FFmpeg

FFmpeg is a free and open-source project consisting of a vast software suite of libraries and programs for handling video, audio, and other multimedia files and streams. At its core is the FFmpeg program itself, designed for command-line-based processing of video and audio files, and widely used for format transcoding, basic editing (trimming and concatenation), video scaling, video post-production effects, and standards compliance (SMPTE, ITU).

FFmpeg
FFmpeg running on Arch Linux
Original author(s)Fabrice Bellard
Developer(s)FFmpeg team
Initial releaseDecember 20, 2000 (2000-12-20)[1]
Stable release4.2.1 (September 7, 2019 (2019-09-07)[2]) [±]
Preview releaseGit [±]
Repositorygit.ffmpeg.org/ffmpeg.git
Written inC and Assembly[3]
Operating systemWindows, macOS, and Linux; may be compiled for other OSes.[4]
Platformx86, ARM, PowerPC, MIPS, DEC Alpha, Blackfin, AVR32, SH-4, and SPARC; may be compiled for other desktop computers
TypeMultimedia framework
LicenseLGPL 2.1+, GPL 2+
Unredistributable if compiled with NVIDIA Performance Primitives[5]
Websiteffmpeg.org

FFmpeg includes libavcodec, an audio/video codec library used by many commercial and free software products, libavformat (Lavf),[6] an audio/video container mux and demux library, and the core ffmpeg command line program for transcoding multimedia files.

FFmpeg is part of the workflow of hundreds of other software projects, and its libraries are a core part of software media players such as VLC, and has been included in core processing for YouTube and the iTunes inventory of files. Codecs for the encoding and/or decoding of most of all known audio and video file formats is included, making it highly useful for the transcoding of common and uncommon media files into a single common format.

The name of the project is inspired by the MPEG video standards group, together with "FF" for "fast forward".[7] The logo uses a zigzag pattern that shows how MPEG video codecs handle entropy encoding.[8]

FFmpeg is published under the GNU Lesser General Public License 2.1+ or GNU General Public License 2+ (depending on which options are enabled).[9]

History

The project was started by Fabrice Bellard[9] (using the pseudonym "Gérard Lantau") in 2000, and was led by Michael Niedermayer from 2004 until 2015.[10] Some FFmpeg developers were also part of the MPlayer project.

On January 10, 2014, two Google employees announced that over 1000 bugs had been fixed in FFmpeg during the previous two years by means of fuzz testing.[11]

In January 2018, the ffserver command-line program – a long-time component of FFmpeg – was removed.[12] The developers had previously deprecated the program citing high maintenance efforts due to its use of internal application programming interfaces (API).[13]

The project publishes a new release every three months on average. While release versions are available from the website for download, FFmpeg developers recommend that users compile the software from source using the latest build from their source code Git version control system.[14]

Codec history

Two video coding formats with corresponding codecs and one container format have been created within the FFmpeg project so far. The two video codecs are the lossless FFV1, and the lossless and lossy Snow codec. Development of Snow has stalled, while its bit-stream format has not been finalized yet, making it experimental since 2011. The multimedia container format called NUT is no longer being actively developed, but still maintained.[15]

In summer 2010, Fiona Glaser, Ronald Bultje, and David Conrad of the FFmpeg Team announced the ffvp8 decoder. Through testing, they determined that ffvp8 was faster than Google's own libvpx decoder.[16][17] Starting with version 0.6, FFmpeg also supported WebM and VP8.[18]

In October 2013, a native VP9[19] and the OpenHEVC decoder, an open source High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) decoder, were added to FFmpeg.[20] In 2016 the native AAC encoder was considered stable, removing support for the two external AAC encoders from VisualOn and FAAC. FFmpeg 3.0 (nicknamed "Einstein") retained build support for the Fraunhofer FDK AAC encoder.[21] Since version 3.4 "Cantor" FFmpeg supported the FITS image format.[22] Since November 2018 in version 4.1 "al-Khwarizmi" AV1 can be muxed in MP4 and Matroska incl. WebM.[23][24]

Forks

On March 13, 2011, a group of FFmpeg developers decided to fork the project under the name "Libav".[25][26][27] The event was related to an issue in project management, in which developers disagreed with the leadership of FFmpeg.[28][29][30]

Components

Command line tools

  • ffmpeg is a command-line tool that converts audio or video formats. It can also capture and encode in real-time from various hardware and software sources such as a TV capture card.
  • ffplay is a simple media player utilizing SDL and the FFmpeg libraries.
  • ffprobe is a command-line tool to display media information (text, CSV, XML, JSON), see also Mediainfo.

