European Figure Skating Championships

The European Figure Skating Championships (also called "Europeans") is an annual figure skating competition in which figure skaters compete for the title of European champion. Medals are awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, women's singles, pair skating, and ice dance. The event is sanctioned by the International Skating Union (ISU), and is the sport's oldest competition. The first European Championships was held in 1891 in Hamburg, Germany and featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, all men from Germany and Austria. It has been, other than four periods, held continuously since 1891, and has been sanctioned by the ISU since 1893. Women were allowed to compete for the first time in 1930, which is also the first time pairs skating was added to the competition. Ice dance was added in 1954. Only eligible skaters from ISU member countries in Europe can compete, and skaters must have reached at least the age of 15 before July 1 preceding the competition. ISU member countries can submit 1-3 skaters to compete in the European Championships.

ISU European Figure Skating Championships
The 2010 medalists in the women's event
Statusactive
Genresporting event
Date(s)January
Frequencyannual
Location(s)various
Inaugurated1891 (1891)
Organised byISU

History

Although they were not held continuously, the European Championships is figure skating's oldest championship.[1][note 1] The first European Championships were held in 1891 in Hamburg, Germany.[2] It featured one segment, compulsory figures, with seven competitors, five from Germany and two from Austria.[3][4] The event was sponsored by the Austrian and German skating federations, after they combined to become one federation.[5] All the medalists were from Germany; Oskar Uhlig won the first gold medal, Anon Schmitson came in second place, and Franz Zilly was third.[3][6][4] The second European Championships were held in Vienna in 1892. The event had 10 competitors: one from Hungary, two from Germany, and seven from Austria. It included two segments, compulsory figures and free skating. It was also sponsored by the German/Austrian federation.[7] Austrian Eduard Englemann won the gold medal, Hungarian Tibor von Földváry came in second place, and Georg Zachariades from Austria was third.[8]

The next European Championships was held in 1893 in Berlin; it was the first time the event was under the jurisdiction of the International Skating Union (ISU), which was formed in the summer of 1892. The championships were sponsored by the Berlin Skating Club, and like the previous two years, was organized by the German/Austrian federation.[9] There were eight competitors: three from Austria, two from Germany, and one each from Hungary, Sweden, and Norway. Englemann is listed as the gold medalist; Henning Grenander from Sweden came in second, and Zachariades came in third.[10] Figure skating historian James Hines called the 1893 European Championships "clearly a success from a skating standpoint",[9] but it also marked figure skating's "first major controversy", due to "different interpretations of the scoring rules, which could result in a tie depending upon one's interpretation of them".[9] The Berlin Skating Club declared Grenander the winner, but the ISU declared Englemann the winner. The problem was never resolved, but in 1895, the ISU declared the 1893 results invalid. ISU historian Benjamin T. Wright said that the controversy "nearly led to the demise" of the newly-formed ISU.[11]

The next two European Championships, 1894 and 1895, "experienced a marked decrease in participation, perhaps a result of the scoring debacle".[9] In 1894, five skaters competed in Vienna. Engelmann won his third Europeans gold medal, Austrian Gustav Hügel came in second, and Földváry came in third. In 1895, which was held in Budapest, three skaters competed, with one withdrawal. Földváry won the gold medal, Hügel again came in second, and Gilbert Fuchs from Germany came in third.[12][13] There were no European Championships for two years, which Hines speculated was because of the small number of contestants in 1894 and 1895, although the competition returned in 1898.[1] Hines also reported that the European Championships were again interrupted in 1902 and 1903, "for lack of ice".[3] By the beginning of World War I, 20 European Championships were held.[14] There were two more interruptions of the European Championships: between 1915 and 1922 due to World War I, and between 1940 and 1946 due to World War II.[15]

Only men competed at the European Championships until 1930, which is when women single skaters and pair skating were added. All members of the ISU, not just skaters from Europe, were allowed to compete at Europeans until 1948.[16][note 2][note 3]Ice dance was added to Europeans in 1954.[23] The first time the U.S.S.R. sent skaters to the European Championships was in 1956.[24] Competitions were held in outdoor rinks until 1967, when the ISU ruled that both the European and World Championships be held in covered ice rinks.[25]

Qualifying

Only those competitors who are "members of a European ISU Member"[26] are eligible to compete in the European Championships. According to the ISU's Constitution, in order to be eligible to compete in international senior competitions, ISU senior championships, and the Olympics, skaters must have "reached at least the age of fifteen (15) before July 1 preceding the Events".[27] Each ISU member country can send at least one competitor per discipline, if they earn the minimum total element scores, which is determined and published each season by the ISU, during the current or during the immediately previous season.[28] Skaters who earn the minimum elements score/points during the Olympic season or during the immediately previous season, as established for the European and Four Continents championships, are eligible to compete in the Olympics.[29]

In 2018, the ISU determined that skaters and couples participating in the 2019 European Championships had to earn the following minimum total elements scores:[30]

Short Program/
Short Dance 2017/18
Free Skate/
Free Dance 2017/18
Short Program/
Rhythm Dance 2018/19
Free Skate/
Free Dance 2018/19
Men 36.0066.0034.0064.00
Women 29.00 49.00 29.00 49.00
Pair Skating 27.00 46.00 27.00 44.00
Ice Dance 30.00 43.00 31.00 45.00

