Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science
The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (popularly known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering; previously known as Columbia School of Mines) is the engineering and applied science school of Columbia University. It was founded as the School of Mines in 1863 and then the School of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry before becoming the School of Engineering and Applied Science. On October 1, 1997, the school was renamed in honor of Chinese businessman Z.Y. Fu, who had donated $26 million to the school.
|The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science|
|Dean||Mary Cunningham Boyce|
|Campus size||2,004 graduate|
The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science maintains a close research tie with other institutions including NASA, IBM, MIT, and The Earth Institute. Patents owned by the school generate over $100 million annually for the university. SEAS faculty and alumni are responsible for technological achievements including the developments of FM radio and the maser.
The School's applied mathematics, biomedical engineering, computer science and the financial engineering program in operations research are very famous and ranked high. The current SEAS faculty include 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering and one Nobel Laureate in a faculty size of 173. In all, the faculty and alumni of Columbia Engineering have won 10 Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry, medicine, and economics.
The school consists of approximately 300 undergraduates in each graduating class and maintains close links with its undergraduate liberal arts sister school Columbia College which shares housing with SEAS students. The School's current dean is Mary Cunningham Boyce, who was appointed in 2013.
Original charter of 1754
Included in the original charter for Columbia College was the direction to teach "the arts of Number and Measuring, of Surveying and Navigation [...] the knowledge of [...] various kinds of Meteors, Stones, Mines and Minerals, Plants and Animals, and everything useful for the Comfort, the Convenience and Elegance of Life." Engineering has always been a part of Columbia, even before the establishment of any separate school of engineering.
An early and influential graduate from the school was John Stevens, Class of 1768. Instrumental in the establishment of U.S. patent law, Stevens procured many patents in early steamboat technology, operated the first steam ferry between New York and New Jersey, received the first railroad charter in the U.S., built a pioneer locomotive, and amassed a fortune, which allowed his sons to found the Stevens Institute of Technology. (Excerpt from SEAS website.)
When Columbia University first resided on Wall Street, engineering did not have a school under the Columbia umbrella. After Columbia outgrew its space on Wall Street, it relocated to what is now Midtown Manhattan in 1857. Then President Barnard and the Trustees of the University, with the urging of Professor Thomas Egleston and General Vinton, approved the School of Mines in 1863. The intention was to establish a School of Mines and Metallurgy with a three-year program open to professionally motivated students with or without prior undergraduate training. It was officially founded in 1864 under the leadership of its first dean, Columbia professor Charles F. Chandler, and specialized in mining and mineralogical engineering. An example of work from a student at the School of Mines was William Barclay Parsons, Class of 1882. He was an engineer on the Chinese railway and the Cape Cod and Panama Canals. Most importantly he worked for New York, as a chief engineer of the city's first subway system, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. Opened in 1904, the subway's electric cars took passengers from City Hall to Brooklyn, the Bronx, and the newly renamed and relocated Columbia University in Morningside Heights, its present location on the Upper West Side of Manhattan.
Renaming to the School of Mines
In 1896, the school was renamed to the "School of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry". During this time, the University was offering more than the previous name had implied, thus the change of name.
The faculty during this time included Michael I. Pupin, after whom Pupin Hall is named. Pupin himself was a graduate of the Class of 1883 and the inventor of the "Pupin coil", a device that extended the range of long-distance telephones. Students of his included Irving Langmuir, Nobel laureate in Chemistry (1932), inventor of the gas-filled tungsten lamp and a contributor to the development of the radio vacuum tube. Another student to work with Pupin was Edwin Howard Armstrong, inventor of FM radio. After graduating in 1913 Armstrong was stationed in France during World War I. There he developed the superheterodyne receiver to detect the frequency of enemy aircraft ignition systems. During this period, Columbia was also home to the "Father of Biomedical Engineering" Elmer L. Gaden.
Recent and future developments
The university continued to evolve and expand as the United States became a major political power during the 20th century. In 1926, the newly renamed School of Engineering prepared students for the nuclear age. Graduating with a master's degree, Hyman George Rickover, working with the Navy's Bureau of Ships, directed the development of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus, which was launched in 1954.
The school's first woman graduate received her degree in 1945. After a substantial grant of $26 million from Chinese businessman Z. Y. Fu, the engineering school was renamed again in 1997. The new name, as it is known today is the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science. SEAS continues to be a teaching and research institution, now with a large endowment of over $400 million, and sits under the Columbia umbrella endowment of $7.2 billion. As an initiative to make information more accessible, Columbia Engineering operates a highly viewed open-course video network. It is the only university to hold a share in the MPEG-2 patent. The school continues research into nuclear science with the Robert A. Gross Plasma Physics Lab. The school is also home to Columbia's High-Beta Tokamak (HBT-EP), and conducts further research into plasma physics with the Collisionless Terrella Experiment (CTX), and the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) experiment. The school's new biomedical engineering department collaborates closely with the Medical School to conduct interdisciplinary researches such as materials science, environmental chemistry, medical digital libraries, digital government, new media technologies, and GK–12 education, bridging the biological and physical in the engineering world. The school is closely associated with Columbia's other departments, including Physics, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Mathematics. It also engages in research and academic initiatives with the Business School, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Graduate School of Journalism, the School of International and Public Affairs, Law School, and the Teachers College.
Columbia is extending its reach globally, setting up genomic research collaborations in Beijing and dual engineering programs in Bologna. In April 2010, Columbia partnered with IBM for the Smarter Cities Skills Initiative, which aims to develop smarter, more energy-efficient city grids and green technology. The partnership opens IBM laboratories and its 40 Innovation centers across the world to Columbia faculty and students.
Columbia faculty members currently focus on interdisciplinary fields of sensors, bioengineering, and nanotechnology that address key problems in health, energy and sustainability. The School's previous dean, Feniosky Peña-Mora, coins this innovative research direction with the word "CyberBioPhysical" Systems.
New groundbreaking researches at Columbia include a laser-based method to create a single crystal film for a variety of devices, applications of augmented reality. Columbia Engineering faculty has made advances in media and communication. Since 2000, researchers have been involved in lasers, compression algorithm technology behind DVDS and HDTV, and VOIP. Departmental researches have made possible sharper display screens in high-end smart phones technology.
