Gödel Prize

The Gödel Prize is an annual prize for outstanding papers in the area of theoretical computer science, given jointly by European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (EATCS) and the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computational Theory (ACM SIGACT). The award is named in honor of Kurt Gödel. Gödel's connection to theoretical computer science is that he was the first to mention the "P versus NP" question, in a 1956 letter to John von Neumann in which Gödel asked whether a certain NP-complete problem could be solved in quadratic or linear time.[1]

The Gödel Prize has been awarded since 1993. The prize is awarded either at STOC (ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, one of the main North American conferences in theoretical computer science) or ICALP (International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, one of the main European conferences in the field). To be eligible for the prize, a paper must be published in a refereed journal within the last 14 (formerly 7) years. The prize includes a reward of US$5000.[2]

The winner of the Prize is selected by a committee of six members. The EATCS President and the SIGACT Chair each appoint three members to the committee, to serve staggered three-year terms. The committee is chaired alternately by representatives of EATCS and SIGACT.


Year Name(s) Notes Publication year
1993László Babai, Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, Shlomo Moran, and Charles Rackofffor the development of interactive proof systems1988,[paper 1] 1989[paper 2]
1994Johan Håstadfor an exponential lower bound on the size of constant-depth Boolean circuits (for the parity function).1989[paper 3]
1995Neil Immerman and Róbert Szelepcsényifor the Immerman–Szelepcsényi theorem regarding nondeterministic space complexity1988,[paper 4] 1988[paper 5]
1996Mark Jerrum and Alistair Sinclairfor work on Markov chains and the approximation of the permanent of a matrix1989,[paper 6] 1989[paper 7]
1997Joseph Halpern and Yoram Mosesfor defining a formal notion of "knowledge" in distributed environments1990[paper 8]
1998Seinosuke Todafor Toda's theorem which showed a connection between counting solutions (PP) and alternation of quantifiers (PH)1991[paper 9]
1999Peter Shorfor Shor's algorithm for factoring numbers in polynomial time on a quantum computer1997[paper 10]
2000Moshe Y. Vardi and Pierre Wolperfor work on temporal logic with finite automata1994[paper 11]
2001Sanjeev Arora, Uriel Feige, Shafi Goldwasser, Carsten Lund, László Lovász, Rajeev Motwani, Shmuel Safra, Madhu Sudan, and Mario Szegedyfor the PCP theorem and its applications to hardness of approximation1996,[paper 12] 1998,[paper 13] 1998[paper 14]
2002Géraud Sénizerguesfor proving that equivalence of deterministic pushdown automata is decidable2001[paper 15]
2003Yoav Freund and Robert Schapirefor the AdaBoost algorithm in machine learning1997[paper 16]
2004Maurice Herlihy, Michael Saks, Nir Shavit and Fotios Zaharogloufor applications of topology to the theory of distributed computing1999,[paper 17] 2000[paper 18]
2005Noga Alon, Yossi Matias and Mario Szegedyfor their foundational contribution to streaming algorithms1999[paper 19]
2006Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, Nitin Saxenafor the AKS primality test2004[paper 20]
2007Alexander Razborov, Steven Rudichfor natural proofs1997[paper 21]
2008Daniel Spielman, Shanghua Tengfor smoothed analysis of algorithms2004[paper 22]
2009Omer Reingold, Salil Vadhan, Avi Wigdersonfor zig-zag product of graphs and undirected connectivity in log space2002,[paper 23] 2008[paper 24]
2010Sanjeev Arora, Joseph S. B. Mitchellfor their concurrent discovery of a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem (ETSP)1998,[paper 25]

1999[paper 26]

2011Johan Håstadfor proving optimal inapproximability result for various combinatorial problems2001[paper 27]
2012Elias Koutsoupias, Christos Papadimitriou, Noam Nisan, Amir Ronen, Tim Roughgarden and Éva Tardosfor laying the foundations of algorithmic game theory[3]2009,[paper 28] 2002,[paper 29] 2001[paper 30]
2013Dan Boneh, Matthew K. Franklin, and Antoine Jouxfor multi-party Diffie–Hellman key exchange and the Boneh–Franklin scheme in cryptography[4]2003,[paper 31]

2004[paper 32]

2014Ronald Fagin, Amnon Lotem, and Moni Naorfor Optimal Aggregation Algorithms for Middleware[5]2003,[paper 33]
2015Daniel Spielman, Shanghua Teng for their series of papers on nearly-linear-time Laplacian solvers[6]

2011[paper 34] 2013[paper 35] 2014[paper 36]

2016 Stephen Brookes and Peter W. O'Hearn for their invention of Concurrent Separation Logic 2007[paper 37], 2007[paper 38]
2017[2] Cynthia Dwork, Frank McSherry, Kobbi Nissim, and Adam D. Smith for the invention of differential privacy 2006[paper 39]
2018[7] Oded Regev for introducing the Learning with errors problem 2009[paper 40]
2019[8] Irit Dinur for her new proof of the PCP theorem by gap amplification 2007[paper 41]

