Fieldata

FIELDATA (also written as Fieldata) was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard (as defined in MIL-STD-188A/B/C[1][2][3][4]) for collecting and distributing battlefield information. In this respect it could be thought of as a generalization of the US Air Force's SAGE system that was being created at about the same time.

FIELDATA character encoding
Military primary (1xxxxxx) code, a representative military supervisory (0xxxxxx) code, UNIVAC graphical code.
Classification7-bit or 6-bit basic Latin encoding
Preceded byITA 2
Succeeded byUS-ASCII

Unlike SAGE, FIELDATA was intended to be much larger in scope, allowing information to be gathered from any number of sources and forms. Much of the FIELDATA system was the specifications for the format the data would take, leading to a character set that would be a huge influence on ASCII a few years later.[1][5] FIELDATA also specified the message formats and even the electrical standards for connecting FIELDATA-standard machines together.

Another part of the FIELDATA project was the design and construction of computers at several different scales, from data-input terminals at one end, to theatre-wide data processing centers at the other. Several FIELDATA-standard computers were built during the lifetime of the project, including the transportable MOBIDIC from Sylvania, and the BASICPAC and LOGICPAC from Philco. Another system, ARTOC, was intended to provide graphical output (in the form of photographic slides),[6][7][8] but was never completed.

Because FIELDATA did not specify codes for interconnection and data transmission control, different systems (like "STANDARD FORM", "COMLOGNET Common language code", "SACCOMNET (465L) Control Code"[9][5]) used different control functions. Intercommunication between them was difficult.[1]

FIELDATA is the original character set used internally in UNIVAC computers of the 1100 series, each six-bit character contained in six sequential bits of the 36-bit word of that computer. The direct successor to the UNIVAC 1100 is the Unisys 2200 series computers, which use FIELDATA to this day (although ASCII is now also common with each character encoded in 1/4 of a word, or 9 bits). Because some of the FIELDATA characters are not represented in ASCII, the Unisys 2200 uses '^', '"' and '_' characters for codes 004oct, 076oct and 077oct respectively.

The FIELDATA project ran from 1956 until it was stopped during a reorganization in 1962.

