A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include capital districts, and they exist in various federations worldwide.
The seat of the U.S. federal government in Washington is located in a federal district called the District of Columbia. Other federally administered areas that are within one of the 50 states, but not under its jurisdiction, are called federal enclaves.
Additionally, the U.S. federal court system divides each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico into one or more federal judicial districts. A United States district court and a bankruptcy court are located in each. There are also regional federal judicial circuits, each consisting of a group of states (except for the District of Columbia Circuit, which consists of the federal district, and the Federal Circuit, whose jurisdiction is based on specific subject matter instead of geography); Puerto Rico and the United States territorial courts are also assigned to circuits. Each circuit has a United States court of appeals.
- Federal District (Brazil), where the Brazilian capital Brasília is located.
- Capital District (Venezuela), where the Venezuelan capital Caracas is located.
- former Federal District (Argentina), was converted into the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires in 1994.
- former Federal District (Mexico), was converted into the City of Mexico in January 2016.
The Federal Capital Territory is a federal territory in central Nigeria. Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, is located in this territory. The Federal Capital Territory was formed in 1976 from parts of the states of Nasarawa, Niger and Kogi. It is within in the Middle Belt region of the country. It is administered by the Federal Capital Territory Administration, headed by a minister appointed by the President.
India, Pakistan and Malaysia
In Malaysia, the term Federal Territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) is used for the three territories governed directly by the federal government: Kuala Lumpur (national capital), Putrajaya (federal government administrative centre) and Labuan (international offshore financial centre).
In India, the term Union Territory is used for the nine territories governed directly by the central government with its own Chief minister and Lieutenant Governor: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. Of these, Delhi and Puducherry possess partial statehood with their own elected chief ministers.
Russia has three cities of federal significance, established by the Constitution — Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol (de jure part of Ukraine, occupied by Russia). Each city is treated as a separate federal subject and has its own legislative body. Russia has federal districts, but these form an additional administrative layer between the federation government and the federal subjects rather than being a distinct type of jurisdiction.