The number of additional competitors eligible to compete from ISU member countries is determined by the accumulation of points "equal to the sum of placements of their Competitors who were entered in this preceding season’s Championships".[31] Single skaters who do not qualify for the free skating program after being entered in the short program receive 18 points towards the entry quota. Pairs teams and ice dancers who enter the short program or rhythm dance but do not qualify for the free skate or free dance receive the number of points equal to their placement in the short program and rhythm dance. Skaters who move forward to the free skate or free dance, but do not place higher than 16th place, are awarded 16 points. Skaters who withdraw from the competition and were not able to complete the free skate or free dance, but who were in the top 10 in the short program or rhythm dance, are not considered for the entry quota. If an ISU member country sends three competitors to a competition, only the two best-scoring skaters and teams will count for points.[31] Each ISU member country can substitute one skater per discipline, but can submit no more than two substitutes in case there are two or more entries unable to compete.[32]

The number of competitors, or the overall entry quota, per discipline an ISU member country can send to a competition "is determined in accordance"[31] with the chart below.[32]

No. of Competitors in the preceding season’s
Championships who count for points
Points required for 3 entries
in the current season’s Championships
Points required for 2 entries
in the current season’s Championships
Two (2)
One (1)
Not more than 13
Not more than 2
Not more than 28
Not more than 10