Professor Klaus Lackner of the Environmental Engineering Department is engaged in research that creates artificial trees which would remove carbon dioxide from air. The project aims to halt global warming through natural synthesis. Professor Eitan Grinspun of the Computer Science Department is creating computer simulations that model physical behaviors in the real world adopted into the virtual world.
Professor Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic of the Biomedical Engineering Department, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Medicine and National Academy of Inventors, has found new way to grow bone grafts for jaw damaged by birth defects, injuries or disease. As a result of her work, facial reconstructive surgery can now use living tissue. Professor Keren Bergman is developing advanced computing and networking technology for electronic financial trading.
Approximately 95% of accepted students were in the top 10% of their graduating class; 99% were in the top 20% of their class. 58% of admitted students attended high schools that do not rank. The yield rate for the class of 2014 was 59%.
As for SAT scores, SEAS students within the Columbia University community have raised the composite SAT statistic for the undergraduates at Columbia University. The Class of 2013's SAT interquartile range was 2060–2320 and 1400–1560 (old SAT). The ACT composite interquartile range was 32–34.
Those accepting enrollment at Columbia SEAS typically completed engineering programs at the undergraduate level and are pursuing professional graduate school in engineering, business, law, or medical school, so as to become what Columbia terms "engineering leaders." Engineering leaders are those who pioneer or define engineering: patent lawyers, doctors with specialties in biophysical engineering, financial engineers, inventors, etc.
Columbia Engineering's graduate programs have an overall acceptance rate of 28.0% in 2010. The PhD student–faculty ratio at the graduate level is 4.2:1 according to the 2008 data compiled by U.S. News & World Report. PhD acceptance rate was 12% in 2010.
Columbia's School of Engineering and Applied Science is one of the top engineering schools in the United States and the world. It is ranked 11th among the best engineering schools by U.S. News & World Report, and first within the Ivy League.
In 2010, the US National Research Council revealed its new analyses and rankings of American university doctoral programs since 1995. Columbia Engineering ranked 10th in biomedical engineering, 18th in chemical engineering, 26th in electrical engineering, 14th in mechanical engineering (5th in research), 9th in operations research & industrial engineering, 7th in applied mathematics, and 6th in computer sciences.
The school's department of computer science is ranked 17th in the nation, 20th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities, and 13th according to PhDs. Its biomedical engineering program is among the top 15 according to US News and is ranked 7th by PhDs.org.
Among the small prestigious programs, the school's chemical engineering is ranked 20th, civil engineering and engineering mechanics 18th, electrical engineering 3rd, applied physics 4th, industrial engineering and operations research 4th, material engineering 10th, computer science 15th, and applied mathematics 15th, according to National Science Foundation. From The Chronicle of Higher Education, Columbia's engineering mechanics is 6th in the nation, its environmental engineering 4th, industrial engineering 7th, mechanical engineering 5th, applied physics 8th, and operations research 6th. Finally, Columbia's financial engineering program is one of the top ten in the world, according to one blog from 2008.
Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics
The Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics was founded in 1978 by then Dean Peter Likens. The proposal was to combine the interdepartmental doctoral program in plasma physics with the existing division of nuclear Science and engineering. The department's first faculty members included: Herbert Goldstein, C. K. Chu, Robert A. Gross, William Havens, Shayne Johnston, Thomas Marshall, Leon Lidofsky, Edward Melkonian, and Gerald Navratil.
Under the chairmanship of Robert Gross, the department developed a broader program encompassing solid-state physics, quantum electronics, and applied mathematics in addition to the core theoretical areas of plasma and nuclear physics. In 1997, the Fu Foundation donated large sums of funding supporting researches at the department, and in 1998, it officially changed its name to the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics due to the department's ever expanding stature. In the same year of the donation, renowned Professors Aron Pinczuk and Horst Störmer joined the department. In 2000, the department expanded again, creating two joint faculty positions with the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences. That year, the Materials Science and Engineering Program of the Henry Krumb School of Mines was integrated with the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics. Since 1978, the department has grown from nine to thirty one full-time faculty members, who are involved in interdisciplinary areas of research relating to nanoscale science, earth science, advanced scientific computing, materials and information technologies, and plasma physics. The departmental faculty has recently received many accolades, including three Sloans, four Guggenheims, and one Packard fellowship, one Nobel Prize in physics, one Gordon Bell Prize, and two Buckley Prizes. Faculty members do extensive research in Columbia's Nanoscience and Engineering Center, the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, the Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Center for Terascale Computer Simulation. Recently, the department has developed the sequential lateral solidification process that creates high-quality crystalline silicon films which generate major patent income. The department grants three undergraduate majors, including applied physics, applied mathematics, and materials science and engineering. Its graduate programs address these same three fields in a broader range. Each year, the department awards the Robert Simon Memorial Prize to its graduate student with the most distinguished doctoral dissertation.
The Department of Biomedical Engineering was founded in 2000.
The department has close contact with the medical school and other engineering departments in interdisciplinary researches. The educations tracks of the biomedical engineering department include biomechanics, biomedical imaging, and cell and tissue engineering. The department's faculty of 19 full-time professors and five adjunct professors is equally divided among the three above-mentioned disciplines. The biomedical engineering department represents one-fifth of the total number of engineering majors at the school. Its majors are the most popular among students not only wishing to pursue engineering but also finance or pre-med at Columbia University.
The department draws financial resources from the university as a whole as well as from the Whitaker Foundation. An undergraduate at Columbia has access to laboratory tools usually reserved for advanced research. In addition to the core biomedical facilities, the department has a tissue culture facility, a histology facility, an atomic force microscope, and epifluorescence microscope, and a large machine shop.