FIELDATA characters

Military

Tag Bit (1)Indicator Bits (2)Detail Bits (4)Binary Bits (1+6)DecimalOctalGlyphNameComment
Supervisory code (tag bit 0)
00000000:0000000000Blank / Idle (IDL)
00000010:0000011001Control Upper Case (CUC)
00000100:0000102002Control Lower Case (CLC)
00000110:0000113003Control Tab (CHT)
00001000:0001004004Control Carriage Return (CCR)
00001010:0001015005Control Space (CSP)
00001100:0001106006a The first two rows of the supervisory code are not used in all applications, only where "alphabetic supervisory information" is required.[10] COMLOGNET omits them, while SACCOMNET includes additional control characters in place of the supervisory letters.[5]
00001110:0001117007b
00010000:0010008010c
00010010:0010019011d
00010100:00101010012e
00010110:00101111013f
00011000:00110012014g
00011010:00110113015h
00011100:00111014016i
00011110:00111115017j
00100000:01000016020k
00100010:01000117021l
00100100:01001018022m
00100110:01001119023n
00101000:01010020024o
00101010:01010121025p
00101100:01011022026q
00101110:01011123027r
00110000:01100024030s
00110010:01100125031t
00110100:01101026032u
00110110:01101127033v
00111000:01110028034w
00111010:01110129035x
00111100:01111030036y
00111110:01111131037z
01000000:10000032040βDial 0 (D0)Graphical in COMLOGNET variant.[5]
01000010:10000133041#Dial 1 (D1)
01000100:10001034042tDial 2 (D2)
01000110:10001135043Dial 3 (D3)
01001000:10010036044Dial 4 (D4)
01001010:10010137045@Dial 5 (D5)Graphical in COMLOGNET variant.
01001100:10011038046%Dial 6 (D6)
01001110:10011139047¢Dial 7 (D7)
01010000:10100040050Dial 8 (D8)BEL in COMLOGNET.
01010010:10100141051&Dial 9 (D9)Graphical in COMLOGNET variant.
01010100:10101042052Start of Control Block (SCB, SOC)
01010110:10101143053Start of Block (SBK, SOB)
01011000:10110044054Spare, SOD
01011010:10110145055°Spare
01011100:10111046056Spare
01011110:10111147057Spare, Stop
01100000:11000048060Ready to Transmit (RTT)
01100010:11000149061Ready to Receive (RTR)
01100100:11001050062Not Ready to Receive (NRR)
01100110:11001151063End of Blockette (EBE, EOBK)
01101000:11010052064End of Block (EBK, EOB)
01101010:11010153065End of File (EOF)
01101100:11011054066End of Control Block (ECB, EOC)
01101110:11011155067Acknowledge Receipt (ACK, ACR)
01110000:11100056070Repeat Block (RPT, RBK)
01110010:11100157071SpareOrdered ISN, NISN, CWF, Spare in some variants.[5]
01110100:11101058072Interpret Sign (INS, ISN)
01110110:11101159073Non-Interpret Sign (NIS, NISN)
01111000:11110060074Control Word Follows (CWF)
01111010:11110161075S.A.C. (SAC)
01111100:11111062076Special Character (SPC)ASCII ESC.[5]
01111110:11111163077Delete (DEL)
Primary code (tag bit 1)
10000001:00000064100Master Space (MS)
10000011:00000165101Upper Case (UC)
10000101:00001066102Lower Case (LC)
10000111:00001167103Tab (HT)
10001001:00010068104Carriage Return (CR)
10001011:00010169105Blank / Space (SP)
10001101:00011070106A
10001111:00011171107B
10010001:00100072110C
10010011:00100173111D
10010101:00101074112E
10010111:00101175113F
10011001:00110076114G
10011011:00110177115H
10011101:00111078116I
10011111:00111179117J
10100001:01000080120K
10100011:01000181121L
10100101:01001082122M
10100111:01001183123N
10101001:01010084124O
10101011:01010185125P
10101101:01011086126Q
10101111:01011187127R
10110001:01100088130S
10110011:01100189131T
10110101:01101090132U
10110111:01101191133V
10111001:01110092134W
10111011:01110193135X
10111101:01111094136Y
10111111:01111195137Z
11000001:10000096140)
11000011:10000197141-
11000101:10001098142+
11000111:10001199143<
11001001:100100100144=
11001011:100101101145>
11001101:100110102146_& in UNIVAC.
11001111:100111103147$
11010001:101000104150*
11010011:101001105151(
11010101:101010106152"% in UNIVAC.
11010111:101011107153:
11011001:101100108154?
11011011:101101109155!
11011101:101110110156,
11011111:101111111157Stop (ST)
11100001:1100001121600
11100011:1100011131611
11100101:1100101141622
11100111:1100111151633
11101001:1101001161644
11101011:1101011171655
11101101:1101101181666
11101111:1101111191677
11110001:1110001201708
11110011:1110011211719
11110101:111010122172'
11110111:111011123173;
11111001:111100124174/
11111011:111101125175.
11111101:111110126176Special Character (SPEC)
11111111:111111127177Backspace (BS)

UNIVAC

The code version used on the UNIVAC was based on the second half (primary code) of the military version with some changes.[11]