Libraries

  • libswresample is a library containing audio resampling routines.
  • libavresample is a library containing audio resampling routines from the Libav project, similar to libswresample from ffmpeg.
  • libavcodec is a library containing all of the native FFmpeg audio/video encoders and decoders. Most codecs were developed from scratch to ensure best performance and high code reusability.
  • libavformat (Lavf)[6] is a library containing demuxers and muxers for audio/video container formats.
  • libavutil is a helper library containing routines common to different parts of FFmpeg. This library includes hash functions (Adler-32, CRC, MD5, RIPEMD, SHA-1. SHA-2, MurmurHash3, HMAC MD-5, HMAC SHA-1 and HMAC SHA-2), ciphers (DES, RC4, AES, AES-CTR, TEA, XTEA, Blowfish, CAST-128, Twofish and Camellia), LZO decompressor and Base64 encoder/decoder.
  • libpostproc is a library containing older h263 based video postprocessing routines.
  • libswscale is a library containing video image scaling and colorspace/pixelformat conversion routines.
  • libavfilter is the substitute for vhook which allows the video/audio to be modified or examined between the decoder and the encoder. Filters have been ported from many projects including MPlayer and avisynth.

Supported hardware

CPUs

FFmpeg encompasses software implementations of video and audio compressing and decompressing algorithms. These can be compiled and run on diverse instruction sets.

Many widespread instruction sets are supported by FFmpeg, including x86 (IA-32 and x86-64), PPC (PowerPC), ARM, DEC Alpha, SPARC, and MIPS.[31]

Special purpose hardware

Various application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) related to video and audio compression and decompression do exist. Such ASIC can perform the computation for audio/video decompression or compression partly or fully to offload these from the host CPU. To make use of such ASIC, instead of a complete implementation of some algorithm, only the API is required. There are numerous ASICs and APIs available, of which several are supported by FFmpeg.[32]

FirmASICpurposesupported by FFmpegDetails
AMDUVDdecodingvia VDPAU API and VAAPI
VCEencodingvia VAAPI, considered experimental[33]
AmlogicAmlogic Video Enginedecoding?
BlackMagic DeckLink encoding/decodingreal-time ingest and playout
BroadcomCrystal HDdecoding
IntelIntel Clear Videodecoding
Intel Quick Sync Videoencoding/decoding
NvidiaPureVideo / NVDECdecodingvia the VDPAU API as of FFmpeg v1.2 (deprecated)
via CUVID API as of FFmpeg v3.1[34]
NVENCencodingas of FFmpeg v2.6

Use with the FFmpeg Utility

Internal hardware acceleration decoding is enabled through the -hwaccel option. It starts decoding normally, but if a decodable stream is detected in hardware, then the decoder designates all significant processing to that hardware, thus accelerating the decoding process. Whereas if no decodable streams are detected (as happens on an unsupported codec or profile), hardware acceleration will be skipped and it will still be decoded in software. -hwaccel_device option is applied when the hardware requires a particular device to function especially there are several graphic cards are available.

Supported codecs and formats

Image formats

FFmpeg supports many common and some uncommon image formats.

The PGMYUV image format is a homebrewn variant of the binary (P5) PGM Netpbm format. FFmpeg also supports 16-bit depths of the PGM and PPM formats, and the binary (P7) PAM format with or without alpha channel, depth 8 bit or 16 bit for pix_fmts monob, gray, gray16be, rgb24, rgb48be, ya8, rgba, rgb64be.