Medalists

Men

Men's medalists[note 4]
Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Refs
1891 Hamburg Oskar Uhlig Anon Schmitson Franz Zilly
1892 Vienna Eduard Engelmann Tibor von Földváry Georg Zachariades
1893 Berlin Eduard Engelmann Henning Grenander Georg Zachariades
1894 Vienna Eduard Engelmann Gustav Hügel Tibor von Földváry
1895 Budapest Tibor von Földváry Gustav Hügel Gilbert Fuchs
1896–1897: No championships were held
1898 Trondheim Ulrich Salchow Johan Lefstad Oscar Holthe
1899 Davos Ulrich Salchow Gustav Hügel Ernst Fellner
1900 Berlin Ulrich Salchow Gustav Hügel Oscar Holthe
1901 Vienna Gustav Hügel Gilbert Fuchs Ulrich Salchow
1902–1903: Cancelled due to lack of ice
1904 Davos Ulrich Salchow Max Bohatsch Nikolai Panin Kolomenkin
1905 Bonn Max Bohatsch Heinrich Burger Karl Zenger
1906 Davos Ulrich Salchow Ernst Herz Per Thorén
1907 Berlin Ulrich Salchow Gilbert Fuchs Ernst Herz
1908 Warsaw Ernst Herz Nikolai Panin Kolomenkin Henryk Juliusz Krukowicz-Przedrzymirski
1909 Budapest Ulrich Salchow Gilbert Fuchs Per Thorén
1910 Berlin Ulrich Salchow Werner Rittberger Per Thorén
1911 St. Petersburg Per Thorén Karl Ollo Werner Rittberger
1912 Stockholm Gösta Sandahl Ivan Malinin Martin Stixrud
1913 Oslo Ulrich Salchow Andor Szende Willy Böckl
1914 Vienna Fritz Kachler Andreas Krogh Willy Böckl
1915–1921: Not held due to World War I
1922 Davos Willy Böckl Fritz Kachler Ernst Oppacher
1923 Oslo Willy Böckl Martin Stixrud Gunnar Jakobsson
1924 Davos Fritz Kachler Ludwig Wrede Werner Rittberger
1925 Triberg Willy Böckl Werner Rittberger Otto Preißecker
1926 Davos Willy Böckl Otto Preißecker Georges Gautschi
1927 Vienna Willy Böckl Hugo Distler Karl Schäfer
1928 Troppau Willy Böckl Karl Schäfer Otto Preißecker
1929 Davos Karl Schäfer Georges Gautschi Ludwig Wrede
1930 Berlin Karl Schäfer Otto Gold Markus Nikkanen
1931 Vienna Karl Schäfer Ernst Baier Hugo Distler
1932 Paris Karl Schäfer Ernst Baier Erich Erdös
1933 London Karl Schäfer Ernst Baier Erich Erdös
1934 Seefeld in Tirol Karl Schäfer Dénes Pataky Elemér Terták
1935 St. Moritz Karl Schäfer Felix Kaspar Ernst Baier
1936 Berlin Karl Schäfer Graham Sharp Ernst Baier
1937 Prague Felix Kaspar Graham Sharp Elemér Terták
1938 St. Moritz Felix Kaspar Graham Sharp Herbert Alward
1939 Davos Graham Sharp Freddie Tomlins Horst Faber
1940–1946: Not held due to World War II
1947 Davos Hans Gerschwiler Ladislav Čáp Fernand Leemans
1948 Prague Dick Button Hans Gerschwiler Edi Rada
1949 Milan Edi Rada Ede Király Helmut Seibt
1950 Oslo Ede Király Helmut Seibt Carlo Fassi
1951 Zürich Helmut Seibt Horst Faber Carlo Fassi
1952 Vienna Helmut Seibt Carlo Fassi Michael Carrington
1953 Dortmund Carlo Fassi Alain Giletti Freimut Stein
1954 Bolzano Carlo Fassi Alain Giletti Karol Divín
1955 Budapest Alain Giletti Michael Booker Karol Divín
1956 Paris Alain Giletti Michael Booker Karol Divín
1957 Vienna Alain Giletti Karol Divín Michael Booker
1958 Bratislava Karol Divín Alain Giletti Alain Calmat
1959 Davos Karol Divín Alain Giletti Norbert Felsinger
1960 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Alain Giletti Norbert Felsinger Manfred Schnelldorfer
1961 West Berlin Alain Giletti Alain Calmat Manfred Schnelldorfer
1962 Geneva Alain Calmat Karol Divín Manfred Schnelldorfer
1963 Budapest Alain Calmat Manfred Schnelldorfer Emmerich Danzer
1964 Grenoble Alain Calmat Manfred Schnelldorfer Karol Divín
1965 Moscow Emmerich Danzer Alain Calmat Peter Jonas
