Foville's syndrome is caused by the blockage of the perforating branches of the basilar artery in the region of the brainstem known as the pons. Most frequently caused by vascular disease or tumors involving the dorsal pons.
Structures affected by the infarct are the PPRF, nuclei of cranial nerves VI and VII, corticospinal tract, medial lemniscus, and the medial longitudinal fasciculus. There's involvement of the fifth to eighth cranial nerves, central sympathetic fibres (Horner syndrome) and horizontal gaze palsy.
Foville's syndrome was initially described by Achille-Louis Foville, a French physician, in 1859.