Supported formats

In addition to FFV1 and Snow formats, which were created and developed from within FFmpeg, the project also supports the following formats:

GroupFormat typeFormat name
ISO/IEC/ITU-T VideoMPEG-1 Part 2, H.261 (Px64),[35] H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2, H.263,[35] MPEG-4 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HEVC/H.265[20] (MPEG-H Part 2), Motion JPEG, IEC DV video and CD+G
AudioMP1, MP2, MP3, AAC, HE-AAC, MPEG-4 ALS, G.711 μ-law, G.711 A-law, G.721 (a.k.a. G.726 32k), G.722, G.722.2 (a.k.a. AMR-WB), G.723 (a.k.a. G.726 24k and 40k), G.723.1, G.726, G.729, G.729D, IEC DV audio and Direct Stream Transfer
SubtitleMPEG-4 Timed Text (a.k.a. 3GPP Timed Text)
ImageJPEG, Lossless JPEG, JPEG-LS, JPEG 2000, PNG, CCITT G3 and CCITT G4
Alliance for Open Media Video AV1[36]
EIA SubtitleEIA-608
CEA SubtitleCEA-708
SMPTE VideoSMPTE 314M (a.k.a. DVCAM and DVCPRO), SMPTE 370M (a.k.a. DVCPRO HD), VC-1 (a.k.a. WMV3), VC-2 (a.k.a. Dirac Pro), VC-3 (a.k.a. AVID DNxHD)
AudioSMPTE 302M
AudioFull Rate (GSM 06.10), AC-3 (Dolby Digital), Enhanced AC-3 (Dolby Digital Plus) and DTS Coherent Acoustics (a.k.a. DTS or DCA)
ImageDPX
ATSC/ETSI/DVB SubtitleDVB Subtitling (ETSI 300 743)
DVD Forum/Dolby AudioMLP / Dolby TrueHD
SubtitleDVD-Video subtitles
DTS, Inc/QDesign AudioDTS Coherent Acoustics (a.k.a. DTS or DCA), DTS Extended Surround (a.k.a. DTS-ES), DTS 96/24, DTS-HD High Resolution Audio, DTS Express (a.k.a. DTS-HD LBR), DTS-HD Master Audio, QDesign Music Codec 1 and 2
Blu-ray Disc Association SubtitlePGS (Presentation Graphics Stream)
3GPPAudioAMR-NB, AMR-WB (a.k.a. G.722.2)
3GPP2AudioQCELP-8 (a.k.a. SmartRate or IS-96C), QCELP-13 (a.k.a. PureVoice or IS-733) and Enhanced Variable Rate Codec (EVRC. a.k.a. IS-127)
World Wide Web Consortium VideoAnimated GIF
SubtitleWebVTT
ImageGIF
IETF AudioiLBC (via libilbc), Opus and Comfort noise
International Voice AssociationAudioDSS-SP
SACVideoAVS video
Microsoft VideoMicrosoft RLE, Microsoft Video 1, Cinepak, Indeo (v2, v3 and v5),[35] Microsoft MPEG-4 v1, v2 and v3, Windows Media Video (WMV1, WMV2, WMV3/VC-1), WMV Screen and Mimic codec
AudioWindows Media Audio (WMA1, WMA2, WMA Pro and WMA Lossless), XMA (XMA1 and XMA2), MS-GSM and MS-ADPCM
SubtitleSAMI
ImageWindows Bitmap, WMV Image (WMV9 Image and WMV9 Image v2) and DirectDraw Surface
Interactive Multimedia AssociationAudioIMA ADPCM
Digital Video Interactive VideoRTV 2.1 (Intel Indeo 2)
AudioDVI4 audio codec
RealNetworks VideoRealVideo Fractal Codec (a.k.a. Iterated Systems ClearVideo), 1, 2, 3 and 4
AudioRealAudio v1 – v10
SubtitleRealText
Apple VideoCinepak (Apple Compact Video), ProRes, Sorenson 3 Codec, QuickTime Animation (Apple Animation), QuickTime Graphics (Apple Graphics), Apple Video, Apple Intermediate Codec and Pixlet
AudioALAC
Adobe Flash Player (SWF) VideoScreen video, Screen video 2, Sorenson Spark and VP6
AudioAdobe SWF ADPCM and Nellymoser Asao
Aldus / Adobe ImageTIFF and PSD
Xiph.Org VideoTheora
AudioSpeex (via libspeex), Vorbis, Opus and FLAC
SubtitleOgg Writ
Sony AudioAdaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC1, ATRAC3, ATRAC3Plus and ATRAC9)[35][37] and PSX ADPCM
NTTAudioTwinVQ
On2 / GIPS / GoogleVideoDuck TrueMotion 1, Duck TrueMotion 2, Duck TrueMotion 2.0 Real Time, VP3, VP4, VP5,[35] VP6,[35] VP7, VP8, VP9[19] and animated WebP
AudioDK ADPCM Audio 3/4, On2 AVC and iLBC (via libilbc)
ImageWebP
RAD Game ToolsVideoSmacker video and Bink video
DSP GroupAudioTruespeech
RenderWareVideoTXD[38]
NetpbmImagePBM, PGM, PPM, PNM and PAM
MIT/X Consortium/The Open GroupImageXBM, XPM and xwd
Silicon GraphicsVideoSilicon Graphics RLE 8-bit video, Silicon Graphics MVC1/2
ImageSilicon Graphics Image
Oracle/Sun MicrosystemsImageSun Raster
IBMVideoIBM UltiMotion
Avid Technology / TruevisionVideoAvid 1:1x, Avid Meridien, Avid DNxHD and DNxHR
ImageTarga
Autodesk / AliasVideoAutodesk Animator Studio Codec and FLIC
ImageAlias PIX
Grass Valley / CanopusVideoHQ, HQA, HQX and Lossless
NewTekVideoSpeedHQ
Industrial Light & Magic / LucasfilmImageOpenEXR
Mozilla CorporationVideoAPNG
MatroxVideoMatrox Uncompressed SD (M101) / HD (M102)
AMD/ATIVideoATI VCR1/VCR2
AsusVideoASUS V1/V2 codec
Spruce TechnologiesSubtitleSpruce subtitle (STL)