1966 Bratislava Emmerich Danzer Wolfgang Schwarz Ondrej Nepela
1967 Ljubljana Emmerich Danzer Wolfgang Schwarz Ondrej Nepela
1968 Västerås Emmerich Danzer Wolfgang Schwarz Ondrej Nepela
1969 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Ondrej Nepela Patrick Péra Sergei Chetverukhin
1970 Leningrad Ondrej Nepela Patrick Péra Günter Zöller
1971 Zürich Ondrej Nepela Sergei Chetverukhin Haig Oundjian
1972 Gothenburg Ondrej Nepela Sergei Chetverukhin Patrick Péra
1973 Cologne Ondrej Nepela Sergei Chetverukhin Jan Hoffmann
1974 Zagreb Jan Hoffmann Sergei Volkov John Curry
1975 Copenhagen Vladimir Kovalyov John Curry Yuri Ovchinnikov
1976 Geneva John Curry Vladimir Kovalyov Jan Hoffmann
1977 Helsinki Jan Hoffmann Vladimir Kovalyov Robin Cousins
1978 Strasbourg Jan Hoffmann Vladimir Kovalyov Robin Cousins
1979 Zagreb Jan Hoffmann Vladimir Kovalyov Robin Cousins
1980 Gothenburg Robin Cousins Jan Hoffmann Vladimir Kovalyov
1981 Innsbruck Igor Bobrin Jean-Christophe Simond Norbert Schramm
1982 Lyon Norbert Schramm Jean-Christophe Simond Igor Bobrin
1983 Dortmund Norbert Schramm Jozef Sabovčík Alexander Fadeev
1984 Budapest Alexander Fadeev Rudi Cerne Norbert Schramm
1985 Gothenburg Jozef Sabovčík Vladimir Kotin Grzegorz Filipowski
1986 Copenhagen Jozef Sabovčík Vladimir Kotin Alexander Fadeev
1987 Sarajevo Alexander Fadeev Vladimir Kotin Viktor Petrenko
1988 Prague Alexander Fadeev Vladimir Kotin Viktor Petrenko
1989 Birmingham Alexander Fadeev Grzegorz Filipowski Petr Barna
1990 Leningrad Viktor Petrenko Petr Barna Viacheslav Zagorodniuk
1991 Sofia Viktor Petrenko Petr Barna Viacheslav Zagorodniuk
1992 Lausanne Petr Barna Viktor Petrenko Alexei Urmanov
1993 Helsinki Dmitri Dmitrenko Philippe Candeloro Éric Millot
1994 Copenhagen Viktor Petrenko Viacheslav Zagorodniuk Alexei Urmanov
1995 Dortmund Ilia Kulik Alexei Urmanov Viacheslav Zagorodniuk
1996 Sofia Viacheslav Zagorodniuk Igor Pashkevich Ilia Kulik
1997 Paris Alexei Urmanov Philippe Candeloro Viacheslav Zagorodniuk
1998 Milan Alexei Yagudin Evgeni Plushenko Alexander Abt
1999 Prague Alexei Yagudin Evgeni Plushenko Alexei Urmanov
2000 Vienna Evgeni Plushenko Alexei Yagudin Dmitri Dmitrenko
2001 Bratislava Evgeni Plushenko Alexei Yagudin Stanick Jeannette[34]
2002 Lausanne Alexei Yagudin Alexander Abt Brian Joubert[35]
2003 Malmö Evgeni Plushenko Brian Joubert Stanick Jeannette[36]
2004 Budapest Brian Joubert Evgeni Plushenko Ilia Klimkin[37]
2005 Turin Evgeni Plushenko Brian Joubert Stefan Lindemann[38]
2006 Lyon Evgeni Plushenko Stéphane Lambiel Brian Joubert[39]
2007 Warsaw Brian Joubert Tomáš Verner Kevin van der Perren[40]
2008 Zagreb Tomáš Verner Stéphane Lambiel Brian Joubert[41]
2009 Helsinki Brian Joubert Samuel Contesti Kevin van der Perren[42]
2010 Tallinn Evgeni Plushenko Stéphane Lambiel Brian Joubert[43]
2011 Bern Florent Amodio Brian Joubert Tomáš Verner[44]
2012 Sheffield Evgeni Plushenko Artur Gachinski Florent Amodio[45]
2013 Zagreb Javier Fernández Florent Amodio Michal Březina[46]
2014 Budapest Javier Fernández Sergei Voronov Konstantin Menshov[47]
2015 Stockholm Javier Fernández Maxim Kovtun Sergei Voronov[48]
2016 Bratislava Javier Fernández Oleksii Bychenko Maxim Kovtun[49]
2017 Ostrava Javier Fernández Maxim Kovtun Mikhail Kolyada[50]
2018 Moscow Javier Fernández Dmitri Aliev Mikhail Kolyada[51]
2019 Minsk Javier Fernández Alexander Samarin Matteo Rizzo[52]
2020 Graz
2021 Zagreb
2022 Tallinn

