Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]


Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.


The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.


The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[38]

Resolved disputes

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[42] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[43]

By country



Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[44][45] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[46][47] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[48] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[47]

EEZArea (km2)[47]
Heard and McDonald Islands410,722
 Christmas Island463,371
 Cocos Islands325,021
 Norfolk Island428,618
Macquarie Island471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory2,000,000[status 1]


Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZArea (km2)[49]
 Brazil2 570 917
Fernando de Noronha363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl.468 599
Total3 830 955

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[50]


Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[51] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.


Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[52] Land area Total
Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
Desventuradas 449 836 5 449 841
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524 100 502 624
Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453


The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.


The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[53] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[54][55]


The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[56] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817


Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2)[57]. The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.


Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[58]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[59] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[60]


EEZArea (km2)
Mainland India and Lakshadweep 1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 663,629 km2
Total 2,305,143 km2

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[61]


In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.


EEZArea (km2)
Marcus Island428,875
Nanpō Islands862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan)1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands1,394,676
Sea of Japan630,721
Daito Islands44
Senkaku Islands7
Sea of Okhotsk235

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[63][64] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.


Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[65] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[66][67] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[68] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[69] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[70] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[71]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[72] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[73]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[74] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[75] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[74]


Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[76]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[77]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404


The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[78]


The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[79]


Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[81] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[82] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[83]


  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[84]


  • 825,052 km2

South Africa

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[85]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[87] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.

The UK was late to establish an EEZ, relying on overlapping maritime zones for fisheries, pollution control, and energy matters. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 gave the powers to establish an EEZ, with the zone defined by The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013 which came into force on 31 March 2014.[88][89]

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Crown dependencies and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[85]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 35,590
Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
Bermuda 450,370 173,890
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 2,927
Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[90]

Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi)


Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi). It includes the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with China due to the Nine-Dash Line.

