General Motors Proving Grounds
Desert Proving Ground Yuma
Desert Proving Ground Yuma is a facility co-built and leased by General Motors located within the US Army's Yuma Proving Ground, near Yuma, Arizona. The facility came fully online as of July 2009. The site contains an inner facility sitting on 2,400 acres (970 ha) with a 24-acre (9.7 ha) campus containing 98,000 square feet (9,100 m2) of building area and also has 40 miles (64 km) of roadway. One of the main reasons that this site was chosen was the already imposed no fly zone which helps prevent unwanted photography of pre-production prototypes undergoing testing. The facility is also used by the US Army for their own testing requirements.
Other such features are:
- 3.5 miles (5.6 km) circle track (3 lanes)
- 1.4 miles (2.3 km) straight track (2–3 lanes)
- 3.1 miles (5.0 km) Ride Road (2–4 lanes)
- 1,000 by 1,000 feet (300 m × 300 m) Dynamics Pad
- Interior Noise Road
- Noise Pass-by Facility
- Misc. grades
- 72,000-square-foot (6,700 m2) main building
- Garage (40 hoists)
- Office (120 residents/visitors)
- Product Electronics/Instrumentation Lab
- Alignment/Tire facilities
- Transmission Build Room
- Machine/Fab shop
- Parts Crib
- Warehouse 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2)
- Sundrella (40 hoists)
- Covered parking
- Fuel facility
- Car wash
- Scale House / Ballast Station
Milford Proving Ground
The General Motors Milford Proving Ground was the industry's first dedicated automobile testing facility when it opened in 1924. It is located in Milford, Michigan and covers 4,000 acres (1,600 ha). 4,800 staff work in its 107 buildings today. The proving ground includes the equivalent of 132 miles (212 km) of roads representative of conditions found on public roadways and other specialty surfaces for vehicle testing. Some roads are open only to drivers who have passed special performance driving training. The saying goes that each mile driven on the grounds is the same as 5 miles (8.0 km) in the real world.
- The VDTA ("Vehicle Dynamics Test Area"), also known as "Black Lake", is a 67-acre (270,000 m2) pad of blacktop for vehicle dynamics testing. Waterfowl have been known to try to land on this "lake" of asphalt. At the ends of the VDTA are two semicircle tracks used for accelerating vehicles up to high speed before entering the pad. A controlled low-friction area made of ceramic tiles is on one side of the pad. Another area is coated with the asphalt sealant Jennite and can be watered down to produce a low friction surface.
- The Oval Track is a 3.8 miles (6.1 km) circuit
- The Circle Track encloses the VDTA and is a 4.5 miles (7.2 km) banked circle. It has five lanes posted with speed limits increasing towards the outermost lane. The speed limit for the outermost lane is 100+ MPH (192 km/h). Due to the banking, each lane can be driven at its posted speed all the way around the circle without needing to touch the steering wheel, given proper wheel alignment and tire pressures. The track surface is extremely hard "dolomite" concrete for wear resistance.
- The North/South Straightaway is 6.225 miles (10.018 km) in total length and includes two 2.5 miles (4.0 km) straightaways
- The East/West Straightaway is 3.1 miles (5.0 km) around and includes two 1.2 mi (1.9 km) straightaways
- "Seven Sisters" is a short course featuring seven tight curves, some level, some banked. It is one lane that can be driven in both directions, so only one car is allowed on the course at a time. This is used for testing vehicles under transient lateral acceleration loads.
- 12 Mile Road is a straight section of pavement which duplicates the historical surface texture of a section of 12 Mile Road near Detroit.
- The Ride and Handling loop is enclosed by the Circle Track and has varied surfaces and turns.
- The Vehicle Safety & Crashworthiness Lab includes a recently added rollover test facility.
Cupuán Proving Ground
General Motors Proving Ground Cupuan del Rio is situated between Lázaro Cárdenas and Uruapan, Michoacán, Mexico. The facility opened in 2006 and features a circle track, several off-road courses, and is primarily used for testing HVAC systems.
As of 2011 the grounds are mostly abandoned, and only a local security staff remains. This is due to the volatile, potentially unsafe situation in the region and the access routes to/from Cupuán.
Cruz Alta Proving Ground, Brazil
General Motors Cruz Alta Proving Ground at Indaiatuba, Brazil
- Founded in 1974
- Proving Ground facilities
- It is the largest and most comprehensive proving ground in Latin America, and the second largest in the General Motors Corporation. It comprises the most advanced test tracks, which precisely replicate the most varied and demanding road conditions.
- GM do Brasil is committed to the preservation of forests and the animal species that live there. Cruz Alta Proving Ground for example, has test roads and tracks that sit amid a forest reserve of 4,600,000 square meters (50,000,000 sq ft), including 22,270,000 square meters (239,700,000 sq ft) of reforested trees. The Proving Ground also features 100,000 square meters (1,100,000 sq ft) of Atlantic Forest original vegetation; 10,000 planted fruit trees and more than 1,000,000 square meters (11,000,000 sq ft) of lawns. In addition, GM do Brasil recently partnered with IBAMA, the Brazilian Environment Protection Agency, to monitor the abundant proliferation of capybaras at that location.
Opel operates a proving ground near Dudenhofen, Germany , opened in 1964. Facilities include a 4.8 kilometers (3.0 mi) high-speed circuit, a 900 meters (980 yd) section of Belgian pavé and a hill circuit with gradients up to 30%.
Lang Lang Proving Ground
It was opened in 1957 by Holden on a 2,152 acre site off the Bass Highway. It has been used to test every Holden model from the Holden FC onwards. It is a dedicated 877-hectare site with 44 kilometers (27 mi) of road systems, including a 4.7 kilometers (2.9 mi) 4 lane circular track (speed bowl), 5.5 kilometers (3.4 mi) and handling course, a 1.8 kilometers (1.1 mi) noise road and 98 meters (107 yd) diameter skid pan. It is also equipped with an Emissions Laboratory and Safety Test Facility with crash barrier and hyge sled.
Proposed / Closed Proving Grounds Facilities
Mezcala Proving Ground
GM's proposed facility at Mezcala, Mexico was terminated in the planning phase due to breakdown in land negotiations. The facility was to take over Desert Proving Ground tasks when GM announced DPG's closing in 2000. DPG is still operating as of late 2008. Soon to be closed and replaced with the new facility in Yuma, Arizona.
Desert (Mesa) Proving Ground
GM Desert Proving Ground in Mesa, Arizona, USA was a General Motors facility for the testing of HVAC, propulsion, and various automotive systems in a harsh climate. Opened in 1953, the closure of this facility was completed in 2009. It was replaced by a new facility in Yuma, Arizona, known as the Desert Proving Ground Yuma.
- "GMTC - MPG Facts & Figures". General Motors. Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-10-03.
- Lang Lang Proving Ground Holden
- Vehicle Proving Ground in Vic Truck & Bus Transportation July 1956 page 51
- GM and Partners Open China’s Largest Proving Ground
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