Fuxing (train)

Fuxing (Chinese: 复兴号) (also known as the Fuxing Hao) is a series of high-speed and higher-speed EMU trains operated by China Railway High-speed and developed by CRRC, which owns the independent intellectual property rights.[2][3] Initially known as the China Standardized EMU, development on the project started in 2012, and the design plan was finished in September 2014. The first EMU rolled off the production line on 30 June 2015.[4][5] The series received its current designation of Fuxing in June 2017, with nicknames such as "Blue/Red Dolphin" (CR400AF) and "Golden Phoenix" (CR400BF) for certain units.[6] It is the world's fastest conventional high speed train in regular service, with a design speed of 350 km/h (217 mph) for the CR400AF and CR400BF models.[7]

Fuxing (Rejuvenation)
CR400AF-2001 departing Beijing South railway station as G123
In serviceAugust 15, 2016 – Present
ManufacturerCRRC Qingdao Sifang
CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles
CRRC Tangshan Railway Vehicle
FormationCR400AF/BF: 8 cars/trainset (4M4T)[1]
CR400AF–A/BF–A: 16 cars/trainset (8M8T)
CR400AF–B/BF–B: 17 cars/trainset (8M9T)
CapacityCR400AF/BF: 556 or 576
CR400AF–A/BF–A: 1193
CR400AF–B/BF–B: 1283
Operator(s)China Railway Corporation
Line(s) servedBeijing–Shanghai high-speed railway
Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong high-speed railway
Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway
Xuzhou-Lanzhou high-speed railway
Shanghai-Kunming high-speed railway
Guangzhou-Zhuhai intercity railway
Guiyang-Guangzhou high-speed railway
Jinan-Qingdao high-speed railway
(and more)
Train lengthCR400AF: 209 m (685 ft 8 in)[1]
CR400AF–A: 414 m (1,358 ft 3 in)
CR400BF: 209.06 m (685 ft 11 in)
CR400BF–A: 414.26 m (1,359 ft 1 in)
CR400AF–B: 439.9 m (1,443 ft 3 in)
CR400BF–B: 439.9 m (1,443 ft 3 in)
Width3,360 mm (11 ft 0 in)[1]
Height4,050 mm (13 ft 3 in)[1]
Platform height1,250 mm (4 ft 1.2 in)
Maximum speed350 km/h (217 mph)
Axle load<17t[1]
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC
Simplified Chinese复兴号
Traditional Chinese復興號
Literal meaningRejuvenation
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese中国标准动车组
Traditional Chinese中國標準動車組
Literal meaningChina Standardized EMU



In 2007, China's Ministry of Railways drafted a plan for China's future high-speed network. Bombardier Transportation, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Alstom and later Siemens joined the high-speed train manufacture project later known as Hexie (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: 'Harmony'). Forming a joint-venture with Chinese company CNR and CSR, four foreign companies signed an agreement with China to manufacture high-speed trains for China as well as provide assistance to a Chinese company to manufacture train cars locally in the future.

Some of the Hexie (Harmony) train sets are manufactured locally through technology transfer, a key requirement for China. The signalling, track and support structures, control software, and station design are developed domestically with additional foreign elements. By 2010, the track system as a whole was predominantly Chinese.[8] China currently holds many new patents related to the internal components of these trains, re-designed in China to allow the trains to run at higher speeds than the foreign designs allowed.