Columbia's Chemical Engineering Department has a broad spectrum of research and teaching. Its core focus concerns with materials and process analysis, concepts that are key to a wide range of technologies. Some areas the faculty are involved in include the engineering of polymers and other soft materials, the electrochemistry of fuel cells, the bioengineering of artificial organs, the sequencing of the human genome, polymer interactions and synthesis, the biophysics of cellular processes, the physics of DNA, the physical chemistry of nanoparticles, neutron scattering, atmospheric chemistry, and multiple theoretical studies revolving around both mathematical physics and computational analysis. The undergraduate program provides a degree that leads to diverse career options that historically includes biochemical engineering, environmental management, pharmaceuticals, and medicine, but also law, banking and finance, and politics. The chemical engineering department utilizes facilities including a polymer synthesis lab that houses metal evaporator system, a Miligen 9050 peptide synthesizer, and thin-film preparation stations. The department also uses XPS imaging systems, digital analysis systems, X-ray reflectometers, and MCT detectors, among others. For computational studies, a cluster of dedicated computers is available for intensive simulations and numerical calculations. The chemical engineering department shares facilities with the chemistry department. Shared facilities consist of equipments including fluorescence spectrometers, EPR spectrometers, nanosecond laser photolysis instruments, photon counter, and chromatographic devices. The facilities of Columbia Genome Center are also at the department's disposal.
Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Columbia's department of civil engineering and engineering mechanics is one of the longest running, most prominent small-size engineering departments in the United States. The department of civil engineering was formed in 1868. It evolved to include curriculum in metallurgy, electricity, mechanics, chemistry, and industrial engineering before separate departments were established. Some of the department's alumni include William Barclay Parsons, David B. Steinman, Kevin P. Chilton, and Jeff Bleustein. William Barclay Parsons received his civil engineering degree in 1882 and later founded the world-renowned company Parsons-Brinkerhoff. Steinman received a doctorate from the department in 1911. He designed the Henry Hudson Bridge and founded the firm of Steinman Engineers, a lead designer of famous bridges in New York City and the United States. Chilton received a M.S. and became one of the first astronauts to pilot the space shuttle. Jeff Bleustein received a doctorate in engineering mechanics, later becoming the CEO of Harley–Davidson Motorcycle Company. The civil engineering department has enjoyed top ranking since the 1950s, especially for its engineering mechanics program. Its notable faculty includes Maciej Bieniek, Hans Bleich, Donald Burmister, Richard Freudenthal, Raymond Mindlin, Mario Salvadori, Richard Skalak and Robert Stoll.
The Columbia department of computer science is one of the biggest departments in the world. The department offers an integrated curriculum consisting of programming, computer architecture, operating systems, and theoretical computer science/mathematics. Among the research tracks in the department are artificial intelligence, natural language processing, computational complexity, analysis of algorithms, computer communications, combinatorial methods, computer architecture, computer graphics, data bases, mathematical computational models, optimization, and programming environments. Undergraduates in the department are involved in advanced faculty research projects. Students serve as consultants at the Columbia Computer Center, which operates the microcomputers and terminals on campus. Upper-level students in computer science may assist faculty members with research projects and help to develop software. Many are recognized with membership in the National Academy of Engineering, ACM awards, IEEE awards, John von Neumann Medals, Knuth Prize, fellows status in various engineering/scientific societies, IBM awards, Presidential Early Career Awards, membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, board membership in national academies, and many fellowships such as Sloan and Guggenheim. The departmental faculty members conduct research in facilities including the Autonomous Agents Lab, Columbia Vision and Graphics Center, Computer Architecture Laboratory, and Robotics Laboratory.
Earth and Environmental Engineering
The Columbia University Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering focuses on research that finds solutions to global sustainability. The department traces its history to the Henry Krumb School of Mines, concentrating in areas of water resources and climate risks, sustainable energy and materials, and environmental health engineering. The Henry Krumb School of Mines has been a leading institution in mining and metallurgy research, having pioneered works in mineral beneficiation, chemical thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport phenomena in mineral extraction. HKSM has been a leader in mining and metallurgy research and education, including the first mining handbook by Professor Peele, the first mineral processing handbook by Professor Taggart. During the 19th and 20th centuries, HKSM contributed to the development of technologies that provided basic materials need. Today the traditional mining and mineral engineering of the department were transformed to embody material and environmental engineering. The department maintains close ties with the Columbia Earth Institute directed by economist Jeffrey Sachs. The M.S. degree in Earth Resources Engineering was established in 1996 to supplant the mining and mineral engineering degree. The B.S. program in Earth and Environmental Engineering was initiated in 1998 with a student:faculty ratio of 3:1. The department enjoys external partnerships with other engineering departments, Columbia Earth Institute, the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society, the Mailman School of Public Health, and the School of International and Public Affairs. The department offers the bachelor of science, master of science, doctor of philosophy, doctor of engineering science, and joint M.B.A degree with Columbia Business School. Recent graduates have gone on to work for Schlumberger, Ltd., CDM, Kleinfelder.
The first recommendation for an electrical engineering department in Columbia came from Thomas Edison to President Barnard. Edison stated, "Crocker and I maintained that there is an 'electrical science' which is the real soul of electrical engineering.'" In the late 19th century, at Edison's suggestion, the Columbia trustees established a department of electrical engineering with two faculty members: Francis Bacon Crocker and Michael Idvorsky Pupin. Crocker was among the first presidents in the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Pupin was known for his invention of the Pupin coil.
In the 20th century, full four-year undergraduate program was created for electrical engineering. From 1901 to 1904, the class size grew from five to thirty. The department was housed in what is today's Mathematics Building at Columbia. Pupin served as its chair before transferring the position to Walter Slichter who led the department until 1941. In the mid-20th century, the electrical engineering department played a significant role during World War II, bringing radio communications to France and lecturing in London. The military used the FM radio system developed in the department. Throughout the Slichter era, the department evolved along two dominant technical tracks: electrical motors and power, and radio. During this period pupils including Edwin Armstrong and Morecroft became dominant forces in radio technology. Between the 1950s and 1960s, the department saw dramatic growth in faculty and students. Professor John R. Ragazzini joined Columbia in 1941 and chaired the department, and in 1945, faculty under his leadership developed the operational amplifier which became a key building block in electronic circuits. The department recruited other top professors such as Ralph J. Schwatz as well as students like Lotfi A. Zadeh. 1953 Eliahu I. Jury became the first doctoral student in the department working with professor Jacob Millman, who joined the department in 1952. In the 1960s, another PhD student of Ragazzinni R. E. Kalman produced pioneering work in the area of time varying and nonlinear systems. In the 1970s, Columbia, already renowned for theoretical research in electrical engineering, returned to the technical aspects of research. Research resumed in solid state devices, plasma physics, millimeter waves, and integrated circuits. The department also began attracting accomplished industry professionals. Two important recruits were Sergei Alexander Schelkunoff and W.R. Bennett. In 1968 the department was renamed the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science before reverting to its original name in 1979.