Winning papers

  1. Babai, László; Moran, Shlomo (1988), "Arthur-Merlin games: a randomized proof system, and a hierarchy of complexity class" (PDF), Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 36 (2): 254–276, doi:10.1016/0022-0000(88)90028-1, ISSN 0022-0000
  2. Goldwasser, S.; Micali, S.; Rackoff, C. (1989), "The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 18 (1): 186–208, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1137/0218012, ISSN 1095-7111
  3. Håstad, Johan (1989), "Almost Optimal Lower Bounds for Small Depth Circuits" (PDF), in Micali, Silvio (ed.), Randomness and Computation, Advances in Computing Research, 5, JAI Press, pp. 6–20, ISBN 978-0-89232-896-3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-22
  4. Immerman, Neil (1988), "Nondeterministic space is closed under complementation" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 17 (5): 935–938, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1137/0217058, ISSN 1095-7111
  5. Szelepcsényi, R. (1988), "The method of forced enumeration for nondeterministic automata" (PDF), Acta Informatica, 26 (3): 279–284, doi:10.1007/BF00299636, hdl:10338.dmlcz/120489
  6. Sinclair, A.; Jerrum, M. (1989), "Approximate counting, uniform generation and rapidly mixing Markov chains", Information and Computation, 82 (1): 93–133, doi:10.1016/0890-5401(89)90067-9, ISSN 0890-5401
  7. Jerrum, M.; Sinclair, Alistair (1989), "Approximating the permanent", SIAM Journal on Computing, 18 (6): 1149–1178, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1137/0218077, ISSN 1095-7111
  8. Halpern, Joseph; Moses, Yoram (1990), "Knowledge and common knowledge in a distributed environment" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 37 (3): 549–587, arXiv:cs/0006009, doi:10.1145/79147.79161
  9. Toda, Seinosuke (1991), "PP is as hard as the polynomial-time hierarchy" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 20 (5): 865–877, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1137/0220053, ISSN 1095-7111
  10. Shor, Peter W. (1997), "Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 26 (5): 1484–1509, arXiv:quant-ph/9508027, doi:10.1137/S0097539795293172, ISSN 1095-7111
  11. Vardi, Moshe Y.; Wolper, Pierre (1994), "Reasoning about infinite computations" (PDF), Information and Computation, 115 (1): 1–37, doi:10.1006/inco.1994.1092, ISSN 0890-5401, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-25
  12. Feige, Uriel; Goldwasser, Shafi; Lovász, Laszlo; Safra, Shmuel; Szegedy, Mario (1996), "Interactive proofs and the hardness of approximating cliques" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 43 (2): 268–292, doi:10.1145/226643.226652, ISSN 0004-5411
  13. Arora, Sanjeev; Safra, Shmuel (1998), "Probabilistic checking of proofs: a new characterization of NP" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 45 (1): 70–122, doi:10.1145/273865.273901, ISSN 0004-5411, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10
  14. Arora, Sanjeev; Lund, Carsten; Motwani, Rajeev; Sudan, Madhu; Szegedy, Mario (1998), "Proof verification and the hardness of approximation problems" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 45 (3): 501–555, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1145/278298.278306, ISSN 0004-5411, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10
  15. Sénizergues, Géraud (2001), "L(A) = L(B)? decidability results from complete formal systems", Theor. Comput. Sci., 251 (1): 1–166, doi:10.1016/S0304-3975(00)00285-1, ISSN 0304-3975
  16. Freund, Y.; Schapire, R.E. (1997), "A decision-theoretic generalization of on-line learning and an application to boosting" (PDF), Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 55 (1): 119–139, doi:10.1006/jcss.1997.1504, ISSN 1090-2724
  17. Herlihy, Maurice; Shavit, Nir (1999), "The topological structure of asynchronous computability" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 46 (6): 858–923, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1145/331524.331529. Gödel prize lecture
  18. Saks, Michael; Zaharoglou, Fotios (2000), "Wait-free k-set agreement is impossible: The topology of public knowledge", SIAM Journal on Computing, 29 (5): 1449–1483, doi:10.1137/S0097539796307698
  19. Alon, Noga; Matias, Yossi; Szegedy, Mario (1999), "The space complexity of approximating the frequency moments" (PDF), Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 58 (1): 137–147, doi:10.1006/jcss.1997.1545. First presented at the Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC) in 1996.
  20. Agrawal, M.; Kayal, N.; Saxena, N. (2004), "PRIMES is in P" (PDF), Annals of Mathematics, 160 (2): 781–793, doi:10.4007/annals.2004.160.781, ISSN 0003-486X, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-07
