Félicette

Félicette (French pronunciation: [fe.liː.sɛt]) was the first cat launched into space, on 18 October 1963 as part of the French space program. Félicette was one of 14 female cats trained for spaceflight. The cats had electrodes implanted onto their skulls so their neurological activity could be monitored throughout the flight. Electrical impulses were applied to the brain and a leg during the flight to stimulate responses. The capsule was recovered 13 minutes after the rocket was ignited. Most of the data from the mission was of good quality, and Félicette survived the flight, the only cat to have survived spaceflight. A second feline was launched on 24 October, but the mission resulted in a fatality.

Félicette
Inscription: Thank you for your participation in my success of 18 October 1963[1]
Other name(s)C 341
SpeciesFelis catus
SexFemale
Known forThe first cat in space
OwnerFrench government
Weight2.5 kg (5.5 lb)
AppearanceTuxedo cat
Named afterFelix the Cat

Félicette had the designation of C 341 before the flight, and after the flight the media gave her the name Félix, after Félix the Cat. Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherches de Médecine Aéronautique (CERMA) modified this to the feminine Félicette and adopted it as her official name. She has been commemorated on postage stamps around the world and a statue with her likeness is being designed for display at the International Space University. France's feline biological rocket payloads were preceded by rats and followed by monkeys.

Background

On 3 November 1957, the Soviet Union launched Laika, a stray dog found on the streets of Moscow, into space on Sputnik 2. She died in space, but was the first animal to orbit the Earth.[2] Brazilian Army colonel Manuel dos Santos Lage planned to launch a cat named Flamengo aboard the Félix I rocket on 1 January 1959, but the flight was cancelled over ethical concerns regarding the use of a cat.[3][4] On 31 January 1961, as part of Project Mercury, the chimpanzee Ham became the first hominid launched into space for a suborbital flight.[5] On 29 November 1961, Enos became the second chimpanzee launched into space, and third hominid after cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and Gherman Titov, to achieve Earth orbit.[6]

The French rocket program began in 1961.[7] Flights of the Véronique rocket had been reinstated in 1959 and were run by the Comité des Recherches Spatiales (CRS).[8] France's base in the Sahara launched a rat named Hector on 22 February 1961, causing France to become the third country to launch animals into space.[9][10] Hector had electrodes implanted on his skull so neurological activity could be monitored. Two further rockets with rat payloads followed, on 15 and 18 October.[11] French scientists wanted to use larger mammals and chose cats, since they already had a significant amount of neurological data on them.[11][12]

Mission

Selection and training

In 1963, Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherches de Médecine Aéronautique (CERMA) purchased 14 cats from a pet dealer for the testing, with the individual animals selected based on their temperament; all of the cats were female, for their calmer demeanor. The cats were unnamed prior to the launch to reduce the likelihood that the scientists would become attached to them.[13] All of the cats had permanent electrodes surgically implanted into their brain to assess neurological activity.[14] Some of the cats' spaceflight training was similar to training for humans. This was carried out by CERMA and included using the high-G centrifuge[15] three-axis chair with simulated rocket noise.[16] Cat-specific training included confinement in their container and experience withstanding the restraint cloth. The animals trained for about two months; this limit was set by the risk of electrode polarization.[17]

Flight

The launch crew began preparing at the launch site on 8 October 1963. On 11 October, the heading beacon was tested by placing it in a helicopter and tracking it with ground stations. On the 12th, the telemetry in the nose cone was unsuccessfully tested, followed by a successful test the next day. There were issues testing the homing beacon on the 14th and 15th, but all of the electronics functioned to a satisfactory level on 16 October.[18]

On 17 October, six feline finalists were selected as candidates for the flight, and a tuxedo cat with the designation C 341 was chosen for the flight on launch day, along with a backup. Weighing in at 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb), C 341 was selected as the best of the six finalists due to her calm demeanor and appropriate weight.[14][18] Electrodes were attached to her forward left and right rear leg to monitor cardiac activity. Nine electrodes had previously been implanted on her skull: two in the front sinus, one in the somatic area, two in the ventral hippocampal, two in the reticular area, and two in the association cortex. Two electrodes were glued to a foreleg so that electrical impulses could be used to stimulate them during the flight. Two microphones, one on her chest and one on the nose cone of the rocket, monitored her breathing.[17] The launch vehicle used was the Véronique AGI 47 sounding rocket, made in Vernon, Haute-Normandie.[19][20] The Véronique rocket came from the German World War II Aggregate rocket family,[21] developed for International Geophysical Year (French: Année géophysique internationale) in 1957 for biological research.[11]

