G12/G13 alpha subunits

G12/G13 alpha subunits are alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins that link cell surface G protein-coupled receptors primarily to guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho small GTPases to regulate the actin cytoskeleton.[1] Together, these two proteins comprise one of the four classes of G protein alpha subunits.[2] G protein alpha subunits bind to guanine nucleotides and function in a regulatory cycle, and are active when bound to GTP but inactive and associated with the G beta-gamma complex when bound to GDP.[3][4] G12/G13 are not targets of pertussis toxin or cholera toxin, as are other classes of G protein alpha subunits.[5]

guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) alpha 12
NCBI gene2768
Other data
LocusChr. 7 p22.3
guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), alpha 13
NCBI gene10672
Other data
LocusChr. 17 q24

G proteins G12 and G13 regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling in cells during movement and migration, including cancer cell metastasis.[6] G13 is also essential for receptor tyrosine kinase-induced migration of fibroblast and endothelial cells.[7]


See also


  1. Dhanasekaran N, Dermott JM (1996). "Signaling by the G12 class of G proteins". Cell. Signal. 8 (4): 235–45. doi:10.1016/0898-6568(96)00048-4. PMID 8842523.
  2. Strathmann MP, Simon MI (1991). "G alpha 12 and G alpha 13 subunits define a fourth class of G protein alpha subunits". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (13): 5582–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.13.5582. PMC 51921. PMID 1905812.
  3. Gilman, AG (1987). "G proteins: transducers of receptor-generated signals". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 56: 615–649. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.56.070187.003151. PMID 3113327.
  4. Rodbell, M (1995). "Nobel Lecture: Signal transduction: Evolution of an idea". Bioscience Reports. 15 (3): 117–133. doi:10.1007/bf01207453. PMID 7579038.
  5. Harhammer R, Nürnberg B, Harteneck C, Leopoldt D, Exner T, Schultz G (1996). "Distinct biochemical properties of the native members of the G12 G-protein subfamily. Characterization of G alpha 12 purified from rat brain". Biochem. J. 319. ( Pt 1): 165–71. PMC 1217750. PMID 8870664.
  6. Wang D, Tan YC, Kreitzer GE, Nakai Y, Shan D, Zheng Y, Huang XY (2006). "G proteins G12 and G13 control the dynamic turnover of growth factor-induced dorsal ruffles". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (43): 32660–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M604588200. PMID 16943201.
  7. Shan D, Chen L, Wang D, Tan YC, Gu JL, Huang XY (2006). "The G protein G alpha(13) is required for growth factor-induced cell migration". Dev. Cell. 10 (6): 707–18. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2006.03.014. PMID 16740474.
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