87th1961–1963New Mexico (2), North Dakota (2)
88th1963–1965Alabama (8), Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
89th1965–1967Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
90th1967–1969Hawaii (2), New Mexico (2)
91st1969–1971Hawaii (2)

French version

The scrutin de liste (Fr. scrutin, voting by ballot, and liste, a list) was, before World War I, a system of election of national representatives in France by which the electors of a department voted for all the deputies to be elected in that department. It was comparable with the general ticket. It was distinguished from the scrutin d'arrondissement, also called scrutin uninominal, under which the electors in each arrondissement voted only for the deputy to be elected in it.[2]

Nowadays, it is used on two-round bases to elect one third of the members of the regional councils, so as to ensure a landslide victory to the party which receives a majority.

Italian version

In Italy, general ticket representation is the system that has been used to elect one fifth of the members of the regional councils since 1995. As in the French version, its goal is to ensure that the assembly is controlled by the leading coalition of parties. Unlike France, it is used on a single round of voting.

See also

References

  1. Public Law 90-196, 2 U.S.C. § 2c)
  2.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Scrutin de Liste". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 487.

Sources

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
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