Indicator Bits (2)Detail Bits (4)Binary Bits (6)DecimalOctalGlyphNameComments
000000000000000@Sometimes switched with Δ[11]
000001000001101[
000010000010202]
000011000011303#Line Feed (LF) on 1107 and 1108[11]
000100000100404ΔDeltaCarriage Return (CR) on 1107 and 1108[11]
000101000101505Blank / Space (SP)
000110000110606A
000111000111707B
001000001000810C
001001001001911D
0010100010101012E
0010110010111113F
0011000011001214G
0011010011011315H
0011100011101416I
0011110011111517J
0100000100001620K
0100010100011721L
0100100100101822M
0100110100111923N
0101000101002024O
0101010101012125P
0101100101102226Q
0101110101112327R
0110000110002430S
0110010110012531T
0110100110102632U
0110110110112733V
0111000111002834W
0111010111012935X
0111100111103036Y
0111110111113137Z
1000001000003240)
1000011000013341-
1000101000103442+
1000111000113543<
1001001001003644=
1001011001013745>
1001101001103846&Changed from _ in military version.
1001111001113947$
1010001010004050*
1010011010014151(
1010101010104252%Changed from " in military version.
1010111010114353:
1011001011004454?
1011011011014555!
1011101011104656,
1011111011114757\Stop sign (🛑) on 1107 and 1108[11]
11000011000048600
11000111000149611
11001011001050622
11001111001151633
11010011010052644
11010111010153655
11011011011054666
11011111011155677
11100011100056708
11100111100157719
1110101110105872'
1110111110115973;
1111001111006074/
1111011111016175.
1111101111106276Lozenge
1111111111116377Not EqualIdle character (IDLE) on some models[11]

Character map

Military version

The following table is representative of a reference version of the military set, as described in Leubbert (1960). Various other variants exist, with in some cases dramatic differences in the supervisory code (the first four rows 0-3).[5] The letters in the first two rows are intended for use in "alphabetic supervisory information".[10]

FIELDATA (military)[5][12]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
IDL
0000
CUC
 
CLC
 
CHT
0009
CCR
000D
CSP
0020
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
1_
16
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
2_
32
D0
 
D1
 
D2
 
D3
 
D4
 
D5
 
D6
 
D7
 
D8
 
D9
 
SCB
 
SBK
0001
3_
48
RTT
 
RTR
 
NRR
 
EBE
 
EBK
0017
EOF
 
ECB
 
ACK
0006
RPT
0015
INS
 
NIS
 
CWF
 
SAC
 
SPC
001B
DEL
007F
4_
64
MS
 
UC
 
LC
 
HT
0009
CR
000D
SP
00A0
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
5_
80
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
6_
96
)
0029
-
002D
+
002B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
_
005F
$
0024
*
002A
(
0028
"
0022
:
003A
?
003F
!
0021
,
002C
STOP
 
7_
112
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
'
0027
;
003B
/
002F
.
002E
SPEC
 
BS
0008

UNIVAC version

The code version used on the UNIVAC was based on the second half (6-bit primary code) of the military version with some changes.[11]

FIELDATA (UNIVAC)[11]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
@
0040
[
005B
]
005D
#/LF
0023/000A
Δ/CR
0394/000D
SP
0020
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
1_
16
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
2_
32
)
0029
-
002D
+
002B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
&
0026
$
0024
*
002A
(
0028
%
0025
:
003A
?
003F
!
0021
,
002C
\/🛑
005C/1F6D1
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
'
0027
;
003B
/
002F
.
002E

2311
/IDL
2260/0000

Footnotes

  1. Mackenzie 1980.
  2. Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188A, 1958-04-25
  3. Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188B, 1964-02-24
  4. Military Communication System Technical Standard, MIL-STD-188C, 1969-11-24
  5. Jennings 2016.
  6. Kent, Allen; Lancour, Harold (1971). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Volume 5 - Circulation to Coordinate Indexing. CRC Press. pp. 395, 398. ISBN 9780824720056.
  7. "Army Tactical Operations Central (ARTOC) information system". sr-ix.com.
  8. "THE ARTOC". Man in Command Information Processing Systems--A Research Program. 1963. pp. 1–4.
  9. International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation (ITT) (1968). Reference Data for Radio Engineers (5 ed.). Howard W. Sams and Co. pp. Appendix. ISBN 978-0-672-20678-8. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
  10. Leubbert 1960, p. 196.
  11. Walker 1996.
  12. Leubbert 1960.

References and further reading

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