On 18 October 1963 at 8:09 am, C 341 was launched into space from the Centre interarmées d'essais d'engins spéciaux site in Algeria.[22][23] The mission was a sub-orbital flight and lasted 13 minutes. The rocket engine burned for 42 seconds on ascent and C 341 experienced 9.5 g of acceleration.[23] The nose cone separated from the rocket before reaching a height of 152 kilometres (94 mi) and the cat was subjected to five minutes of weightlessness.[1][24] Prior to parachute deployment, spin and vibration on the nose cone caused 7 g of acceleration. The parachutes deployed 8 minutes and 55 seconds into the launch, applying 9 g. Thirteen minutes after the rocket was ignited, a helicopter arrived at the payload.[3] C 341 was recovered safely, and the mission made her the first cat to reach space.[25][26]

Results and aftermath

High quality data was recorded throughout the flight, other than the reticular measurements and data recorded during reentry. Electrical shocks were administered to C 341 at a higher rate than intended. She was vigilant during the ascent phase, due to being a payload in a rocket. During the microgravity phase, her heart rate slowed and her breathing became nominal. The turbulent reentry caused her heart rate to rise, but poor data made it difficult to analyze.[27] The flight's biological data were given to the media, who named C 341 "Félix" after the Félix the Cat cartoon series. CERMA changed it to the feminine Félicette and adopted the name as official.[28] Félicette was euthanized two months after the launch so that scientists could perform a necropsy to examine her brain.[29]

A second cat was launched into space by the French on 24 October. An explosive bolt that would release the rocket from the launch pad failed to function, causing the rocket to launch at an extreme angle. The radio transponder stopped working on the launch pad, which created difficulties in finding the rocket. A helicopter spotted the parachute but was unable to land, so the agency dispatched ground vehicles. They were unable to get past some barbed wire. The next day a helicopter was again dispatched and was able to land at the site. The nose cone where the payload was housed was heavily damaged and the cat had died.[19][30]

Of the remaining 12 cats that were trained, the fate of 11 is known. One cat's health was deteriorating after the electrode surgery, so the scientists had them removed. The group adopted her as their mascot and gave her the name Scoubidou, as she had a scoubidou braid around her neck, a popular style at the time.[31] The other nine cats were decommissioned at the end of the program.[28]

France continued its biological payload research, changing to monkeys. A monkey known as Martine was launched on 7 March 1967 and Pierrette six days later. They were both successfully recovered. France concluded biological payload research at the national level with these flights, but later worked on biological payloads with the Soviet Union in the 1970s.[28]

Legacy

According to an article in Space.com on 8 November 2017, the participation of Félicette in the space race, "... was certainly not voluntary, but it was a huge milestone for France, which had just established the world's third civilian space agency (after the U.S. and the Soviet Union). Félicette's mission helped bring France into the space race."[32] Félicette's flight was much less popular than other spaceflights at the time. Burgess and Dubbs believe this is due to photos of her with electrodes implanted on her skull and the new animal rights movement.[33]

Former French colonies have created stamps to commemorate Félicette's flight. The Comoro Islands released a stamp in 1992 as one of a series of stamps featuring animals involved in spaceflight; the stamp mistakenly used the name Félix. In 1997, postage stamps commemorating Félicette and other animals in space were issued in Chad, again using the name Félix. A 1999 stamp in Niger also used the incorrect name.[32][34][35]

The UPS student astronomy club at Université Toulouse III will name its future astronomical observatory in honor of Félicette. It will be the first French observatory entirely managed by students and is due to open in 2021. The 500 mm Dall-Kirkham telescope (3500 mm focal length) will be housed in a motorized dome 3.90 m in diameter.[36][37]

Statue

While some non-human animals which traveled in space were celebrated as heroes—the chimpanzee Ham was buried at the International Space Hall of Fame in New Mexico, U.S.A., and the Soviet dog Laika has a bronze monument at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, near Star City in Russia—there is no memorial for Félicette. In 2017 a crowdfunding campaign was started by Matthew Serge Guy to erect a bronze statue of Félicette to commemorate her contribution to science.[32] The statue will be designed by sculptor Gill Parker.[38] A preliminary sketch of the monument depicts a cat on top of a rocket, and will include a plaque featuring the names of the major donors. In April 2018, the project met its £40,000 funding target.[32][39][40] In April 2019, Guy announced that the statue will be located in Eastern France at the International Space University.[41]