However, most of Hexie's (Harmony's) patents are only valid within China, and as such hold no international power. The weakness of intellectual property of Hexie causes obstacles for China to export its high-speed rail related technology, which led to the development of the completely redesigned train brand called Fuxing (simplified Chinese: 复兴号; traditional Chinese: 復興號; pinyin: Fùxīng Hào; literally: 'Rejuvenation') that is based on local technology.[8][9][10][11]


Started in 2012, CNR Changchun Railway Vehicles (now CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles), under the guidance of China Railway Corporation, with a collection of enterprises, universities, and research institutes, carried out the development of China Standardized EMU. In December 2013, CRRC Changchun completed developing the general technical conditions for EMUs, and completed the plan design in September 2014.[1][12] The EMU was rolled off the production line on 30 June 2015.[4]

According to the arrangement for the China Standardized EMU research and development work, the EMUs will receive 600,000-km experimental verification and optimization.[12] They started to experimental work at National Railway Test Center of China Academy of Railway in Beijing after they rolled off, and they were tested at up to 160 km/h.[13][14]

On 18 November 2015, the China Standardized EMU hit a speed of 385 km/h and passed the high speed test on Datong–Xi'an Passenger Railway. The EMU was tested under complicated conditions, including on bridges, in tunnels, and on slopes and turns.[5][15]

On 15 July 2016, the two China Standardized EMUs in opposite directions passed each other at 420 km/h (relative speed to one another of 840 km/h) during test runs on Zhengzhou–Xuzhou high-speed railway.[6][14]


On 15 August 2016, the China Standardized EMU has started operation on Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway. The train was running as Train No. G8041 departed from Dalian North railway station to Shenyang railway station.[14][16]

From the end of 2016 to the beginning of 2017, several subsidiaries of CRRC gained licences from the National Railway Administration to produce the rolling stocks.[17][18][19]

The China Standardized EMU started its experimental long haul service on Beijing–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway on 25 February 2017.


Unlike the previous rolling stocks, the vehicles of the newly minted EMU do not bear the marks of "和谐号" or "CRH" (but CRH-0305 was an exception), on 25 June 2017, their designation "Fuxing (Rejuvenation)" was published.[2]

On 26 June 2017, the CR400AF departed from the Beijing South railway station, traveling toward Shanghai, while the CR400BF also left Shanghai Hongqiao railway station bound for Beijing at the same time. It marks the China Standardized EMU started operation formally, being borne Rejuvenation.[20]

Specifications and technical features

An 8-car Fuxing set is 209 m (686 ft) long, 3360mm wide and 4060mm high. It has an axleload of less than 17 tonnes. The train can carry 556 passengers, with 10 in business class, 28 in first class, and 518 in second class.[14] The train also reduces energy consumption, and adopts a standard parts design. It also has reinforced safety features compared with other EMUs.[16] In July 2018, 415 m (1,362 ft) long 16 car Fuxing sets started operating. These sets can carry 1,193 passengers and will first start operating on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway.[21] In 2019, 17 car 440 m (1,440 ft) long Fuxing trains started operating on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway.[22]

The spacing of seats of Fuxing (Rejuvenation) is larger than Hexie (Harmony), with the first class at 1160 mm and the second class 1020 mm. It also provides Wi-Fi access.[1]


All variants of Fuxing train are compatible. The EMU models shares the same standard required by China Railway Corporation, hence the name China Standardized EMU.