Industrial Engineering and Operations Research
The Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Department at Columbia, though relatively new compared to other departments at Columbia Engineering, is already highly rated throughout the world and provides its students with a launch pad to lucrative jobs at Wall Street, financial industry, government, and industry. Whereas in other universities the department of operations research resides in the business school, Columbia's department of operations research is part of the engineering school. The department offers four main areas of study: Management Science & Engineering, Financial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Operations Research.
Financial Engineering is a multidisciplinary field involving financial theory, the methods of engineering, the tools of mathematics and the practice of programming. The Financial Engineering Program at Columbia University provides full-time training in the application of engineering methodologies and quantitative methods to finance. It is designed for students who wish to obtain positions in the securities, banking, and financial management and consulting industries, or as quantitative analysts in corporate treasury and finance departments of general manufacturing and service firms.
Industrial Engineering emphasizes design, analysis, and control of production/services. Industrial engineers work for every kind of organization in manufacturing, distribution, transportation, mercantile, and service. Their responsibility is often managerial, which involve the integration of the physical, financial, economic, and human components of systems such as production planning/control, plant layout, materials management, and work station design. The industrial engineering programs at Columbia began in 1919.
Operations Research is an applied science, concerned with quantitative problem solving. The allocation of limited resources leads to problems often arising in all types of industry and financial firms. Operations research analysts develop models to solve logistical problems by using engineering methodology. Analysis involves mathematical optimization techniques, statistical methods, experiments, and computer simulations. Operations Research program was established in Columbia in 1952 and has already produced two Nobel Prize laureates, Alvin E. Roth and Robert C. Merton. It is ranked 4th by National Science Foundation and 6th by The Chronicle of Higher Education.
The faculty members of the Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Department are prominent academicians in their respective fields and Wall Street professionals. The chair of its Financial Engineering program and also Director of the Center of Financial Engineering, Emanuel Derman is a superstar quant who was a former executive at Goldman Sachs. Emanuel Derman was the one who proposed the widely used binomial tree interest rate model, Black-Derman-Toy model together with William Toy and Fischer Black who earned his Nobel Prize for the renowned Black–Scholes model. Among the department's many faculty members are adjunct professors from the Columbia Business School and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Full-time faculty members include Clifford Stein who is an authority in Algorithms and former chair of the Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Department, Maria Chudnovsky, 2012 MacArthur Award recipient and one of the "Brilliant Ten" by Popular Science Magazine, Ward Whitt, an authority in Queueing Theory and Stochastic Process and committee chair of National Academy of Engineering, and the late Cyrus Derman, an authority in Operations Research who advised Sheldon M Ross, the author of many widely used textbooks for Statistics, Stochastic Processes, and Monte Carlo Simulation, for his PhD at Stanford.
The Department of Mechanical Engineering is one of the longest running traditional engineering departments at Columbia. The first tenured mechanical engineer, William Petit Trowbridge, joined the school in 1877 as chair of engineering, and the department was established in 1897. It has enjoyed a national and international reputation since its inception. The department was home to professors Dudley D. Fuller, Harold G. Elrod, and Vittorio Castelli, leaders in the field of lubrication theory and practice. In the 1960s, Professor Ferdinand Freudenstein (known as the "Father of Modern Kinematics") taught in the department and ushered in the computer age in kinematics synthesis. The department conducts substantial research in the fields of control theory, thermofluids, biomechanics, and manufacturing. Its faculty members regularly give keynote lectures in the United States and at international conventions. Many members also serve as editors and associate editors of professional journals. Some hold leadership positions in professional societies. The department is among the smallest in the school, allowing for close student-faculty interaction. Facilities of the department include Computer-Aided Design Lab, Mechatronics Laboratory. New research laboratories have been recently added for nanotube science, optical nanostructures, nanomechanics, nonlinear and autonomous vehicle control, medical robots, and microfluidics. The department is home to interdisciplinary research projects such as biomechanics, mechanics of materials, energy systems, and nanotechnology. It has partnerships with other engineering departments, the Lamont–Doherty Geological Laboratory and Columbia University Medical Center.
The school also has two wind tunnels, a machine shop, a nanotechnology laboratory, a General Dynamics TRIGA Mk. II nuclear fission reactor, a large scale centrifuge for geotechnical testing, and an axial tester commonly used for testing New York City bridge cables. Each department has numerous laboratories on the Morningside Heights campus; however, other departments have holdings throughout the world. For example, the Applied Physics department has reactors at Nevis Labs in Irvington, NY and conducts work with CERN in Geneva.
Many students take their engineering classes in the Seeley W. Mudd building on the northeast side of the main Morningside campus. Mudd is the heart of the engineering school; department offices, labs, lecture rooms, and student spaces are located in this building.
Connected to this building is the Sherman Fairchild Center, which largely houses biology labs and sciences. To the left of Mudd facing north is the Shapiro Center for Engineering and Physical Science Research (CEPSR) where additional lecture halls, research offices, labs, and student space is available.
To the left of this is Pupin Hall, which houses the physics department; in this building, professors and affiliates (including Nobel Laureates) worked on the Manhattan Project. To the south of Pupin is Havemeyer and Chandler, which houses chemistry. Mathematics Hall, further south of Havemeyer, houses the math department.
Together, these buildings, Mudd, Fairchild, Shapiro CEPSR, Pupin, Chandler, Havemeyer, and Mathematics, is where the bulk of engineering students take their classes. Non-technical classes are taken in other buildings to the south of these buildings. All of the school's buildings are on the same campus and vicinity as Columbia College, Columbia Business School, Columbia Law School, School of Social Work, Teacher's College, Union Theological Seminary, Barnard, Jewish Theological Seminary, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and others on the beautiful Morningside Campus.