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[85] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1 France11,691,000579,42212,366,417
2 United States11,351,0002,193,52621,814,306
3 Australia8,505,3482,194,00816,197,464
4 Russia7,566,6733,817,84324,664,915
5 United Kingdom6,805,586872,8917,048,486
6 Indonesia6,159,0322,039,3818,063,601
7 Canada5,599,0772,644,79515,607,077
8 Japan4,479,388214,9764,857,318
9 New Zealand4,083,744277,6104,352,424
10 Brazil3,830,955774,56312,345,832
11 Chile3,681,989252,9474,431,381
12 Kiribati3,441,8107,5233,442,536
13 Mexico3,269,386419,1025,141,968
14 Federated States of Micronesia2,996,41919,4032,997,121
15 Denmark2,551,238495,6574,761,811
16 Papua New Guinea2,402,288191,2562,865,128
17 Norway2,385,178434,0202,770,404
18 India2,305,143402,9965,592,406
19 Marshall Islands1,990,53018,4111,990,711
20 Portugal1,727,40828,0001,819,498
21 Philippines1,590,780272,9211,890,780
22 Solomon Islands1,589,47736,2821,618,373
23 South Africa1,535,538156,3372,756,575
24 Seychelles1,336,55939,0631,337,014
25 Mauritius1,284,99729,0611,287,037
26 Fiji1,282,97847,7051,301,250
27 Madagascar1,225,259101,5051,812,300
28 Argentina1,159,063856,3463,939,463[91]
29 Ecuador1,077,23141,0341,333,600
30 Spain1,039,23377,9201,545,225
31 Maldives923,32234,538923,622
32 Peru906,45482,0002,191,670
33 China877,019231,34010,473,980
34 Somalia825,05255,8951,462,709
35 Colombia808,15853,6911,949,906
36 Cape Verde800,5615,591804,594
37 Iceland751,345108,015854,345
38 Tuvalu749,7903,575749,816
39 Vanuatu663,25111,483675,440
40 Tonga659,5588,517660,305
41 Bahamas654,715106,323668,658
42 Palau603,9782,837604,437
43 Mozambique578,98694,2121,380,576
44 Morocco575,230115,1571,287,780
45 Costa Rica574,72519,585625,825
46 Namibia564,74886,6981,388,864
47 Yemen552,66959,2291,080,637
48 Italy541,915116,834843,251
49 Oman533,18059,071842,680
50 Myanmar532,775220,3321,209,353
51 Sri Lanka532,61932,453598,229
52 Angola518,43348,0921,765,133
53 Greece505,57281,451637,529
54 South Korea475,469342,522575,469
55 Venezuela471,50798,5001,387,950
56 Vietnam417,663365,198748,875
57 Ireland410,310139,935480,583
58 Libya351,58964,7632,111,129
59 Cuba350,75161,525460,637
60 Panama335,64653,404411,163
61 Malaysia334,671323,412665,474
62 Nauru308,48041308,501
63 Equatorial Guinea303,5097,820331,560
64 Thailand299,397230,063812,517
65 Pakistan290,00051,3831,117,911
66 Egypt263,45161,5911,265,451
67 Turkey261,65456,0931,045,216
68 Jamaica258,1379,802269,128
69 Dominican Republic255,89810,738304,569
70 Liberia249,73417,715361,103
71 Honduras249,54268,718362,034
72 Tanzania241,88825,6111,186,975
73 Ghana235,34922,502473,888
74 Saudi Arabia228,633107,2492,378,323
75 Nigeria217,31342,2851,141,081
76 Sierra Leone215,61128,625287,351
77 Gabon202,79035,020470,458
78 Barbados186,898426187,328
79 Côte d'Ivoire176,25410,175498,717
80 Iran168,718118,6931,797,468
81 Mauritania165,33831,6621,190,858
82 Comoros163,7521,526165,987
83 Sweden160,885154,604602,255
84 Senegal158,86123,092355,583
85 Netherlands154,01177,246192,345
86 Ukraine147,31879,142750,818
87 Uruguay142,16675,327318,381
88 Guyana137,76550,578352,734
89 São Tomé and Príncipe131,3971,902132,361
90 Samoa127,9502,087130,781
91 Suriname127,77253,631291,592
92 Haiti126,7606,683154,510
93 Algeria126,3539,9852,508,094
94 Nicaragua123,88170,874254,254
95 Guinea-Bissau123,72539,339159,850
96 Kenya116,94211,073697,309
97 Guatemala114,17014,422223,059
98 Antigua and Barbuda110,0894,128110,531
99 Tunisia101,85767,126265,467
100 Cyprus98,7074,042107,958
101 El Salvador90,96216,852112,003
102 Finland87,17185,109425,590
103 Bangladesh86,39266,438230,390
104 Taiwan83,23143,016119,419
105 Eritrea77,72861,817195,328
106 Trinidad and Tobago74,19925,28479,329
107 East Timor70,32625,64885,200
108 Sudan68,14819,8271,954,216
109 Cambodia62,51562,515243,550
110 Guinea59,42644,755305,283
111 Croatia59,03250,277115,626
112 United Arab Emirates58,21857,474141,818
113 Germany57,48557,485414,599
114 Malta54,8235,30155,139
115 Estonia36,99236,99282,219
116 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines36,3021,56136,691
117 Belize35,35113,17858,317
118 Bulgaria34,30710,426145,186
119 Benin33,2212,721145,843
120 Qatar31,59031,59043,176
121 Congo, Republic of the31,0177,982373,017
122 Poland29,79729,797342,482
123 Dominica28,98565929,736
124 Latvia28,45227,77293,011
125 Grenada27,4262,23727,770
126 Israel26,3523,74548,424
127 Romania23,62719,303262,018
128 Gambia23,1125,58134,407
129 Georgia21,9463,24391,646
130 Lebanon19,5161,06729,968
131 Cameroon16,54711,420491,989
132 Saint Lucia15,61754416,156
133 Albania13,6916,97942,439
134 Togo12,0451,26568,830
135 Kuwait11,02611,02628,844
136 Syria10,5031,085195,683
137 Bahrain10,22510,22510,975
138 Brunei10,0908,50915,855
139 Saint Kitts and Nevis9,97465310,235
140 Montenegro7,7453,89621,557
141 Djibouti7,4593,18730,659
142 Lithuania7,0317,03172,331
143 Belgium3,4473,44733,975
144 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,6061,5932,346,464
145 Singapore1,0671,0671,772
146 Iraq771771439,088
147 Monaco2882290
148 Palestine2562566,276
149 Slovenia22022020,493
150 Jordan1665989,508
151 Bosnia and Herzegovina505051,259
 Central African Republic622,984
 South Sudan619,745
 Burkina Faso274,222
 Czech Republic78,867
 North Macedonia25,713
 San Marino61
  Vatican City0.44
Total United Nations137,159,22225,103,204274,004,586

See also


a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 14 later withdrew their recognition.
  1. The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.


  1. "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
  2. "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations.
  3. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  5. 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  7. Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010
  8. Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010
  9. "Im östlichen Mittelmeer sollen Erdgasvorkommen von mehreren Billionen Kubikmetern liegen. Das befeuert den Zypernkonflikt". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  10. "NZZ: Boreholes rekindle the Cyprus problem (original: ΝΖΖ: Οι γεωτρήσεις αναζωπυρώνουν το Κυπριακό)". Kathimerini. 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  11. "Cypriot EEZ and Kastellorizo - Erdogan's geostrategic stakes (Original: "Κυπριακή ΑΟΖ και Καστελλόριζο - Το γεωστρατηγικό διακύβευμα του Ερντογάν"". SLPress. 4 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  12. "Turkey-Libya maritime agreement draws Greek ire". ArabNews. 30 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019. Last year, Wess Mitchell, US assistant secretary of state for European and Eurasian affairs, sent a message to Ankara over the drilling activities for hydrocarbons underway in Cyprus’s exclusive economic zone. He said that “Turkey’s view is a minority of one versus the rest of the world.”
  13. "US official sends clear message to Turkey over Cyprus drilling". Kathimerini. 16 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Turkey’s view “is a minority of one versus the rest of the world,” he said. “The rest of the world has a very clear, straightforward view that the exclusive economic zone of Cyprus is grounded in international law.”
  14. "Turkey sends non paper to EU, warning to stay away from Cyprus EEZ". KeepTalkingGreece. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
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  17. "Gas Partnership: Netanyahu Visits Cyprus". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
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Works cited:

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