Muxers

Output formats (container formats and other ways of creating output streams) in FFmpeg are called "muxers". FFmpeg supports, among others, the following:

Pixel formats

FFmpeg supports many pixel formats.[46] Some of these formats are only supported as input formats. The command ffmpeg -pix_fmts provides a list of supported pixel formats.

Type Color Packed Planar Palette
Without alphaWith alphaWithout alphaWith alphaChroma-interleavedWith alpha
Monochrome Binary (1-bit monochrome)monoblack, monowhite-----
Grayscale8 / 9 / 10 / 12 / 14 / 16bpp--16 / 32bpp--
RGB RGB 1:2:1 (4-bit color)4bpp-----
RGB 3:3:2 (8-bit color)8bpp-----
RGB 5:5:5 (High color)16bpp-----
RGB 5:6:5 (High color)16bpp-----
RGB/BGR24 / 48bpp32[p 1] / 64bpp---8bit->32bpp
GBR[p 2]--8 / 9 / 10 / 12 / 14 / 16bpc8 / 10 / 12 / 16bpc--
RGB Float GBR--32bpc32bpc--
YUV YVU 4:1:0--(9bpp (YVU9))[p 3]---
YUV 4:1:0--9bpp---
YUV 4:1:18bpc (UYYVYY)-8bpc-(8bpc (NV11))-
YVU 4:2:0--(8bpc (YV12))[p 3]-8 (NV21)-
YUV 4:2:0--8[p 4] / 9 / 10 / 12 / 14 / 16bpc8 / 9 / 10 / 16bpc8 (NV12) / 10 (P010) / 16bpc (P016)-
YVU 4:2:2--(8bpc (YV16))[p 3]-(8bpc (NV61))-
YUV 4:2:28bpc (YUYV[p 5] and UYVY)[p 6]-8[p 7] / 9 / 10 / 12 / 14 / 16bpc8 / 9 / 10 / 12 / 16bpc8 (NV16) / 10bpc (NV20 a.k.a. P210)[p 8]-
YUV 4:4:0--8 / 10 / 12bpc---
YVU 4:4:4--(8bpc (YV24))[p 3]-8bpc (NV42)-
YUV 4:4:4(10 (Y410) and 16bpc (Y416))16bpc[p 9]8[p 10] / 9 / 10 / 12 / 14 / 16bpc8 / 9 / 10 / 12 / 16bpc8bpc (NV24)-
XYZ XYZ 4:4:4[p 11]12bpc-----
Bayer BGGR/RGGB/GBRG/GRBG8 / 16bpp-----
  1. RGBx (rgb0) and xBGR (0bgr) are also supported
  2. used in YUV-centric codecs such like H.264
  3. YVU9, YV12, YV16, and YV24 are supported as rawvideo codec in FFmpeg.
  4. I420 a.k.a. YUV420P
  5. aka YUY2 in Windows
  6. Y210 (YUYV 10bpc) is not supported. UYVY 10bpc without a padding is supported as bitpacked codec in FFmpeg. UYVY 10bpc with 2-bits padding is supported as v210 codec in FFmpeg. 16bpc (Y216) is supported as targa_y216 codec in FFmpeg.
  7. I422 a.k.a. YUV422P
  8. 16bpc (P216) is not supported
  9. 8bpc (AYUV) is not supported
  10. I444 a.k.a. YUV444P
  11. used in JPEG2000