  21. Razborov, Alexander A.; Rudich, Steven (1997), "Natural proofs", Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 55 (1): 24–35, doi:10.1006/jcss.1997.1494, ISSN 0022-0000, ECCC TR94-010
  22. Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2004), "Smoothed analysis of algorithms: Why the simplex algorithm usually takes polynomial time" (PDF), J. ACM, 51 (3): 385–463, arXiv:math/0212413, doi:10.1145/990308.990310, ISSN 0004-5411
  23. Reingold, Omer; Vadhan, Salil; Wigderson, Avi (2002), "Entropy waves, the zig-zag graph product, and new constant-degree expanders" (PDF), Annals of Mathematics, 155 (1): 157–187, CiteSeerX, doi:10.2307/3062153, ISSN 0003-486X, JSTOR 3062153, MR 1888797
  24. Reingold, Omer (2008), "Undirected connectivity in log-space", J. ACM, 55 (4): 1–24, doi:10.1145/1391289.1391291, ISSN 0004-5411
  25. Arora, Sanjeev (1998), "Polynomial time approximation schemes for Euclidean traveling salesman and other geometric problems", Journal of the ACM, 45 (5): 753–782, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1145/290179.290180, ISSN 0004-5411
  26. Mitchell, Joseph S. B. (1999), "Guillotine Subdivisions Approximate Polygonal Subdivisions: A Simple Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Geometric TSP, k-MST, and Related Problems", SIAM Journal on Computing, 28 (4): 1298–1309, doi:10.1137/S0097539796309764, ISSN 1095-7111
  27. Håstad, Johan (2001), "Some optimal inapproximability results" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 48 (4): 798–859, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1145/502090.502098, ISSN 0004-5411
  28. Koutsoupias, Elias; Papadimitriou, Christos (2009). "Worst-case equilibria". Computer Science Review. 3 (2): 65–69. doi:10.1016/j.cosrev.2009.04.003.
  29. Roughgarden, Tim; Tardos, Éva (2002). "How bad is selfish routing?". Journal of the ACM. 49 (2): 236–259. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/506147.506153.
  30. Nisan, Noam; Ronen, Amir (2001). "Algorithmic Mechanism Design". Games and Economic Behavior. 35 (1–2): 166–196. CiteSeerX doi:10.1006/game.1999.0790.
  31. Boneh, Dan; Franklin, Matthew (2003). "Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing". SIAM Journal on Computing. 32 (3): 586–615. CiteSeerX doi:10.1137/S0097539701398521. MR 2001745.
  32. Joux, Antoine (2004). "A one round protocol for tripartite Diffie-Hellman". Journal of Cryptology. 17 (4): 263–276. doi:10.1007/s00145-004-0312-y. MR 2090557.
  33. Fagin, Ronald; Lotem, Amnon; Naor, Moni (2003). "Optimal aggregation algorithms for middleware". Journal of Computer and System Sciences. 66 (4): 614–656. arXiv:cs/0204046. doi:10.1016/S0022-0000(03)00026-6.
  34. Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2011). "Spectral Sparsification of Graphs". SIAM Journal on Computing. 40 (4): 981–1025. arXiv:0808.4134. doi:10.1137/08074489X. ISSN 0097-5397.
  35. Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2013). "A Local Clustering Algorithm for Massive Graphs and Its Application to Nearly Linear Time Graph Partitioning". SIAM Journal on Computing. 42 (1): 1–26. arXiv:0809.3232. doi:10.1137/080744888. ISSN 0097-5397.
  36. Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2014). "Nearly Linear Time Algorithms for Preconditioning and Solving Symmetric, Diagonally Dominant Linear Systems". SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications. 35 (3): 835–885. arXiv:cs/0607105. doi:10.1137/090771430. ISSN 0895-4798.
  37. Brookes, Stephen (2007). "A Semantics for Concurrent Separation Logic" (PDF). Theoretical Computer Science. 375 (1–3): 227–270. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2006.12.034.
  38. O'Hearn, Peter (2007). "Resources, Concurrency and Local Reasoning" (PDF). Theoretical Computer Science. 375 (1–3): 271–307. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2006.12.035.
  39. Dwork, Cynthia; McSherry, Frank; Nissim, Kobbi; Smith, Adam (2006). Halevi, Shai; Rabin, Tal (eds.). Calibrating Noise to Sensitivity in Private Data Analysis. Theory of Cryptography (TCC). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3876. Springer-Verlag. pp. 265–284. doi:10.1007/11681878_14. ISBN 978-3-540-32731-8.
  40. Regev, Oded (2009). "On lattices, learning with errors, random linear codes, and cryptography". Journal of the ACM. 56 (6): 1–40. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/1568318.1568324.
  41. Dinur, Irit (2007). "The PCP theorem by gap amplification". Journal of the ACM. 54 (3): 12–es. doi:10.1145/1236457.1236459.



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