In close association with Columbia Engineering's Earth and Environmental Engineering department and the Earth Institute, the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory center in Palisades, New York (40 minutes by Shuttle), is an earth-studies campus which welcomes a brand new research (the Gary C. Comer Geochemistry building) facility that has recently won 3 coveted architecture awards for design and sustainability.
While Mudd, nicknamed "the brick," is tucked behind the Fairchild Center, much of Columbia's buildings were designed by the famed McKim, Mead, and White architects. The campus is in keeping with Neo-classical design themes popular in the early 20th century.
The recently finished Northwest Science and Engineering building completed all available plots on the Morningside Heights campus. At fourteen stories, and designed by award-winning architect Rafael Moneo, the building houses new space to conduct research and lectures. In addition, this building contains a new library, café, research labs, lecture hall, and other amenities. This building is situated between Havemeyer, Chandler and Pupin and includes many bridges to facilitate interdepartmental exchanges and access.
The University looks ahead to Manhattanville. SEAS has secured plots for new graduate facilities and the Institute for Data Science and Engineering. In this 17-acre (6.9 ha) area situated only 5 blocks Northwest from the School of Engineering and Applied Science, Manhattanville represents a growth opportunity for the engineering school as well as the University as a whole. The $7 billion project proceeds with the permission of neighboring residents, city officials, and business owners in the area. SEAS looks to expand an additional 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) in this new area. Buildings are being designed by Renzo Piano.
Mission and new objectives
Directions for the new century
As an integral part to Columbia's beliefs for the future engineer, the liberal arts curriculum remains a central part of a SEAS student's education. All undergraduates must complete a modified version of Columbia College's Core Curriculum, which includes courses in Western Civilization and other major cultures.
The School of Engineering and Applied Science celebrates its ties and affiliations with at least 9 Nobel Laureates. Alumni of Columbia Engineering have gone on to numerous fields of profession. Many have become prominent scientists, astronauts, architects, government officials, pioneers, entrepreneurs, company CEOs, financiers, and scholars.
- Albert Huntington Chester (1868), geologist and mining engineer
- Theodore Havemeyer (1868), American businessman, first president of the United States Golf Association and co-founder of the Newport Country Club
- Henry Smith Munroe (1869), Foreign advisor to Meiji Japan
- Roland Duer Irving (1869), geologist, pioneer in petrography
- H. Walter Webb (1873), executive with the New York Central Railroad
- Alfred Chester Beatty (1875), mining magnate and millionaire, often referred to as "King of Copper"
- Albert Huntington Chester (PhD. 1876), Professor at Hamilton College and Huntington College and the namesake of Chester Peak.
- Frederick Remsen Hutton (1876), secretary of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers from 1883 to 1906
- Marcus Benjamin (1878), editor
- Graeme Hammond (1878), American neurologist, Olympic fencer; founding president of the Amateur Fencers League of America
- William Hamilton Russell (1878), architect who founded firm Clinton and Russell; designed the American International Building, Hotel Astor, Graham Court, The Langham and other New York landmarks
- William L. Ward (1878), United States Congressman from New York
- Nathaniel Lord Britton (1879), co-founder of the New York Botanical Garden
- Hamilton Castner (1879), American industrial chemist famous for developing the Castner–Kellner process
- Herman Hollerith (1879), co-founder of IBM
- Charles Buxton Going (1882), engineer, author, editor
- Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (B.S. 1883), Serbian physicist and physical chemist whose inventions include the Pupin coil, winner of Pulitzer Prize for his autobiography
- Edward Chester Barnard (1884), American topographer with the United States Geological Survey
- James Furman Kemp (1884), geologist; president of the Geological Society of America
- Joseph Harvey Ladew, Sr. (1885), founder of leather manufacturer Fayerweather & Ladew
- Frederick James Hamilton Merrill (1885), geologist and former director of the New York State Museum
- Jennings Cox (1887), mining engineer credited with inventing the cocktail Daiquiri
- Graham Lusk (1887), American physiologist and nutritionist
- Allen Tucker (1887), architect and artist
- Edwin Gould I (1888), American investor and railway official; son of financier Jay Gould
- F. Augustus Heinze (1889), copper magnate and founder of United Copper; one of the three "Copper Kings" of Butte, Montana
- George Oakley Totten, Jr. (1891), prolific architect in Washington, D.C. who designed Meridian Hall, the Embassy of Turkey, Washington, D.C. and the Embassy of Ecuador in Washington, D.C.
- George Gustav Heye (EE. 1896), investment banker and founder of the National Museum of the American Indian in New York, and namesake of the George Gustav Heye Center
- Winifred Edgerton Merrill (PhD. 1889), first American woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics
- John Stone Stone (189-), early telephone engineer
- Herschel Clifford Parker (PhB. 1890), physicist and mountaineer
- Gano Dunn (1891), former president of Cooper Union and recipient of IEEE Edison Medal; former Chairman and CEO of the National Research Council
- Gonzalo de Quesada y Aróstegui (1891), Cuban revolutionary, minister to the United States, signer of the Hay-Quesada Treaty
- Heinrich Ries (1892), American economic geologist; professor at Cornell University
- Chester Holmes Aldrich (PhB. 1893), former director of American Academy in Rome and architect who designed the Kykuit
- V. Everit Macy (PhB, 1893), American industrialist, former president of the National Civic Federation, major benefactor to Teachers College, Columbia University
- Kenneth MacKenzie Murchison (1894), American architect who designed the Havana Central railway station, Pennsylvania Station in Baltimore, and the Murchison Building in Wilmington, North Carolina
- William H. Woodin (1890), American industrialist, 51st United States Secretary of the Treasury
- Gustavus Town Kirby (1895), president of the Amateur Athletic Union and member of the United States Olympic Committee from 1896 to 1956
- Leon Moisseiff (1895), American engineer and designer of the Manhattan Bridge
- Don Gelasio Caetani (1903), mayor of Rome and Italian ambassador to the United States
- Robert Stangland (1904), Olympic athlete; bronze medalist in Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics
- Peter Cooper Hewitt (1906), engineer who invented the first Mercury-vapor lamp in 1901, the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane, and the Mercury-arc valve, son of New York mayor and philanthropist Abram Hewitt
- Edward Calvin Kendall (1908), Winner of 1950 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
- William Parsons (1882), Chief Engineer of New York City's subway system
- Irving Langmuir (1903), Winner of the 1932 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, produced gas-filled incandescent lamp, explorer of the vacuum
- James Kip Finch (1906), renowned American engineer and educator
- Kingdon Gould, Sr. (1909), financier and polo player; father of ambassador Kingdon Gould, Jr.
