Exophoria

Exophoria is a form of heterophoria in which there is a tendency of the eyes to deviate outward.[1] During examination, when the eyes are dissociated, the visual axes will appear to diverge away from one another.[2]

Exophoria
SpecialtyOphthalmology

The axis deviation in exophoria is usually mild compared with that of exotropia.

Cause

Exophoria can be caused by several factors, which include:

These can be due to nerve, muscle, or congenital problems, or due to mechanical anomalies. Unlike exotropia, fusion is possible in this condition, causing diplopia to be uncommon.

Diagnosis

Prevalence

Exophoria is particularly common in infancy and childhood, and increases with age.[3]

References

  1. Allen, Edmund Turney (1899). The science of higher prisms. Harvard University: G. K. Hazlitt 6 Co., printer. p. 39.
  2. Grosvenor, Theodore (2007). Primary Care Optometry 5th Ed. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-7506-7575-8.
  3. Freier BE, Pickwell LD (1983). "Physiological exophoria". Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 3: 267–272. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.1983.tb00613.x.
Classification


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