Women's

Women medalists[note 5][note 6]
Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Refs
1930 Vienna Fritzi Burger Ilse Hornung Vivi-Anne Hultén
1931 St. Moritz Sonja Henie Fritzi Burger Hilde Holovsky
1932 Paris Sonja Henie Fritzi Burger Vivi-Anne Hultén
1933 London Sonja Henie Cecilia Colledge Fritzi Burger
1934 Prague Sonja Henie Liselotte Landbeck Maribel Vinson
1935 St. Moritz Sonja Henie Liselotte Landbeck Cecilia Colledge
1936 Berlin Sonja Henie Cecilia Colledge Megan Taylor
1937 Prague Cecilia Colledge Megan Taylor Emmy Putzinger
1938 St. Moritz Cecilia Colledge Megan Taylor Emmy Putzinger
1939 London Cecilia Colledge Megan Taylor Daphne Walker
1940–1946: Not held due to World War II
1947 Davos Barbara Ann Scott Gretchen Merrill Daphne Walker
1948 Prague Barbara Ann Scott Eva Pawlik Alena Vrzáňová
1949 Milan Eva Pawlik Alena Vrzáňová Jeannette Altwegg
1950 Oslo Alena Vrzáňová Jeannette Altwegg Jacqueline du Bief
1951 Zürich Jeannette Altwegg Jacqueline du Bief Barbara Wyatt
1952 Vienna Jeannette Altwegg Jacqueline du Bief Barbara Wyatt
1953 Dortmund Valda Osborn Gundi Busch Erica Batchelor
1954 Bolzano Gundi Busch Erica Batchelor Yvonne Sugden
1955 Budapest Hanna Eigel Yvonne Sugden Erica Batchelor
1956 Paris Ingrid Wendl Yvonne Sugden Erica Batchelor
1957 Vienna Hanna Eigel Ingrid Wendl Hanna Walter
1958 Bratislava Ingrid Wendl Hanna Walter Joan Haanappel
1959 Davos Hanna Walter Sjoukje Dijkstra Joan Haanappel
1960 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Sjoukje Dijkstra Regine Heitzer Joan Haanappel
1961 West Berlin Sjoukje Dijkstra Regine Heitzer Jana Mrázková
1962 Geneva Sjoukje Dijkstra Regine Heitzer Karin Frohner
1963 Budapest Sjoukje Dijkstra Nicole Hassler Regine Heitzer
1964 Grenoble Sjoukje Dijkstra Regine Heitzer Nicole Hassler
1965 Moscow Regine Heitzer Sally-Anne Stapleford Nicole Hassler
1966 Bratislava Regine Heitzer Gabriele Seyfert Nicole Hassler
1967 Ljubljana Gabriele Seyfert Hana Mašková Zsuzsa Almássy
1968 Västerås Hana Mašková Gabriele Seyfert Beatrix Schuba
1969 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Gabriele Seyfert Hana Mašková Beatrix Schuba
1970 Leningrad Gabriele Seyfert Beatrix Schuba Zsuzsa Almássy
1971 Zürich Beatrix Schuba Zsuzsa Almássy Rita Trapanese
1972 Gothenburg Beatrix Schuba Rita Trapanese Sonja Morgenstern
1973 Cologne Christine Errath Jean Scott Karin Iten
1974 Zagreb Christine Errath Dianne de Leeuw Liana Drahová
1975 Copenhagen Christine Errath Dianne de Leeuw Anett Pötzsch
1976 Geneva Dianne de Leeuw Anett Pötzsch Christine Errath
1977 Helsinki Anett Pötzsch Dagmar Lurz Susanna Driano
1978 Strasbourg Anett Pötzsch Dagmar Lurz Elena Vodorezova
1979 Zagreb Anett Pötzsch Dagmar Lurz Denise Biellmann
1980 Gothenburg Anett Pötzsch Dagmar Lurz Susanna Driano
1981 Innsbruck Denise Biellmann Sanda Dubravčić Claudia Kristofics-Binder
1982 Lyon Claudia Kristofics-Binder Katarina Witt Elena Vodorezova
1983 Dortmund Katarina Witt Elena Vodorezova Claudia Leistner
1984 Budapest Katarina Witt Manuela Ruben Anna Kondrashova
1985 Gothenburg Katarina Witt Kira Ivanova Claudia Leistner
1986 Copenhagen Katarina Witt Kira Ivanova Anna Kondrashova
1987 Sarajevo Katarina Witt Kira Ivanova Anna Kondrashova
1988 Prague Katarina Witt Kira Ivanova Anna Kondrashova
1989 Birmingham Claudia Leistner Natalia Lebedeva Patricia Neske
1990 Leningrad Evelyn Großmann Natalia Lebedeva Marina Kielmann
1991 Sofia Surya Bonaly Evelyn Großmann Marina Kielmann
1992 Lausanne Surya Bonaly Marina Kielmann Patricia Neske
1993 Helsinki Surya Bonaly Oksana Baiul Marina Kielmann
1994 Copenhagen Surya Bonaly Oksana Baiul Olga Markova
1995 Dortmund Surya Bonaly Olga Markova Elena Liashenko
1996 Sofia Irina Slutskaya Surya Bonaly Maria Butyrskaya
1997 Paris Irina Slutskaya Krisztina Czakó Yulia Lavrenchuk
1998 Milan Maria Butyrskaya Irina Slutskaya Tanja Szewczenko
1999 Prague Maria Butyrskaya Julia Soldatova Viktoria Volchkova
2000 Vienna Irina Slutskaya Maria Butyrskaya Viktoria Volchkova
2001 Bratislava Irina Slutskaya Maria Butyrskaya Viktoria Volchkova[34]
2002 Lausanne Maria Butyrskaya Irina Slutskaya Viktoria Volchkova[35]
2003 Malmö Irina Slutskaya Elena Sokolova Júlia Sebestyén[36]
2004 Budapest Júlia Sebestyén Elena Liashenko Elena Sokolova[37]
2005 Turin Irina Slutskaya Susanna Pöykiö Elena Liashenko[38]
2006 Lyon Irina Slutskaya Elena Sokolova Carolina Kostner[39]
2007 Warsaw Carolina Kostner Sarah Meier Kiira Korpi[40]
2008 Zagreb Carolina Kostner Sarah Meier Laura Lepistö[41]
2009 Helsinki Laura Lepistö Carolina Kostner Susanna Pöykiö[42]
2010 Tallinn Carolina Kostner Laura Lepistö Elene Gedevanishvili[43]
2011 Bern Sarah Meier Carolina Kostner Kiira Korpi[44]
2012 Sheffield Carolina Kostner Kiira Korpi Elene Gedevanishvili[45]
2013 Zagreb Carolina Kostner Adelina Sotnikova Elizaveta Tuktamysheva[46]
2014 Budapest Yulia Lipnitskaya Adelina Sotnikova Carolina Kostner[47]
2015 Stockholm Elizaveta Tuktamysheva Elena Radionova Anna Pogorilaya[48]
2016 Bratislava Evgenia Medvedeva Elena Radionova Anna Pogorilaya[49]
2017 Ostrava Evgenia Medvedeva Anna Pogorilaya Carolina Kostner[50]
2018 Moscow Alina Zagitova Evgenia Medvedeva Carolina Kostner[51]
2019 Minsk Sofia Samodurova Alina Zagitova Viveca Lindfors[52]
2020 Graz
2021 Zagreb
2022 Tallinn

