For computer file systems, fdisk is a command-line utility that provides disk partitioning functions. It is available in DOS, DR FlexOS, IBM OS/2, and Microsoft Windows operating systems, and in certain ports of FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD and macOS for compatibility reasons. In versions of the Windows NT operating system line from Windows 2000 onwards,
is replaced by a more advanced tool called
diskpart. Similar utilities exist for Unix-like systems, for example, BSD disklabel.
|Developer(s)||Robert Baron, IBM, Microsoft, Digital Research, Novell, Brian E. Reifsnyder|
|Initial release||1983, 35–36 years ago|
|Operating system||MS-DOS, PC DOS, FlexOS, OS/2, Windows, DR DOS, *BSD|
IBM PC DOS
, Fixed Disk Setup Program version 1.00, with the March 1983 release of the IBM PC/XT, the first PC to store data on a hard disk, and the IBM Personal Computer DOS version 2.0. Version 1 could be used to create one FAT12 DOS partition, delete it, change the active partition, or display partition data.
writes the master boot record, which supported up to four partitions. The other three were intended for other operating systems such as CP/M-86 and Xenix, which were expected to have their own partitioning utilities as
did not support them.
In August 1984, PC DOS 3.0 added FAT16 partitions to support larger hard disks more efficiently.
IBM PC DOS 7.10 contained
Microsoft DOS and Windows
A derivative of the MS-DOS
was provided with Windows 95, Windows 98, and later Windows ME. Only those
versions shipping with Windows 95B or later are able to manipulate FAT32 partitions. Windows 2000 and later do not use
, they have the Logical Disk Manager feature, as well as
programs for other operating systems, the
programs for DOS and Windows 9x/Me not only alter data in the partition table, but will also overwrite many sectors of data in the partition itself. (However, to create an extended partition any partition editor must put extended boot records before each logical drive on the disk.) Users must be sure the correct disk/partition has been chosen before using a DOS/Windows
for partitioning. The
switch is undocumented but well known for repairing the master boot record.
supplied with Windows 95 does not report the correct size of a hard disk that is larger than 64 GB. An updated
is available from Microsoft that corrects this. Microsoft named the replacement "263044usa8" and is Version 4.72.2811.0. Signature May 23, 2000. The original Windows 98
program size is smaller than the updated one.
OS/2 shipped with two partition table managers up until version 4.0. These were the text mode fdisk and the GUI-based fdiskpm. The two have identical functionality, and can manipulate both FAT partitions and the more advanced HPFS partitions.
Mach and 386BSD
for Mach Operating System was written by Robert Baron. It was ported to 386BSD by Julian Elischer, and the implementation is being used by FreeBSD, NetBSD and DragonFly BSD, all as of 2019, as well as the early versions of OpenBSD between 1995 and 1997 before OpenBSD 2.2.
Tobias Weingartner re-wrote
in 1997 before OpenBSD 2.2, which has subsequently been forked by Apple Computer, Inc in 2002, and is still used as the basis for
on macOS as of 2019.
For native partitions, BSD systems traditionally use BSD disklabel, and
partitioning is supported only on certain architectures (for compatibility reasons) and only in addition to the BSD disklabel (which is mandatory).
In Linux the maximum number of partitions you can have with fdisk is 60 (3 primary partitions, 1 extended partition and 56 logical partitions) and not more than that.
- "fdisk(8) — PC slice table (MBR) maintenance program". System Manager's Manual. FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD.
- "fdisk — PC slice table maintenance utility". BSD Cross Reference. FreeBSD. Lay summary.
- "fdisk — MS-DOS partition maintenance program". BSD Cross Reference. NetBSD. Lay summary.
- "fdisk — partition table maintenance program". BSD Cross Reference. OpenBSD. Lay summary.
- "fdisk — PC slice table (MBR) maintenance program". BSD Cross Reference. DragonFly BSD. Lay summary.
- "fdisk.tproj/fdisk.8", macOS 10.14.1, Apple
- Wolverton, Van (2003). Running MS-DOS Version 6.22 (20th Anniversary Edition), 6th Revised edition. Microsoft Press. ISBN 0-7356-1812-7.
- "How to Use the Fdisk and Format Tools to Partition or Repartition a Hard Disk". Support (6.0 ed.). Microsoft. 28 June 2012.
- "Fdisk Does Not Recognize Full Size of Hard Disks Larger than 64 GB". Support (4.0 ed.). Microsoft. 24 August 2012.
- DR DOS 6.0 User Guide Optimisation and Configuration Tips
- "PTS-DOS 2000 Pro User Manual" (PDF). Buggingen, Germany: Paragon Technology GmbH. 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-12. Retrieved 2018-05-12.
- Wolverton, Van (1990). MS-DOS Commands: Microsoft Quick Reference, 4th Revised edition. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-1556152894.
- Kathy Ivens; Brian Proffit (1993). OS/2 Inside & Out. Osborne McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0078818714.
- Tim O'Reilly; Troy Mott; Walter Glenn (1999). Windows 98 in a Nutshell: A Desktop Quick Reference. O'Reilly. ISBN 978-1565924864.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Guide to Windows Commands|