200 km/h higher-speed version designed by CRRC Nanjing Puzhen, CRRC Qingdao Sifang, CRRC Tangshan, CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive, CRRC Datong and CRRC Dalian.
One of two production model with standard maximum speed of 300 km/h. It is manufactured by CRRC Qingdao Sifang.
One of two production model with standard maximum speed of 300 km/h. It is manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.
CRH-0207 (now CR400AF-0207)
Prototype of CR400AF developed by CRRC Qingdao Sifang.
CRH-0503 (now CR400BF-0503)
Prototype of CR400BF developed by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.
One of two production model with standard maximum speed of 400 km/h. It is manufactured by CRRC Qingdao Sifang.
16-car version.[23] It is manufactured by CRRC Qingdao Sifang.
17-car version manufactured by CRRC Qingdao Sifang.
One of two production model with standard maximum speed of 400 km/h. It is manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.
16-car version.[23] It is manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.
17-car version. It is manufactured by CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles.
Train type Car dimensions Total length Top speed Seating capacity Formation Power output
(under 25 kV)
Entry into Service
CR400AF End cars length: 27,910 mm (91 ft 7 in)
Inter cars length: 25,650 mm (84 ft 2 in)
Width: 3,360 mm (11 ft 0 in)
Height: 4,050 mm (13 ft 3 in)
Calculated: 209.72 m (688 ft 1 in)
Real: 209 m (685 ft 8 in)
Test: 420 km/h (260 mph)
Design: 430 km/h (270 mph)
Continuous operation: 400 km/h (250 mph)
Current operation: 350 km/h (220 mph)
556: 10 business, 28 first and 518 standard
576: 10 business, 28 first and 538 standard
4M4T 10.4 MW (13,900 hp) August 15, 2016
CR400AF–A Calculated: 414.92 m (1,361 ft 3 in)
Real: 414 m (1,358 ft 3 in)
1193: 22 business, 148 first and 1023 standard 8M8T 19.2 MW (25,700 hp) June 16, 2018
CR400AF–B Calculated: 438.928 m (1,440 ft 0.6 in)
Real: 438.928 m (1,440 ft 0.6 in)
1283: 22 business, 148 first and 1113 standard 8M9T 19.2 MW (25,700 hp) January 5, 2019
CR400BF End cars length: 27,089 mm (88 ft 10.5 in)
Inter cars length: 25,650 mm (84 ft 2 in)
Width: 3,360 mm (11 ft 0 in)
Height: 4,050 mm (13 ft 3 in)
Calculated: 208.078 m (682 ft 8.0 in)
Real: 209.06 m (685 ft 11 in)
Test: 420 km/h (260 mph)
Design: 430 km/h (270 mph)
Continuous operation: 400 km/h (250 mph)
Current operation: 350 km/h (220 mph)
556: 10 business, 28 first and 518 standard
576: 10 business, 28 first and 538 standard
4M4T 10.14 MW (13,600 hp) August 15, 2016
CR400BF–A Calculated: 413.278 m (1,355 ft 10.8 in)
Real: 414.3 m (1,359 ft 3 in)
1193: 22 business, 148 first and 1023 standard 8M8T 20.28 MW (27,200 hp) June 12, 2018
CR400BF–B Calculated: 438.928 m (1,440 ft 0.6 in)
Real: 438.928 m (1,440 ft 0.6 in)
1283: 22 business, 148 first and 1113 standard 8M9T January 5, 2019

Incidents and equipment issues

  • On 8 February 2018, a train numbered G89 from Beijing West railway station to Chengdu East railway station, serviced by CR400BF-5033 (with 576 seats), was forced to discontinue its journey at Xi'an North railway station, due to a mechanical malfunction (hot box). No passengers were injured. Passengers were then transferred to a CRH380B trainset with only 556 seats.[24]
  • On 27 June 2018, train no. G123 from Beijing South railway station to Shanghai Hongqiao railway station was late by 49 minutes, as it sustained an equipment failure due to an earlier service G239 which is provided by Hexie type CRH380B EMU.[25]
  • On 12 August 2018, train no. G40 from Hangzhou East railway station to Beijing South railway station collided with a flying steel plate, which was blown away from a nearby construction site close to Langfang railway station. The flying steel plates not only damaged the train itself, but caused serious traffic disruptions on the Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway as the overhead catenary also sustained damages. Passengers were transferred to buses, while the damaged train was hauled to Beijing South railway station by a Dongfeng 11 diesel locomotive.[26]
  • On 26 September 2018 an inbound CR400BF-A trainset was unable to properly open its doors at Hong Kong West Kowloon railway station, as the platform edge reached beyond the track's structure gauge. The vehicle was redirected to a different platform. No injuries were reported.[27]
  • During the one week holiday of the National Day of the People's Republic of China (October 1–7, 2018), various services of Fuxing were forced to stop at intermediate stations along their routes, as they have been immobilized by the crowd of passengers, causing traffic disruptions. Unlike Hexie, Fuxing trains are equipped with devices that are capable of detecting certain levels of overcrowding, preventing them from any further movement to ensure safety until train staff manage to remove the necessary number of passengers.[28]
  • On 17 October 2018, China Railway Shanghai Group reported that it has implemented portable air quality measurement devices to monitor the level of hazardous fumes emitted by possibly substandard heat resistant surfaces in the passenger carriages as several complaints have been recorded by passengers and train drivers, stating the smell in the carriages is unbearable. Some passengers also suffered minor respiratory diseases such as coughing and sore throat.[29]

