Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula HCOOH. The chemical composition is HCOOH. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates. Industrially, formic acid is produced from methanol.
|Preferred IUPAC name|
|Systematic IUPAC name|
Carbonous acid; Formylic acid; Hydrogen carboxylic acid; Hydroxy(oxo)methane; Metacarbonoic acid; Oxocarbinic acid; Oxomethanol
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E236 (preservatives)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||46.025 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||Colorless fuming liquid|
|Melting point||8.4 °C (47.1 °F; 281.5 K)|
|Boiling point||100.8 °C (213.4 °F; 373.9 K)|
|Solubility||Miscible with ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, glycerol, methanol, ethanol |
Partially soluble in benzene, toluene, xylenes
|Vapor pressure||35 mmHg (20 °C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|1.3714 (20 °C)|
|Viscosity||1.57 cP at 268 °C|
|1.41 D (gas)|
|131.8 J/mol K|
Std enthalpy of
Std enthalpy of
|Main hazards||Corrosive; irritant;|
|Safety data sheet||See: data page|
MSDS from JT Baker
|R-phrases (outdated)||R10 R35|
|S-phrases (outdated)||(S1/2) S23 S26 S45|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||69 °C (156 °F; 342 K)|
|601 °C (1,114 °F; 874 K)|
18%–57% (90% solution)
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|700 mg/kg (mouse, oral), 1100 mg/kg (rat, oral), 4000 mg/kg (dog, oral)|
LC50 (median concentration)
|7853 ppm (rat, 15 min)|
3246 ppm (mouse, 15 min)
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)|
|TWA 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Related carboxylic acids
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, not unlike the related acetic acid. It is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, and is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons. In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules. Owing to its tendency to hydrogen-bond, gaseous formic acid does not obey the ideal gas law. Solid formic acid, which can exist in either of two polymorphs, consists of an effectively endless network of hydrogen-bonded formic acid molecules. Formic acid forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water (22.4%). Liquid formic acid tends to supercool.
In nature, formic acid is found in most ants and in stingless bees of the genus Oxytrigona. The wood ants from the genus Formica can spray formic acid on their prey or to defend the nest. It is also found in the trichomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Formic acid is a naturally occurring component of the atmosphere primarily due to forest emissions.
In 2009, the worldwide capacity for producing formic acid was 720,000 tonnes per year, roughly equally divided between Europe (350,000, mainly in Germany) and Asia (370,000, mainly in China) while production was below 1000 tonnes per year in all other continents. It is commercially available in solutions of various concentrations between 85 and 99 w/w %. As of 2009, the largest producers are BASF, Eastman Chemical Company, LC Industrial, and Feicheng Acid Chemicals, with the largest production facilities in Ludwigshafen (200,000 tonnes per year, BASF, Germany), Oulu (105,000, Eastman, Finland), Nakhon Pathom (n/a, LC Industrial), and Feicheng (100,000, Feicheng, China). 2010 prices ranged from around €650/tonne (equivalent to around $800/tonne) in Western Europe to $1250/tonne in the United States.
From methyl formate and formamide
- CH3OH + CO → HCO2CH3
In industry, this reaction is performed in the liquid phase at elevated pressure. Typical reaction conditions are 80 °C and 40 atm. The most widely used base is sodium methoxide. Hydrolysis of the methyl formate produces formic acid:
- HCO2CH3 + H2O → HCOOH + CH3OH
Efficient hydrolysis of methyl formate requires a large excess of water. Some routes proceed indirectly by first treating the methyl formate with ammonia to give formamide, which is then hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid:
- HCO2CH3 + NH3 → HC(O)NH2 + CH3OH
- 2 HC(O)NH2 + 2H2O + H2SO4 → 2HCO2H + (NH4)2SO4
A disadvantage of this approach is the need to dispose of the ammonium sulfate byproduct. This problem has led some manufacturers to develop energy-efficient methods of separating formic acid from the excess water used in direct hydrolysis. In one of these processes, used by BASF, the formic acid is removed from the water by liquid-liquid extraction with an organic base.
Niche chemical routes
By-product of acetic acid production
A significant amount of formic acid is produced as a byproduct in the manufacture of other chemicals. At one time, acetic acid was produced on a large scale by oxidation of alkanes, by a process that cogenerates significant formic acid. This oxidative route to acetic acid is declining in importance, so that the aforementioned dedicated routes to formic acid have become more important.
Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide
Oxidation of biomass
Formic acid can also be obtained by aqueous catalytic partial oxidation of wet biomass by the OxFA process. A Keggin-type polyoxometalate (H5PV2Mo10O40) is used as the homogeneous catalyst to convert sugars, wood, waste paper, or cyanobacteria to formic acid and CO2 as the sole byproduct. Yields of up to 53% formic acid can be achieved.
In the laboratory, formic acid can be obtained by heating oxalic acid in glycerol and extraction by steam distillation. Glycerol acts as a catalyst, as the reaction proceeds through a glyceryl oxalate intermediate. If the reaction mixture is heated to higher temperatures, allyl alcohol results. The net reaction is thus:
- C2O4H2 → CO2H2 + CO2
- Pb(HCOO)2 + H2S → 2HCOOH + PbS
3 + H
2O + 2e- → HCO−
2 + 2OH−
2 + H
2O + 2e- → HCO−
2 + OH−
If the feed is CO
2 and oxygen is evolved at the anode, the total reaction is:
2 + OH−
2 + 1/2 O2
This has been proposed as a large-scale source of formate by the team of Ron Milo. The formate could be used as feed to modified microbes for producing biomass. There exist natural microbes that can feed on formic acid or formate (see Methylotroph).