- Grover Loening (M.S. 1910), American aircraft manufacturer, designer of first successful monoplane
- José Raúl Capablanca (1910), one of the greatest chess players of all time
- Alfonso Valdés Cobián (E.E. 1911), Puerto Rican industrialist, co-founder of Compañía Cervecera de Puerto Rico
- Eugene Dooman (1912), counselor at the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo vital in the negotiations between the U.S. and Japan before World War II
- David Steinman (PhD. 1911), director of the reconstruction of Brooklyn Bridge
- Harry Babcock (1912), 1912 Olympic champion in pole vaulting
- Harvey Seeley Mudd (B.S. 1912), Metallurgical Engineer, president of Cyprus Mines Corporation, co-founder of Claremont McKenna College and namesake of Harvey Mudd College of Engineering
- Edwin Armstrong (1913), inventor of the frequency modulation transmission method
- Willard F. Jones (M.S. 1916), naval architect, head of National Safety Council's marine section and Vice President of Gulf Oil
- Seeley G. Mudd (B.S. 1917), American physician, professor and major philanthropist to academic institutions; namesake of the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library of Princeton University
- Philip Sporn (1918), renowned Austrian engineer and recipient of IEEE Edison Medal; former president and CEO of American Electric Power
- Radu Irimescu (1920), former Romanian ambassador to the United States
- Langston Hughes (1922), poet of the Harlem Renaissance
- Arthur Loughren (1923), Pioneer in radio engineering and television engineering
- Edward Lawry Norton (M.S. 1925), Bell Lab engineer, developer of Norton equivalent circuit
- Hyman Rickover (M.S. 1928), Father of the Nuclear U.S. Navy
- Raymond D. Mindlin (1931), renowned researcher and professor known for his contributions to applied mechanics, applied physics, and Engineering Sciences, recipient of National Medal of Science
- Helmut W. Schulz (B.S. 1933, M.S. 1934), President Dynecology, developed uranium centrifugation (gas centrifuge), laser analysis, safe waste conversion
- Herbert L. Anderson (1935), established Enrico Fermi Institute and nuclear physicist in the Manhattan Project
- Daniel C. Drucker (PhD. 1939), American engineer and recipient of National Medal of Science
- Antoine Marc Gaudin (1921), professor at MIT and a founding member of National Academy of Engineering
- Simon Kuznets (PhD. 1926), winner of the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
- John R. Ragazzini (PhD. 1941), pioneered the development of the z-transform method in discrete-time signal processing and analysis.
- Richard Skalak (1943), pioneer in Biomedical engineering
- Elmer L. Gaden (1944), Father of Biochemical Engineering
- William F. Schreiber (1945), renowned electrical engineer and developer of optical recognition machine
- Sheldon E. Isakoff (1945), chemical engineer and former director of DuPont
- Henry S. Coleman (B.S. 1946), acting dean of Columbia College, Columbia University who was held hostage during the Columbia University protests of 1968.
- Joseph F. Engelberger (1946), Father of Industrial robotics
- Edward A. Frieman (1946), former director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography
- Bernard Spitzer (M.S. 1947), real estate developer and philanthropist, father of Eliot Spitzer, 54th Governor of New York
- Lotfi Asker Zadeh (PhD. 1949), a renowned Iranian mathematician, electrical engineer, and computer scientist
- Henry Michel (1949), Civil Engineer, President of Parsons Brinckerhoff
- Anna Kazanjian Longobardo (1949), founder of the National Society of Women Engineers
- Richard G. Newman (M.S. 1950s), Chairman and former CEO of world-leading engineering firm AECOM
- Ed DiGiulio (1950), President Cinema Products Corporation
- Eliahu I. Jury (1953), Initiated field of discrete time systems, pioneered z-transform (the discrete time equivalent of the Laplace Transform), and created Jury stability criterion test
- Sheldon Weinig (1954), CEO of Materials Research Corporation, Vice chairman for Engineering and Manufacturing for SONY America
- Robert Spinrad (1954), American computer engineer and former director of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
- Ferdinand Freudenstein (PhD. 1954), mechanical engineer, professor, and widely considered the "Father of Modern Kinematics"
- Saul Amarel (PhD. 1955), computer scientist and pioneer in artificial intelligence
- Robert Moog (1957), pioneer of electronic music, inventor of the Moog synthesizer
- Rudolf Emil Kalman (PhD. 1957), electrical engineer and recipient of National Medal of Science
- Bernard J. Lechner (1957), electronics engineer and vice president of RCA Laboratories
- Joseph F. Traub (PhD. 1959), prominent computer scientist; head of the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science from 1971 to 1979 and founder of the Computer science department at Columbia University
- Masanobu Shinozuka (PhD. 1960), probabilistic mechanics, structural stability, and risk assessment
- Jeffrey Bleustein (PhD. 1962), former chairman and CEO of Harley-Davidson
- Roy Mankovitz (1963), scientist, inventor, health strategist
- Robert C. Merton (B.S. 1966), Winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics and co-author of the Black–Scholes pricing model
- Robert H. Grubbs (PhD 1968), California Institute of Technology professor and 2005 Nobel Prize laureate
- Robert D. Lilley (1969), Former President of the AT&T
- Jae-Un Chung (B.S. 1964, M.S. 1969), Former President, Vice chairman of Samsung Electronics and honorary chairman of Shinsegae Group, husband of Lee Myung-hee, Samsung heiress
- Feisal Abdul Rauf (1969), imam, author, activist; sponsor and director of Park51
- Eugene H. Trinh (1972), Vietnamese-American scientist and astronaut
- Kevin P. Chilton (1977), engineer, the current Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, former NASA astronaut
- Rocco B. Commisso (B.S. 1971), Italian-American billionaire, founder and CEO of Mediacom, the 8th largest cable television company in the United States
- Alvin E. Roth (B.S. 1971), Economist, 2012 Nobel Prize Laureate in Economics
- James Albaugh (1974), Current President and CEO of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, EVP of its parent company, The Boeing Company.
