FriCAS is a general purpose computer algebra system with a strong focus on mathematical research and development of new algorithms. It comprises an interpreter, a compiler and a still-growing library[1] of more than 1,000 domains and categories.

DeveloperWaldek Hebisch + independent group of people
Stable release
1.3.5 / 3 February 2019 (2019-02-03)
Implementation languageSPAD, Aldor, Boot, Common Lisp
LicenseModified BSD License
Filename extensions.spad, .input, .as

FriCAS provides a strongly typed high-level programming language called SPAD and a similar interactive language that uses type-inferencing for convenience. Aldor was intentionally developed being the next generation compiler for Axiom and forks. FriCAS (optionally) allows running Aldor programs. Both languages share a similar syntax and a sophisticated (dependent) type system.[2][3][4]

FriCAS is comprehensively documented and available as source code and as a binary distribution for the most common platforms. Compiling the sources requires besides other prerequisites a Common Lisp environment (whereby many of the major implementations are supported and freely available as open source).

FriCAS runs on many POSIX platforms such as Linux, macOS, Unix, BSD as well as under Cygwin and Microsoft Windows (restricted).


FriCAS is a descendant of Axiom [5] which itself has its origin in Scratchpad, a project that started in 1965 by James Griesmer [6] at IBM laboratories.[7] For more details see Axiom/History.


FriCAS has a rather complete implementation of the Risch–Bronstein–Trager algorithm (Risch algorithm for short).

Another useful[8] feature is stream:

)set stream calculate 5
exp_series := series(exp x, x=0)

Type: UnivariatePuiseuxSeries(Expression(Integer),x,0)

So any coefficient may be retrieved, for instance :


Type: Expression(Integer)

See also


  1. FriCAS API
  2. Poll, Erik; Thompson, Simon. "Adding the axioms to Axiom: Towards a system of automated reasoning in Aldor" (Monograph). Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  3. Poll, Erik; Thompson, Simon. "The Type System of Aldor" (Monograph). Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  4. Poll, Erik; Thompson, Simon. "Integrating Computer Algebra and Reasoning through the Type System of Aldor". In Hélène Kirchner, Christophe Ringeissen (eds.) (eds.). Frontiers of Combining Systems. 3rd International Workshop on Frontiers of Combining Systems (FroCoS 2000). 1794. Nancy, France: Springer-Verlag Berlin. pp. 136–150. ISBN 978-3-540-67281-4. Retrieved 2017-01-27.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  5. History (external link)
  6. Fitch, John (2012). "James Griesmer 1929–2011". ACM Commun. Comput. Algebra. 46 (1/2): 10–11. doi:10.1145/2338496.2338499. ISSN 1932-2240.
  7. Axiom history


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