FFmpeg does not support IMC1-IMC4, AI44, CYMK, RGBE, Log RGB and other formats. It also does not yet support ARGB 1:5:5:5, 2:10:10:10, or other BMP bitfield formats that are not commonly used.

Supported protocols

Open standards

De facto standards

Supported filters

FFmpeg supports, among others, the following filters.[50]

Audio

Video

  • Transformations
    • Cropping (crop, cropdetect)
    • Fading (fade)
    • Scaling (scale)
    • Padding (pad)
    • Rotation (rotate)
    • Transposition (transpose)
    • Others:
      • Lens correction (lenscorrection)
      • OpenCV filtering (ocv)
      • Perspective correction (perspective)
  • Temporal editing
    • Framerate (fps, framerate)
    • Looping (loop)
    • Trimming (trim)
  • Deinterlacing (bwdif, idet, kerndeint, nnedi, yadif, w3fdif)
  • Filtering
  • Denoising (atadenoise, bitplanenoise, dctdnoiz, owdenoise, removegrain)
  • Logo removal (delogo, removelogo)
  • Subtitles (ASS, subtitles)
  • Alpha channel editing (alphaextract, alphamerge)
  • Keying (chromakey, colorkey, lumakey)
  • Frame detection
    • Black frame detection (blackdetect, blackframe)
    • Thumbnail selection (thumbnail)
  • Frame Blending (blend, tblend, overlay)
  • Video stabilization (vidstabdetect, vidstabtransform)
  • Color and Level adjustments
    • Balance and levels (colorbalance, colorlevels)
    • Channel mixing (colorchannelmixer)
    • Color space (colorspace)
    • Parametric adjustments (curves, eq)
  • Histograms and visualization
  • Drawing
  • OCR
  • Quality measures
  • Lookup Tables
    • lut, lutrgb, lutyuv, lut2, lut3d, haldclut

Applications

FFmpeg contains more than 100 codecs,[52] most of which use compression techniques of one kind or another. Many such compression techniques may be subject to legal claims relating to software patents.[53] Such claims may be enforceable in countries like the United States which have implemented software patents, but are considered unenforceable or void in member countries of the European Union, for example. Patents for many older codecs, including AC3 and all MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 codecs, have expired.

FFmpeg is licensed under the LGPL license, however, if a particular build of FFmpeg is linked against any GPL libraries (notably x264), then the entire binary is licensed under the GPL.

Projects using FFmpeg

FFmpeg is used by software such as VLC media player, xine, Cinelerra-GG video editor, Plex, Kodi, Blender, YouTube,[54] and MPC-HC;[55] it handles video and audio playback in Google Chrome,[55] and Linux version of Firefox.[56] Graphical user interface front-ends for FFmpeg have been developed, including Avanti,[57] and XMedia Recode. JavaCV, a Java wrapper for OpenCV, includes a supplementary Java wrapper for FFmpeg.[58]

FFmpeg is used by ffdshow, LAV Filters, GStreamer FFmpeg plug-in, Perian and OpenMAX IL to expand the encoding and decoding capabilities of their respective multimedia platform.