- Vikram Pandit (B.S. 1976), former CEO of Citigroup
- Jacqueline Barton (1979), pioneering researcher of DNA repair
- Ken Bowersox (M.S. 1979), engineer, United States Naval officer and a former NASA astronaut
- Sanjiv Ahuja (M.S. 1979), current CEO of Augere and former CEO of Orange
- William G. Gregory (M.S. 1980), NASA astronaut
- Len Blavatnik (M.S. 1981), billionaire, founder of Access Industries
- Peter Livanos (B.S. 1981), Greek shipping tycoon, billionaire, owner of Ceres Hellenic Shipping Enterprises and Chairman of Euronav; former major shareholder of Aston Martin
- Anrika Rupp (1981), artist
- Joshua Bloch (1982), Software engineer, Chief Java Architect at Google
- Jay Mehta (B.S. 1983), Indian businessman, owner of the conglomerate Mehta Group and Indian cricket team Kolkata Knight Riders; husband of Indian actress Juhi Chawla
- Ted Rall (dropped out 1984), Political cartoonist, President of the Association of American Editorial Cartoonists
- Michael Massimino (1984), Current engineer and astronaut—mission specialist, STS-109, STS-125.
- Gregory H. Johnson (1985), Current colonel, engineer, astronaut for International Space Station. STS-109, support for STS-125.
- Robert Bakish (B.S. 1985), current president and CEO of Viacom
- Marshall Nicholson (B.S. 1985), managing director at China International Capital Corp
- Chuck Hoberman (M.S. 1985), inventor and architect; designer of the Hoberman sphere
- Douglas Leone (M.S. 1986), billionaire venture capitalist and partner at Sequoia Capital
- Angeliki Frangou (M.S. 1988), Greek businesswoman, chairman and CEO of Navios Maritime Holdings
- Jelena Kovacevic (M.S. 1988, PhD 1991), first female dean of the New York University Tandon School of Engineering
- Moti Yung (PhD. 1988), Cryptographer; Information Security and Privacy Scientist Snapchat
- Alan E. Willner (PhD. 1988), professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Southern California, president of The Optical Society
- Arthur Altschul, Jr. (1989), entrepreneur and great-great-grandson of Lehman Brothers founder Mayer Lehman, husband of reporter Rula Jebreal
- Semyon Dukach (B.S. 1989), former chairman of SMTP and managing director of Techstars
- David Eppstein (PhD. 1989), developer of computational geometry, graph algorithms, and recreational mathematics
- Ursula Burns (M.S. 1991), Current CEO of Xerox Corporation, the first woman African-American Fortune 500 company CEO; Xerox is also the largest company a woman African American CEO is running.
- Azmi Mikati (B.S. 1994), CEO of M1 Group; son of Lebanese Prime Minister and billionaire Najib Mikati
- Neil Daswani (B.S. 1996), founder of Dasient
- Judy Joo (B.S. 1997), American chef and TV personality, starred in the show Iron Chef UK;
- David Yeung (B.S. 1998), Hong Kong entrepreneur; founder of Green Monday
- Jon Oringer (M.S. 1999), billionaire founder and CEO of Shutterstock
- Andy Ross (B.S. 2001), Ok Go band member: guitarist, keyboard, backup vocals
- Nullsleep (B.S. 2003), 8-bit musician and founder of the 8bitpeoples collective.
- Henry Krumb, Pioneer in development of porphyry copper deposit; namesake of the Henry Krumb School of Mines at Columbia University
- Leon Shamroy, American cinematographer with 18 Academy Awards nominations and 4 wins
Affiliates of the School
- Horst Ludwig Störmer I.I. Rabi professor of physics and applied physics, winner of 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin Professor, Serbian physicist and physical chemist whose inventions include the Pupin coil
- Theodore Zoli, adjunct professor of civil engineering and structural engineer
- Charles F. Chandler American chemist, first Dean of Columbia University's School of Mines
- Harold Clayton Urey Professor, Nobel Laureate (1934), extensive development in the Manhattan Project, discoverer of Deuterium.
- Dimitris Anastassiou Professor of Electrical Engineering, developer of MPEG-2 technology
- Thomas Egleston, founder of Columbia School of Mines and professor of mining and metallurgy
- John B. Medaris Commanding General of U.S. Army Ordnance Missile Command (ABMA), planned Invasion of Normandy; professor
- Isidor Isaac Rabi Professor, PhD from Columbia (1927), Nobel Laureate, Discoverer of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
- Mario Salvadori Architect, Structural Engineer, Professor (1940s–1990s), consultant on Manhattan Project, inventor of thin concrete shells
- Klaus Lackner, Professor of Environmental Engineering
- Chien-Shiung Wu "Chinese Marie Curie", first lady of physics, and Professor (1944–1980) who disproved "conservation of parity"
- Cyril M. Harris, Professor of Electrical Engineering and architect
- Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. Discovery of deuteron electric quadrupole moment, molecular beam spectroscopy. Professor (1940–1947), B.A. PhD Columbia.
- Frank Press Geophysicist, work in seismic activity and wave theory, counsel to four presidents. M.A., PhD Columbia, and researcher.
- Leon M. Lederman A Nobel Laureate, discoverer of muon neutrino '62, bottom quark '77. Professor (1951–1989). M.A., PhD Columbia
- Eric Kandel Biophysicist, Nobel Laureate, uncovered secrets of synapses. Professor Physicians & Surgeons (1974–); research with the Biomedical Engineering department.