See also


  1. ""中国标准"动车组正式下线 时速350公里". ifeng.com. 30 June 2015.
  2. 中国标准动车组命名"复兴号". Xinhua News Agency. 25 June 2017.
  3. "China launches its first self-developed bullet train 'Fuxing' as Beijing eyes global high-speed rail market". Daily Mail. 26 June 2017.
  4. "350km/h China Standard EMU Rolled Off the Line". China Railway. 30 June 2015.
  5. "China EMU train linking Datong and Xi'an passes high speed test". Xinhua. 18 November 2015.
  6. "Chinese bullet trains cross in historic first". Xinhua. 15 July 2016.
  7. 许昌平 (23 September 2017). "时速重回350公里 陆高铁世界最快". Chinatimes. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  8. Shirouzu, Norihiko (17 November 2010). "Train Makers Rail Against China's High-Speed Designs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  9. Wines, Michael; Bradsher, Keith (17 February 2011). "China Rail Chief's Firing Hints at Trouble". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2012. Many multinational companies also resent China for tweaking foreign designs and building the equipment itself rather than importing it.
  10. Johnson, Ian (13 June 2011). "High-Speed Trains in China to Run Slower, Ministry Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 December 2012. In the past few months, some foreign companies that sold China its high-speed technology said the trains were not designed to operate at 215 miles per hour. The ministry said that Chinese engineers had improved on the foreign technology and that the trains were safe at the higher speeds.
  11. Xin, Dingding (28 June 2011). "Full steam ahead for high-speed rail patents overseas". China Daily. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  12. ""CNR Changchun-made" Chinese-standard EMU Rolled Off the Production Line". Jilin Daily. 6 July 2015. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  13. "Chinese Standard Debuts New Speed of 350 km/h". People's Daily Online. 1 July 2015.
  14. "China's Standard high-speed EMU enters service". International Railway Journal. 15 August 2016.
  15. "Chinese high-speed train passes speed test at 385 km/h". Xinhua. 19 November 2015.
  16. "China Standardized EMUs start operation". CRRC. 18 August 2016.
  17. 国家铁路局行政许可决定书(国铁许准字〔2016〕第720号). www.nra.gov.cn. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  18. 国家铁路局行政许可决定书(国铁许准字〔2016〕第722号). www.nra.gov.cn. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  19. 国家铁路局行政许可决定书(国铁许准字〔2017〕第079号). www.nra.gov.cn. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  20. Zhao, Li. "New bullet trains to depart on Monday". China Daily. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  21. "Longest high-speed trains go into service - SHINE". SHINE. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  22. "多加一节,17编组复兴号又添这些创新点-新华网". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  23. 加长版复兴号下月京沪间开跑
  24. Bingyang, Lu (8 February 2018). "G89次复兴号首次入川遇故障 乘客西安临时换车". Sina.com. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  25. "复兴号晚点暴露出的问题". people.com.cn. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  26. "京沪高铁线遭彩钢板撞击 导致多趟列车停运". Xinhua. 18 August 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  27. Zhuang, Gongnan (27 September 2018). "高鐵又甩轆?譚文豪:8號月台疑設計缺陷 有列車無法正常開門". hk01.com. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  28. ""复兴号"超员就走不动?铁总回应". CCTV. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  29. "中铁总从源头整治动车异味 有权要求中车召回并索赔". Sina.com. 18 October 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
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