Frederick Gale Ruffner Jr.

Frederick Gale Ruffner Jr. was an American publisher born in Akron, Ohio on August 26, 1926.

Frederick Gale Ruffner Jr.
Born(1926-08-26)August 26, 1926
DiedAugust 12, 2014(2014-08-12) (aged 87)
Alma materOhio State University[1]
Known forFounder of Gale Research
Notable work
Encyclopedia of Associations
Spouse(s)Mary Evans Ruffner
  • Frederick G. Ruffner, III
  • Peter E. Ruffner

He died August 12, 2014 at the age of 87.[1][2][3][4]

Publishing career

Ruffner founded Gale Research in 1954 while working as a market researcher for the General Detroit Corporation,[5] a manufacturer of fire extinguishers and fire trucks.

Early Gale publications included the National Directory of Rack Jobbers[6] and the National Directory of Trading Stamp Houses[7]

His first major success was the Encyclopedia of Associations, (originally titled the Encyclopedia of American Associations) in 1956.[8] Beginning with the third edition, the title was changed to the Encyclopedia of Associations.[9]

Other major publications included Contemporary Authors and the Dictionary of Literary Biography.

Ruffner sold Gale to Thomson in 1985.[10]

In 1985, Ruffner founded the publishing company Omnigraphics with his son Peter.

In 1986, Ruffner founded the Literary Landmarks Association to recognize historic sites related to major literary figures and events.[11]

Ruffner was awarded an honorary membership in the American Library Association in 1987.[12]

Military career

Ruffner enlisted in the U.S. Army at the age of seventeen and fought at Saipan and Okinawa during World War II.

He was awarded the Bronze Star Medal for Valor and the Combat Infantryman Badge.

See also


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