Pairs

Pairs' medalist[note 7]
Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Refs
1930 Vienna Olga Orgonista / Sándor Szalay Emília Rotter / László Szollás Gisela Hochhaltinger / Otto Preißecker
1931 St. Moritz Olga Orgonista / Sándor Szalay Emília Rotter / László Szollás Lilly Gaillard / Willy Petter
1932 Paris Andrée Brunet / Pierre Brunet Lilly Gaillard / Willy Petter Idi Papez / Karl Zwack
1933 London Idi Papez / Karl Zwack Lilly Gaillard / Willy Petter Mollie Phillips / Rodney Murdoch
1934 Prague Emília Rotter / László Szollás Idi Papez / Karl Zwack Zofia Bilorówna / Tadeusz Kowalski
1935 St. Moritz Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Idi Papez / Karl Zwack Lucy Gallo / Rezső Dillinger
1936 Berlin Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Violet Cliff / Leslie Cliff Piroska Szekrényessy / Attila Szekrényessy
1937 Prague Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Piroska Szekrényessy / Attila Szekrényessy
1938 Troppau Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Inge Koch / Gunther Noack
1939 Zakopane Maxi Herber / Ernst Baier Ilse Pausin / Erich Pausin Inge Koch / Gunther Noack
1940–1946: Not held due to World War II
1947 Davos Micheline Lannoy / Pierre Baugniet Winifred Silverthorne / Dennis Silverthorne Suzanne Diskeuve / Edmond Verbustel
1948 Prague Andrea Kékesy / Ede Király Blažena Knittlová / Karel Vosátka Herta Ratzenhofer / Emil Ratzenhofer
1949 Milan Andrea Kékesy / Ede Király Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy Herta Ratzenhofer / Emil Ratzenhofer
1950 Oslo Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy Eliane Steinemann / André Calame Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks
1951 Zürich Ria Baran / Paul Falk Eliane Steinemann / André Calame Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks
1952 Vienna Ria Baran / Paul Falk Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy
1953 Dortmund Jennifer Nicks / John Nicks Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy Sissy Schwarz / Kurt Oppelt
1954 Bolzano Silvia Grandjean / Michel Grandjean Sissy Schwarz / Kurt Oppelt Soňa Balůnová / Miroslav Balůn
1955 Budapest Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy Věra Suchánková / Zdeněk Doležal Marika Kilius / Franz Ningel
1956 Paris Sissy Schwarz / Kurt Oppelt Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy Marika Kilius / Franz Ningel
1957 Vienna Věra Suchánková / Zdeněk Doležal Marianne Nagy / Lászlo Nagy Marika Kilius / Franz Ningel
1958 Bratislava Věra Suchánková / Zdeněk Doležal Nina Zhuk / Stanislav Zhuk Joyce Coates / Anthony Holles
1959 Davos Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Nina Zhuk / Stanislav Zhuk Joyce Coates / Anthony Holles
1960 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Nina Zhuk / Stanislav Zhuk Margret Göbl / Franz Ningel
1961 West Berlin Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Margret Göbl / Franz Ningel Margit Senf / Peter Göbel
1962 Geneva Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Margret Göbl / Franz Ningel
1963 Budapest Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gavrilov
1964 Grenoble Marika Kilius / Hans-Jürgen Bäumler Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gavrilov
1965 Moscow Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Gerda Johner / Rüdi Johner Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gorelik
1966 Bratislava Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tatiana Zhuk / Alexander Gorelik Margot Glockshuber / Wolfgang Danne
1967 Ljubljana Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Margot Glockshuber / Wolfgang Danne Heidemarie Steiner / Heinz-Ulrich Walther
1968 Västerås Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tamara Moskvina / Alexei Mishin Heidemarie Steiner / Heinz-Ulrich Walther
1969 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Belousova / Oleg Protopopov Tamara Moskvina / Alexei Mishin
1970 Leningrad Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Smirnova / Andrei Suraikin Heidemarie Steiner / Heinz-Ulrich Walther
1971 Zürich Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Smirnova / Andrei Suraikin Galina Karelina / Georgi Proskurin
1972 Gothenburg Irina Rodnina / Alexei Ulanov Liudmila Smirnova / Andrei Suraikin Manuela Groß / Uwe Kagelmann
1973 Cologne Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Liudmila Smirnova / Alexei Ulanov Almut Lehmann / Herbert Wiesinger
1974 Zagreb Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Romy Kermer / Rolf Österreich Liudmila Smirnova / Alexei Ulanov
1975 Copenhagen Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Romy Kermer / Rolf Österreich Manuela Groß / Uwe Kagelmann
1976 Geneva Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Romy Kermer / Rolf Österreich Irina Vorobieva / Alexander Vlasov
1977 Helsinki Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Irina Vorobieva / Alexander Vlasov Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai
1978 Strasbourg Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai Manuela Mager / Uwe Bewersdorf
1979 Zagreb Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai Irina Vorobieva / Igor Lisovski Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach
1980 Gothenburg Irina Rodnina / Alexander Zaitsev Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai Marina Pestova / Stanislav Leonovich
1981 Innsbruck Irina Vorobieva / Igor Lisovski Christina Riegel / Andreas Nischwitz Marina Cherkasova / Sergei Shakhrai
1982 Lyon Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach Marina Pestova / Stanislav Leonovich Irina Vorobieva / Igor Lisovski
1983 Dortmund Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Birgit Lorenz / Knut Schubert
1984 Budapest Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Sabine Baeß / Tassilo Thierbach Birgit Lorenz / Knut Schubert
1985 Gothenburg Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov Veronika Pershina / Marat Akbarov
1986 Copenhagen Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Elena Bechke / Valeri Kornienko
1987 Sarajevo Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov Elena Valova / Oleg Vasiliev Katrin Kanitz / Tobias Schröter
1988 Prague Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov Peggy Schwarz / Alexander König
1989 Birmingham Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov Mandy Wötzel / Axel Rauschenbach Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev
1990 Leningrad Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Larisa Selezneva / Oleg Makarov Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev
1991 Sofia Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev Elena Bechke / Denis Petrov Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov
1992 Lausanne Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev Elena Bechke / Denis Petrov Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov
1993 Helsinki Marina Eltsova / Andrei Bushkov Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov
1994 Copenhagen Ekaterina Gordeeva / Sergei Grinkov Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov Natalia Mishkutenok / Artur Dmitriev
1995 Dortmund Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Radka Kovaříková / René Novotný Evgenia Shishkova / Vadim Naumov
1996 Sofia Oksana Kazakova / Artur Dmitriev Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis
1997 Paris Marina Eltsova / Andrei Bushkov Mandy Wötzel / Ingo Steuer Elena Berezhnaya / Anton Sikharulidze
1998 Milan Elena Berezhnaya / Anton Sikharulidze Oksana Kazakova / Artur Dmitriev Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis
1999 Prague Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov Dorota Zagórska / Mariusz Siudek Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis
2000 Vienna Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov Dorota Zagórska / Mariusz Siudek Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis
2001 Bratislava Elena Berezhnaya / Anton Sikharulidze Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis[34]
2002 Lausanne Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov[35]
2003 Malmö Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Sarah Abitbol / Stéphane Bernadis Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov[36]
2004 Budapest Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov Dorota Zagórska / Mariusz Siudek[37]
2005 Turin Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Julia Obertas / Sergei Slavnov Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov[38]
2006 Lyon Tatiana Totmianina / Maxim Marinin Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov[39]
2007 Warsaw Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Maria Petrova / Alexei Tikhonov Dorota Siudek / Mariusz Siudek[40]
2008 Zagreb Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Maria Mukhortova / Maxim Trankov Yuko Kawaguchi / Alexander Smirnov[41]
2009 Helsinki Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Yuko Kawaguchi / Alexander Smirnov Maria Mukhortova / Maxim Trankov[42]
2010 Tallinn Yuko Kavaguti / Alexander Smirnov Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Maria Mukhortova / Maxim Trankov[43]
2011 Bern Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Yuko Kavaguti / Alexander Smirnov Vera Bazarova / Yuri Larionov[44]
2012 Sheffield Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Vera Bazarova / Yuri Larionov Ksenia Stolbova / Fedor Klimov[45]
2013 Zagreb Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Aliona Savchenko / Robin Szolkowy Stefania Berton / Ondřej Hotárek[46]
2014 Budapest Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Ksenia Stolbova / Fedor Klimov Vera Bazarova / Yuri Larionov[47]
2015 Stockholm Yuko Kavaguti / Alexander Smirnov Ksenia Stolbova / Fedor Klimov Evgenia Tarasova / Vladimir Morozov[48]
2016 Bratislava Tatiana Volosozhar / Maxim Trankov Aliona Savchenko / Bruno Massot Evgenia Tarasova / Vladimir Morozov[49]
2017 Ostrava Evgenia Tarasova / Vladimir Morozov Aliona Savchenko / Bruno Massot Vanessa James / Morgan Ciprès[50]
2018 Moscow Evgenia Tarasova / Vladimir Morozov Ksenia Stolbova / Fedor Klimov Natalia Zabiiako / Alexander Enbert[51]
2019 Minsk Vanessa James / Morgan Ciprès Evgenia Tarasova / Vladimir Morozov Aleksandra Boikova / Dmitrii Kozlovskii[52]
2020 Graz
2021 Zagreb
2022 Tallinn