See also

References

  1. "Initial revision - git.videolan.org/ffmpeg.git/commit". git.videolan.org. 2000-12-20. Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2013-05-11.
  2. "FFmpeg 4.2.1 "Ada"". FFmpeg Git. 2019-09-07. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  3. "Developer Documentation". ffmpeg.org. 2011-12-08. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  4. "Download". ffmpeg.org. FFmpeg. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  5. FFmpeg can be configured to make it proprietary and unredistributable software, because NVIDIA Performance Primitives, an optional external library, is proprietary software and cannot be distributed under the terms of the GPL.
  6. "FFmpeg: Lavf: I/O and Muxing/Demuxing Library". ffmpeg.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  7. Bellard, Fabrice (18 February 2006). "FFmpeg naming and logo". FFmpeg developer mailing list. FFmpeg website. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  8. Carlsen, Steve (1992-06-03). "TIFF 6.0 specification" (PS). Aldus. p. 98. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2004. Retrieved 2016-08-14. Zig-Zag Scan
  9. Niedermayer, Michael. "[FFmpeg-devel] FFmpegs future and resigning as leader". Retrieved 2015-09-22.
  10. "FFmpeg and a thousand fixes". googleblog.com. January 10, 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
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  14. "NUT". Multimedia Wiki. 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  15. Glaser, Fiona (2010-07-23), Diary Of An x264 Developer: Announcing the world’s fastest VP8 decoder, archived from the original on 2010-09-30, retrieved 2012-01-04
  16. FFmpeg Announces High-Performance VP8 Decoder, Slashdot, 2010-07-24, retrieved 2012-01-04
  17. "FFmpeg Goes WebM, Enabling VP8 for Boxee & Co". newteevee.com. 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ...with VLC, Boxee, MythTV, Handbrake and MPlayer being some of the more popular projects utilizing FFmpeg...
  18. "Native VP9 decoder is now in the Git master branch". Launchpad. 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  19. "FFmpeg Now Features Native HEVC/H.265 Decoder Support". Softpedia. 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  20. FFmpeg (2016-02-15). "February 15th, 2016, FFmpeg 3.0 "Einstein"". Retrieved 2016-04-02.
  21. FFmpeg (2017-10-15). "October 15th, 2017, FFmpeg 3.4 "Cantor"". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  22. FFmpeg (2018-11-06). "November 6th, 2018, FFmpeg 4.1 "al-Khwarizmi"". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  23. Jan Ozer (2019-03-04). "Good News: AV1 Encoding Times Drop to Near-Reasonable Levels". StreamingMedia.com. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  24. Libav project site, retrieved 2012-01-04
  25. Ronald S. Bultje (2011-03-14), Project renamed to Libav, archived from the original on 2016-11-07, retrieved 2012-01-04
  26. A group of FFmpeg developers just forked as Libav, Phoronix, 2011-03-14, retrieved 2012-01-04
  27. What happened to FFmpeg, 2011-03-30, retrieved 2012-05-19
  28. FFMpeg turmoil, 2011-01-19, retrieved 2012-01-04
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  43. banan (8 June 2008). "FFmpeg development mailing list". FFmpeg development. FFmpeg website. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
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  46. van Kesteren, Anne (2010-09-01). "Internet Drafts are not Open Standards". annevankesteren.nl. Self-published. Retrieved 2015-03-22.
  47. Real Time Streaming Protocol 2.0 (RTSP) draft-ietf-mmusic-rfc2326bis-40 P.231
  48. "rtsp: Support tls-encapsulated RTSP - git.videolan.org Git - ffmpeg.git/commit". videolan.org. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  49. "FFmpeg Filters". ffmpeg.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27.
  50. How it works earwax.ca
  51. "Codecs list". ffmpeg.org. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
  52. "Legal information on FFmpeg's website". ffmpeg.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  53. "Google's YouTube Uses FFmpeg | Breaking Eggs And Making Omelettes". Multimedia.cx. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  54. "FFmpeg-based Projects". Ffmpeg.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  55. "Firefox Enables FFmpeg Support By Default". Phoronix. 2015-11-15. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  56. "Avanti: FFmpeg/Avisynth GUI". Retrieved 2011-08-17.
  57. "JavaCV". GitHub. 2015.
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