- Joseph F. Traub Founding chairman of the computer science department at Columbia
- Emanuel Derman, Professor and Director of Columbia's financial engineering program, co-authors of the Financial Modelers' Manifesto
- Alfred Aho Canadian computer scientist widely known for his co-authorship of the AWK programming language
- Gertrude Fanny Neumark one of the world's leading experts on doping wide-band semiconductors
- Charles Hard Townes professor and an American Nobel Prize-winning physicist who helped to invent the laser
- Jacob Millman Professor of Electrical Engineering, creator of Millman's Theorem
- John R. Dunning School Dean, physicist who played key roles in the development of the atomic bomb
- Steven M. Bellovin Professor of Computer Science
- Philip Kim Professor of Applied Physics and Mathematics
- Mihalis Yannakakis Professor of Computer Science, famous scholar noted for his work in the fields of Computational complexity theory, Databases
- Maria Chudnovsky, professor of operations research and industrial engineering
- David E Keyes, professor of applied mathematics
- Awi Federgruen, Affiliate Professor of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering
- Nicholas F. Maxemchuk Professor of Electrical Engineering
- Clifford Stein Professor of operations research and industrial engineering
- Ronald Breslow Professor of chemical engineering, now University Professor
- Santiago Calatrava (Honorary Doctorate, 2007), world renowned architect, sculptor and structural engineer, designer of Montjuic Communications Tower and World Trade Center Transportation Hub
- Ferdinand Freudenstein, Higgins Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering
- Henry Spotnitz, Affiliate Professor of Biomedical Engineering
- Thomas Christian Kavanagh, professor of civil engineering
- Vladimir Vapnik, Professor of Computer Science and co-developer of Vapnik–Chervonenkis theory
- Jaron Lanier, visiting scholar at the Computer Science department
- Sheldon Weinig, Professor of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering and founder of Materials Research Corporation
- Man-Chung Tang, professor of civil engineering and former chairman of American Society of Civil Engineers
- Van C. Mow, professor of biomedical engineering and member of the National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine
- Matt Berg, member of Mechanical Engineering Department research group and one of Time 100 Most Influential People in the World
- Bjarne Stroustrup, Professor in Computer Science, inventor of C++ programming language
- Shree K. Nayar, professor of Computer Science, inventor of 360° camera and developer of Oren–Nayar Reflectance Model
- David E. Shaw, former professor of Computer Science, founder of hedge fund, private equity and technology development firm D. E. Shaw & Co.
Columbia Engineering faculty are a central force in creating many groundbreaking discoveries that today are shaping life tomorrow. They are at the vanguard of their fields, collaborating with other world-renowned experts at Columbia and other universities to bring the best minds from a myriad of disciplines to shape the future.
Large, well-funded interdisciplinary centers in science and engineering, materials research, nanoscale research, and genomic research are making step changes in their respective fields while individual groups of engineers and scientists collaborate to solve theoretical and practical problems in other significant areas. Last year, Columbia Engineering's 2007–2008 research expenditures were $92,000,000, a very respectable number given the small size of the school. Harvard's research expenditures in the same period were $35,000,000. Columbia Engineering PhD students have ~60% more monetary resources to work with using the research expenditure : PhD student ratio.
The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science occupies five laboratory and classroom buildings at the north end of the campus, including the Schapiro Center for Engineering and Physical Science Research and the new Northwest Building on Morningside Heights. Because of the School's close proximity to the other Morningside facilities and programs, Columbia engineering students have access to the whole of the University's resources.
The School is the site of an almost overwhelming array of basic and advanced research installations which include both the NSEC and the MRSEC NSF-funded interdisciplinary research centers, as well as the Columbia High-Beta Tokamak, the Robert A.W. Carleton Strength of Materials Laboratory, and a 200g geotechnical centrifuge.
The Botwinick Multimedia Learning Laboratory is the School's facility for computer-aided design (CAD) and media development. It is equipped with 50 Apple Mac Pro 8-core workstations, as well as a cluster of Apple Xserves with Xraid storage, that serve the lab's 300-plus users per semester.
- Undergraduate Research Involvement Program
- Each SEAS department sponsors opportunities to do novel undergraduate research which have applications in the real world. Departmental Chairs supervise students through the process, and mentoring with a professor is provided.
- Materials Science and Engineering
- Computer Engineering
- Administered by both the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Departments through a joint Computer Engineering Committee.
- The Combined Plan Programs
- The 3–2, B.A./B.S., is designed to provide students with the opportunity to receive both a B.A. degree from an affiliated liberal arts college and a B.S. degree from SEAS within five years. Students complete the requirements for the liberal arts degree along with a pre-engineering course of study in three years at their college and then complete two years at Columbia.
- The 4–2 M.S. program is designed to allow students to complete an M.S. degree at SEAS in two years after completion of a B.A. degree at one of the affiliated schools. This program will allow students the opportunity to take undergraduate engineering courses if necessary.
- NRC Rankings Overview: Applied Mathematics – Faculty – The Chronicle of Higher Education. Chronicle.com (September 30, 2010). Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- The Top 10 Quant Schools
- Farmer, Melanie. "College Marks 25 years of Coeducation". The Record. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- Columbia Engineering history
- Columbia University – 2009. Profiles.asee.org. Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- "Stats". Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- US Engineering Schools – American Best Online Engineering School Rankings. Engineeringschoolsinusa.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Columbia University (Fu Foundation) | Best Engineering School | US News. Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Resdoc_MainTop_CDF. Sites.nationalacademies.org (September 28, 2010). Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Best Computer Science Programs | Top Computer Science Schools | US News Best Graduate Schools. Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Archived January 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Ranking of Computer Sciences Graduate Schools — PhDs.org Graduate School Guide. Graduate-school.phds.org. Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Ranking of Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Graduate Schools — PhDs.org Graduate School Guide. Graduate-school.phds.org. Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Jobs for PhDs, graduate school rankings, and career resources. PhDs.org (August 13, 2013). Retrieved on 2013-10-05.
- Financial engineering ranking by insiders
- Comstock, Cyrus (November 1893). Biographical memoir of William P. Trowbridge (PDF). 03. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
- "WILLARD F. JONES, 77, GULF OIL EXECUTIVE". The New York Times. August 20, 1967.
- Martin, Douglas. "Henry S. Coleman, 79, Dies; Hostage at Columbia in '68", The New York Times, February 4, 2006. Accessed September 12, 2009.
- McQuiston, John T. (October 18, 1986). "Robert D. Lilley Is Dead at 74; Former President of A.t.&t". The New York Times. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
- About Seas Birth Place of Laser
- Finch, James Kip (1954). A History of the School of Engineering, Columbia University. Bicentennial History of Columbia University. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Robert McCaughey (2014). A Lever Long Enough: A History of Columbia's School of Engineering and Applied Science Since 1864. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-16688-1.