Ice dance

Ice dance medalists[note 8]
Year Location Gold Silver Bronze Refs
1954 Bolzano Jean Westwood / Lawrence Demmy Nesta Davies / Paul Thomas Barbara Radford / Raymond Lockwood
1955 Budapest Jean Westwood / Lawrence Demmy Pamela Weight / Paul Thomas Barbara Radford / Raymond Lockwood
1956 Paris Pamela Weight / Paul Thomas June Markham / Courtney Jones Barbara Thompson / Gerard Rigby
1957 Vienna June Markham / Courtney Jones Barbara Thompson / Gerard Rigby Catherine Morris / Michael Robinson
1958 Bratislava June Markham / Courtney Jones Catherine Morris / Michael Robinson Barbara Thompson / Gerard Rigby
1959 Davos Doreen Denny / Courtney Jones Catherine Morris / Michael Robinson Christiane Guhel / Jean Paul Guhel
1960 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Doreen Denny / Courtney Jones Christiane Guhel / Jean Paul Guhel Mary Parry / Roy Mason
1961 West Berlin Doreen Denny / Courtney Jones Christiane Guhel / Jean Paul Guhel Linda Shearman / Michael Phillips
1962 Geneva Christiane Guhel / Jean Paul Guhel Linda Shearman / Michael Phillips Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman
1963 Budapest Linda Shearman / Michael Phillips Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Janet Sawbridge / David Hickinbottom
1964 Grenoble Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Janet Sawbridge / David Hickinbottom Yvonne Suddick / Roger Kennerson
1965 Moscow Eva Romanová / Pavel Roman Janet Sawbridge / David Hickinbottom Yvonne Suddick / Roger Kennerson
1966 Bratislava Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Yvonne Suddick / Roger Kennerson Jitka Babická / Jaromír Holan
1967 Ljubljana Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Yvonne Suddick / Malcolm Cannon Brigitte Martin / Francis Gamichon
1968 Västerås Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Yvonne Suddick / Malcolm Cannon Janet Sawbridge / Jon Lane
1969 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Diane Towler / Bernard Ford Janet Sawbridge / Jon Lane Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov
1970 Leningrad Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Tatiana Voitiuk / Viacheslav Zhigalin
1971 Zurich Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Susan Getty / Roy Bradshaw
1972 Gothenburg Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Janet Sawbridge / Peter Dalby
1973 Cologne Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Angelika Buck / Erich Buck Hilary Green / Glyn Watts
1974 Zagreb Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Hilary Green / Glyn Watts Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1975 Copenhagen Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Hilary Green / Glyn Watts Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1976 Geneva Liudmila Pakhomova / Alexander Gorshkov Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1977 Helsinki Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1978 Strasbourg Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay
1979 Zagreb Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay
1980 Gothenburg Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov Krisztina Regőczy / András Sallay Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov
1981 Innsbruck Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov Natalia Linichuk / Gennadi Karponosov
1982 Lyon Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Irina Moiseeva / Andrei Minenkov
1983 Dortmund Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Olga Volozhinskaya / Alexander Svinin Karen Barber / Nicholas Slater
1984 Budapest Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko
1985 Gothenburg Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Petra Born / Rainer Schönborn
1986 Copenhagen Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Natalia Annenko / Genrikh Sretenski
1987 Sarajevo Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Natalia Annenko / Genrikh Sretenski
1988 Prague Natalia Bestemianova / Andrei Bukin Natalia Annenko / Genrikh Sretenski Isabelle Duchesnay / Paul Duchesnay
1989 Birmingham Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Natalia Annenko / Genrikh Sretenski
1990 Leningrad Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Isabelle Duchesnay / Paul Duchesnay
1991 Sofia Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Isabelle Duchesnay / Paul Duchesnay Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin
1992 Lausanne Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov
1993 Helsinki Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko
1994 Copenhagen Jayne Torvill / Christopher Dean Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Maya Usova / Alexander Zhulin
1995 Dortmund Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko Sophie Moniotte / Pascal Lavanchy Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov
1996 Sofia Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Irina Romanova / Igor Yaroshenko
1997 Paris Oksana Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Sophie Moniotte / Pascal Lavanchy
1998 Milan Oksana "Pasha" Grishuk / Evgeni Platov Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat
1999 Prague Anjelika Krylova / Oleg Ovsyannikov Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh
2000 Vienna Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Barbara Fusar-Poli / Maurizio Margaglio Margarita Drobiazko / Povilas Vanagas
2001 Bratislava Barbara Fusar-Poli / Maurizio Margaglio Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh[34]
2002 Lausanne Marina Anissina / Gwendal Peizerat Barbara Fusar-Poli / Maurizio Margaglio Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh[35]
2003 Malmö Irina Lobacheva / Ilia Averbukh Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski Tatiana Navka / Roman Kostomarov[36]
2004 Budapest Tatiana Navka / Roman Kostomarov Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski Elena Grushina / Ruslan Goncharov[37]
2005 Turin Tatiana Navka / Roman Kostomarov Elena Grushina / Ruslan Goncharov Isabelle Delobel / Olivier Schoenfelder[38]
2006 Lyon Tatiana Navka / Roman Kostomarov Elena Grushina / Ruslan Goncharov Margarita Drobiazko / Povilas Vanagas[39]
2007 Warsaw Isabelle Delobel / Olivier Schoenfelder Oksana Domnina / Maxim Shabalin Albena Denkova / Maxim Staviski[40]
2008 Zagreb Oksana Domnina / Maxim Shabalin Isabelle Delobel / Olivier Schoenfelder Jana Khokhlova / Sergei Novitski[41]
2009 Helsinki Jana Khokhlova / Sergei Novitski Federica Faiella / Massimo Scali Sinead Kerr / John Kerr[42]
2010 Tallinn Oksana Domnina / Maxim Shabalin Federica Faiella / Massimo Scali Jana Khokhlova / Sergei Novitski[43]
2011 Bern Nathalie Péchalat / Fabian Bourzat Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev Sinead Kerr / John Kerr[44]
2012 Sheffield Nathalie Péchalat / Fabian Bourzat Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev Elena Ilinykh / Nikita Katsalapov[45]
2013 Zagreb Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev Elena Ilinykh / Nikita Katsalapov Anna Cappellini / Luca Lanotte[46]
2014 Budapest Anna Cappellini / Luca Lanotte Elena Ilinykh / Nikita Katsalapov Penny Coomes / Nicholas Buckland[47]
2015 Stockholm Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron Anna Cappellini / Luca Lanotte Alexandra Stepanova / Ivan Bukin[48]
2016 Bratislava Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron Anna Cappellini / Luca Lanotte Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev[49]
2017 Ostrava Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron Anna Cappellini / Luca Lanotte Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev[50]
2018 Moscow Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron Ekaterina Bobrova / Dmitri Soloviev Alexandra Stepanova / Ivan Bukin[51]
2019 Minsk Gabriella Papadakis / Guillaume Cizeron Alexandra Stepanova / Ivan Bukin Charlène Guignard / Marco Fabbri[52]
2020 Graz
2021 Zagreb
2022 Tallinn