Formic acid is named after ants which have high concentrations of the compound in their venom. In ants, formic acid is derived from serine through a 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate intermediate. The conjugate base of formic acid, formate, also occurs widely in nature. An assay for formic acid in body fluids, designed for determination of formate after methanol poisoning, is based on the reaction of formate with bacterial formate dehydrogenase.
A major use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. In Europe, it is applied on silage, including fresh hay, to promote the fermentation of lactic acid and to suppress the formation of butyric acid; it also allows fermentation to occur quickly, and at a lower temperature, reducing the loss of nutritional value. Formic acid arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer, and so it is widely used to preserve winter feed for cattle. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to feed to kill E. coli bacteria. Use as preservative for silage and (other) animal feed constituted 30% of the global consumption in 2009.
Formic acid is also significantly used in the production of leather, including tanning (23% of the global consumption in 2009), and in dyeing and finishing textiles (9% of the global consumption in 2009) because of its acidic nature. Use as a coagulant in the production of rubber consumed 6% of the global production in 2009.
Formic acid application has been reported to be an effective treatment for warts.
Formic acid is often used as a component of mobile phase in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis and separation techniques for the separation of hydrophobic macromolecules, such as peptides, proteins and more complex structures including intact viruses. Especially when paired with mass spectrometry detection, formic acid offers several advantages over the more traditionally used phosphoric acid.
In synthetic organic chemistry, formic acid is often used as a source of hydride ion. The Eschweiler-Clarke reaction and the Leuckart-Wallach reaction are examples of this application. It, or more commonly its azeotrope with triethylamine, is also used as a source of hydrogen in transfer hydrogenation.
- CH2O2 + H2SO4 → H2SO4 + H2O + CO
Formic acid shares most of the chemical properties of other carboxylic acids. Because of its high acidity, solutions in alcohols form esters spontaneously. Formic acid shares some of the reducing properties of aldehydes, reducing solutions of gold, silver, and platinum to the metals.
- CH2O2 → H2 + CO2
Soluble ruthenium catalysts are also effective. Carbon monoxide free hydrogen has been generated in a very wide pressure range (1–600 bar). Formic acid has been considered as a means of hydrogen storage. The co-product of this decomposition, carbon dioxide, can be rehydrogenated back to formic acid in a second step. Formic acid contains 53 g/L hydrogen at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, which is three and a half times as much as compressed hydrogen gas can attain at 350 bar pressure (14.7 g/L). Pure formic acid is a liquid with a flash point of +69 °C, much higher than that of gasoline (−40 °C) or ethanol (+13 °C).
Addition to alkenes
Formic acid is unique among the carboxylic acids in its ability to participate in addition reactions with alkenes. Formic acids and alkenes readily react to form formate esters. In the presence of certain acids, including sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids, however, a variant of the Koch reaction occurs instead, and formic acid adds to the alkene to produce a larger carboxylic acid.
Some alchemists and naturalists were aware that ant hills give off an acidic vapor as early as the 15th century. The first person to describe the isolation of this substance (by the distillation of large numbers of ants) was the English naturalist John Ray, in 1671. Ants secrete the formic acid for attack and defense purposes. Formic acid was first synthesized from hydrocyanic acid by the French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac. In 1855, another French chemist, Marcellin Berthelot, developed a synthesis from carbon monoxide similar to the process used today.
Formic acid was long considered a chemical compound of only minor interest in the chemical industry. In the late 1960s, however, significant quantities became available as a byproduct of acetic acid production. It now finds increasing use as a preservative and antibacterial in livestock feed.
Formic acid has low toxicity (hence its use as a food additive), with an LD50 of 1.8 g/kg (tested orally on mice). The concentrated acid is corrosive to the skin.
Formic acid is readily metabolized and eliminated by the body. Nonetheless, it has specific toxic effects; the formic acid and formaldehyde produced as metabolites of methanol are responsible for the optic nerve damage, causing blindness, seen in methanol poisoning. Some chronic effects of formic acid exposure have been documented. Some experiments on bacterial species have demonstrated it to be a mutagen. Chronic exposure in humans may cause kidney damage. Another possible effect of chronic exposure is development of a skin allergy that manifests upon re-exposure to the chemical.
Concentrated formic acid slowly decomposes to carbon monoxide and water, leading to pressure buildup in the containing vessel. For this reason, 98% formic acid is shipped in plastic bottles with self-venting caps.
The hazards of solutions of formic acid depend on the concentration. The following table lists the EU classification of formic acid solutions:
|Concentration (weight percent)||Classification||R-Phrases|
Formic acid in 85% concentration is flammable, and diluted formic acid is on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration list of food additives. The principal danger from formic acid is from skin or eye contact with the concentrated liquid or vapors. The U.S. OSHA Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of formic acid vapor in the work environment is 5 parts per million parts of air (ppm).
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Formic acid.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Formic Acid.|
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- International Chemical Safety Card 0485.
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