G minor

G minor is a minor scale based on G, consisting of the pitches G, A, B, C, D, E, and F. Its key signature has two flats. Its relative major is B-flat major and its parallel major is G major.

G minor
Relative keyB-flat major
Parallel keyG major
Dominant keyD minor
SubdominantC minor
Component pitches
G, A, B, C, D, E, F

The G natural minor scale is:

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The G harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

Mozart's use of G minor

G minor has been considered the key through which Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart best expressed sadness and tragedy,[1] and many of his minor key works are in G minor, such as the Piano Quartet No. 1 and the String Quintet in G minor. Though Mozart touched on various minor keys in his symphonies, G minor is the only minor key he used as a main key for his numbered symphonies (No. 25, and the famous No. 40). In the Classical period, symphonies in G minor almost always used four horns, two in G and two in B alto.[2] Another convention of G minor symphonies observed in Mozart's No. 25 and Mozart's No. 40 was the choice of E-flat major, the subdominant of the relative major B, for the slow movement, with other examples including Joseph Haydn's No. 39 and Johann Baptist Wanhal's G-minor symphony from before 1771.[3]

Notable works in G minor

Notable songs

See also


  1. Hellmut Federhofer, foreword to the Bärenreiter Urtext edition of Mozart's Piano Quartet in G minor. "G-Moll war für Mozart zeitlebens die Schicksaltonart, die ihm für den Ausdruck des Schmerzes und der Tragik am geeignetsten erschien." ("G minor was, for Mozart, the most suitable fate-key throughout his life for the expression of pain and tragedy.")
  2. H. C. Robbins Landon, Mozart and Vienna. New York: Schirmer Books (1991): 48. "Writing for four horns was a regular part of the Sturm und Drang G minor equipment." Robbins Landon also notes that Mozart's No. 40 was first intended to have four horns.
  3. James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, Elements of Sonata Theory (Oxford University Press: 2006) p. 328
  4. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0044034
  5. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0177083
  6. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0049951
  7. Billie, O'Connell; Finneas, O'Connell; Billie, Eilish (February 1, 2019). "bury a friend". Musicnotes.com.
  8. Billie, O'Connell; Finneas, O'Connell; Billie, Eilish (April 1, 2019). "bad guy". Musicnotes.com.
  9. Christopher, Brown; Morten, Jensen; Lukas, Forchhammer; Stefan, Forrest; Morten, Pilegaard; David, Labrel; Graham, Lukas (November 27, 2015). "7 Years". Musicnotes.com.
  10. Gustav, Ahr; Dylan, Mullen; Jonathan, Shave; George, Astasio; Jason, Pebworth; Hank, Solo; Piano, Grim Cat; Peep, Lil (November 13, 2018). "Life Is Beautiful". Musicnotes.com.
  11. https://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0167875
  12. "Sippy Cup". Musicnotes.com. September 26, 2016.
  13. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0042498
  14. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0095531
  15. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0109608
  16. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0088922
  17. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0088920
  • Media related to G minor at Wikimedia Commons
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