See also

Footnotes

  1. The European Championships were held for the 100th time in 2008 in Zegreb, Croatia.[1]
  2. After Barbara Ann Scott from Canada and Dick Button from the United States had won Europeans in 1948 (Eva Pawlik of Austria and Hans Gerschwiler of Switzerland had been awarded the silver medals) the competition was restricted to European skaters.[17][18][19][20][21]
  3. The North American Championships, a biennial competition between Canada and the U.S., was a parallel competition to Europeans, but were last held in 1971. The Four Continents Championships, implemented in 1999, currently provides opportunities for non-European skaters.[22]
  4. See the historical document, "European Figure Skating Championships: Men", for a list of medalists from 1891-2012.[33]
  5. See the historical document, "European Figure Skating Championships: Ladies", for a list of medalists from 1930-2012.[53]
  6. Women are referred to as ladies in ISU regulations and communications.
  7. See the historical document, "European Figure Skating Championships: Pairs", for a list of medalists from 1930-2012.[54]
  8. See the historical document, "European Figure Skating Championships: Ice Dance", for a list of medalists from 1954-2012.[55]

References

  1. Hines (2015), p. 51
  2. "History of Figure Skating". Lausanne, Switzerland: International Skating Union. 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  3. Hines (2011), p. xxi
  4. Men's Result, p. 1
  5. "The European Figure Skating Championships – An Annual Competition Organised by the ISU". Europeans 2012. European Figure Skating. 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  6. Hines (2015), p. 49
  7. Hines (2015), pp.49-50
  8. Men's Result, pp. 1-2
  9. Hines (2015), p. 50
  10. Men's Result, pp. 2-3
  11. Wright, Benjamin T. (1992). Skating around the World, 1892-1992: The One Hundredth Anniversary History of the International Skating Union. Davos, Switzerland: International Skating Union. p. 16.
  12. Men's Result, pp. 3-4
  13. Hines (2015), p. 52
  14. Hines (2011), p. 6
  15. Hines (2011), pp. xxii, xxiv
  16. Hines (2015), pp. 51-52
  17. "Eva Pawlik and Rudi Seeliger" (detailed article by Susan D. Russel about Pawlik´s and Seeliger´s lives and careers), in: International Figure Skating Magazine, USA January/February 2009
  18. pirouette (International Magazine for skating) Issue Juli/August 2007, Erinnerungen an Eva Pawlik (Memories of Eva Pawlik). pp. 37-38
  19. Roman Seeliger, Die Wiener Eisrevue. Ein verklungener Traum (The Vienna Ice Revue. A Dream That Has Faded Away). Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky 1993, page 36
  20. Eva Pawlik, Autobiographical article in: Als ich 19 war (When I was 19 years old). Jugend&Volk 1981
  21. Ingrid Wendl, Eis mit Stil. Jugend&Volk 1979, Chapter about the history of Austrian figure skating
  22. Hines (2011), pp. 10-11
  23. Hines (2011), p. 83
  24. Hines (2011), p. 19
  25. Hines (2011), p. 6
  26. S&P/ID (2018), p. 24
  27. "International Skating Union Constitution and General Regulations 2018". International Skating Union. June 2018. p. 112. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  28. S&P/ID (2018), pp. 24-26
  29. S&P/ID 2018, p. 30
  30. "Communication No. 2205: Decisions of the ISU Council". Lausanne, Switzerland: International Skating Union. 18 October 2018. p. 4. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  31. S&P/ID (2018), p. 25
  32. S&P/ID (2018), p. 26
  33. "European Figure Skating Championships: Men" (PDF). International Skating Union. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  34. "European Figure Skating Championships 2001". International Skating Union. 16 September 2001. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  35. "European Figure Skating Championships 2002". International Skating Union. 19 January 2002. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  36. "2003 European Figure Skating Championships". International Skating Union. 21 January 2003. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  37. "2004 ISU European Figure Skating Championships". International Skating Union. 2 January 2004. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  38. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2005". International Skating Union. 29 January 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  39. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2006". International Skating Union. 21 January 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  40. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2007". International Skating Union. 27 January 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  41. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2008". International Skating Union. 26 January 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  42. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2009". International Skating Union. 24 January 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  43. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2010". International Skating Union. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  44. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2011". International Skating Union. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  45. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2012". International Skating Union. 28 January 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  46. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2013". International Skating Union. 26 January 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  47. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2014". International Skating Union. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  48. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2015". International Skating Union. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  49. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2016". International Skating Union. 30 January 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  50. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2017". International Skating Union. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  51. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2018". International Skating Union. 21 January 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  52. "ISU European Figure Skating Championships 2019". International Skating Union. 26 January 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  53. "European Figure Skating Championships: Ladies" (PDF). International Skating Union. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  54. "European Figure Skating Championships: Pairs" (PDF). International Skating Union. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  55. "European Figure Skating Championships: Ice Dance" (PDF). International Skating Union. Retrieved 13 November 2019.

Works cited

  • Hines, James R. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Figure Skating. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6859-5.
  • Hines, James R. (2015). Figure Skating in the Formative Years: Singles, Pairs, and the Expanding Role of Women. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03906-5.
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