See also

Notes

  1. "Chatte Félicette". CNES (in French). Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  2. Malashenkov, Dimitri (10 October 2002). Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organism's First Orbital Flight. 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 2nd World Space Congress. IAF Abstracts. Houston, Texas. p. 288. Bibcode:2002iaf..confE.288M.
  3. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 6.
  4. "Brazil Getting Ready to Fire Cat into Space". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Associated Press. 31 December 1958. p. 32 via Google News.
  5. Myler, Joseph L. (1 February 1961). "Ham, Chimp Astronaut, to Help Scientists Decide Safety of Space Ride for Human Astronaut". The Commercial-Mail. Columbia City, Indiana. UPI. p. 6 via Newspapers.com.
  6. "Operational Trouble Shortens Chimp's Ride". The Daily Advertiser. Lafayette, Louisiana. Associated Press. 29 November 1961. p. 1 via Newspapers.com.
  7. "France to Fire Cat into Space". Edmonton Journal. Edmonton, Alberta. Reuters. 30 September 1963. p. 37 via Newspapers.com.
  8. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, pp. 2–3.
  9. "Space Cat Back Alive". The Sydney Morning Herald. 20 October 1963. p. 5 via Google News.
  10. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 2.
  11. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 3.
  12. "[Hommage] Une Statue en Bronze Pour Félicette, Votre Avis M. Viso?" [[Tribute] A Bronze Statue for Félicette, Your Opinion Mr. Viso?] (in French). CNES. 14 December 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  13. Cassely, Jean-Laurent (27 January 2017). "La France a envoyé le premier chat dans l'espace, et tout le monde l'a oublié" [France has sent the first cat into space, and everyone has forgotten] (in French). Slate. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  14. "Space Cats". The Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 8 March 1964. p. 26 via Newspapers.com.
  15. Burgess & Dubbs 2007, pp. 226–228.
  16. Petsko, Emily (26 December 2018). "A Brief History of Félicette, the First Cat in Space". Mental Floss. Retrieved 17 January 2019 via MSN.
  17. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 4.
  18. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 5.
  19. Gray, Tara (2 August 2004). "A Brief History of Animals in Space". NASA. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  20. "France to Fire Cat into Space". Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh Press. UPI. 25 September 1963. p. 29 via Newspapers.com.
  21. Reuter 2000, p. 179.
  22. Lesage, Nelly (17 November 2017). "Félicette, la première chatte revenue de l'espace, va avoir une statue à son effigie" [Félicette, the first cat returned from space, will have a statue with her effigy]. Numerama (in French). Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  23. Belleret, Chloé (18 October 2018). "18 octobre 1963 : il était une fois un chat dans l'espace" [18 October 1963: Once upon a time there was a cat in space]. Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  24. "Exposition Sur L'espace Au Palais de la Découverte" [Exhibition on Space at the Palace of Discovery]. Le Monde (in French). 17 January 1964.
  25. "France Sends Cat to Space". The Times Record. Troy, New York. Associated Press. 18 October 1963. p. 1 via Newspapers.com.
  26. "Fugitive from Paris Alleys Survives 100-Mile Rocket Trip". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis, Missouri. 5 January 1964. p. 21 via Newspapers.com.
  27. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, pp. 6–8.
  28. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 9.
  29. Baheux, Romain (19 October 2017). "Et si Félicette, le premier chat dans l'espace, avait bientôt sa statue?" [And if Félicette, the first cat in space, soon had her statue?] (in French). Le Parisien. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  30. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, p. 8.
  31. Dougherty, Jung & Serra 2018, pp. 4–5.
  32. Weitering, Hanneke (8 November 2017). "First Cat in Space to Receive a Proper Memorial". Space.com. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  33. "First cat in space Félicette to get memorial statue after successful crowdfund". collectSPACE. 17 November 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  34. "The 11 Most Important Cats Of Science". Popular Science. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  35. "Felicette the space cat, and the mythical Felix". Purr-n-Fur UK. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  36. "Observatory". UPS in space. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  37. "Un observatoire sur le campus pour étudier l'univers". La Dépêche (in French). 21 June 2019. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  38. Lesage, Nelly (17 November 2017). "Félicette, la première chatte revenue de l'espace, va avoir une statue à son effigie" [Félicette, the first cat returned from space, will have a statue with her effigy] (in French). Numerama. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  39. Parkinson, Hannah Jane (23 October 2017). "From Félicette the space cat to Dolly the sheep – which animals should be given a statue?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  40. Moye, David (20 October 2017). "The First Cat In Space May Finally Get The Recognition She Deserves". Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  41. Guy, Matthew (18 April 2019). "Location Confirmed". Kickstarter. Retrieved 7 June 2019.

References

  • Burgess, Colin; Dubbs, Chris (2007). Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Springer Praxis. ISBN 978-0-387-36053-9.
  • Dougherty, K.; Jung, P.; Serra, Jean-Jacques (October 2018). "Félicette, the only space cat". International Astronautical Congress.
  • Reuter, Claus (2000). The V2 and the German, Russian and American Rocket Program. German Canadian Museum. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-894643-05-4.
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