Environmental humanities

The environmental humanities (also ecological humanities) is an interdisciplinary area of research, drawing on the many environmental sub-disciplines that have emerged in the humanities over the past several decades, in particular environmental literature, environmental philosophy, environmental history, feminist/queer/indigenous science and technology studies, and environmental anthropology.[1] Environmental humanities employs humanistic questions about meaning, culture, values, ethics, and responsibilities to address pressing environmental problems. The environmental humanities aim to help bridge traditional divides between the sciences and the humanities, as well as between Western, Eastern, and Indigenous ways of relating to the natural world and the place of humans within it. The field also resists the traditional divide between "nature" and "culture," showing how many "environmental" issues have always-already been entangled in human questions of justice, labor, and politics. Environmental humanities is also a way of synthesizing methods from different fields to create new ways of thinking through environmental problems.[2]

Emergence of environmental humanities

Although the concepts and ideas underpinning environmental humanities date back centuries, the field consolidated under the name "environmental humanities" in the 2000s following steady developments of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s in humanities and social science fields such as literature, history, philosophy, gender studies, and anthropology. A group of Australian researchers used the name "ecological humanities" to describe their work in the 1990s; the field consolidated under the name "environmental humanities" around 2010.[3] The journal Environmental Humanities was founded in 2012, indicating a key consolidation of the field. Importantly, environmental humanities did not just emerge from Western academic thinkers: indigenous, postcolonial, and feminist thinkers have provided major contributions. These contributions include challenging the human-centered viewpoints that separate "nature" and "culture" and the white, male, European- and North American-centric viewpoints of what constitutes "nature"; revising the literary genre of "nature writing"; and creating new concepts and fields that bridge the academic and the political, such as "environmental justice," "environmental racism," "the environmentalism of the poor," "naturecultures," and "the posthuman."[4]

Connectivity ontology

The ecological humanities are characterised by a connectivity ontology and a commitment to two fundamental axioms relating to the need to submit to ecological laws and to see humanity as part of a larger living system.

One of the fundamental ontological presuppositions of ecological humanities is that the organic world and its inorganic parts are seen as a single system whereby each part is linked to each other part. This world view in turn shares an intimate connection with Lotka's physiological philosophy and the associated concept of the "World Engine". When we see everything as connected, then the traditional questions of the humanities concerning economic and political justice become enlarged, into a consideration of how justice is connected with our transformation of our environment and ecosystems. The consequence of such connectivity ontology is, as proponents of the ecological humanities argue, that we begin to seek out a more inclusive concept of justice that includes non-humans within the domain of those to whom rights are owing. This broadened conception of justice involves "enlarged" or "ecological thinking", which presupposes the enhancement of knowledge sharing within fields of plural and diverse ‘knowledges’. This kind of knowledge sharing is called transdisciplinarity. It has links with the political philosophy of Hannah Arendt and the works of Italo Calvino. As Calvino put it, "enlarge[s] the sphere of what we can imagine". It also has connections with Leibniz's Enlightenment project where the sciences are simultaneously abridged while also being enlarged.

The situation is complicated however by the recognition of the fact that connections are both non-linear and linear. The ecological humanities, therefore, require both linear and non-linear modes of language through which reasoning about justice can be done. Thus there is a motivation to find linguistic modes which can adequately express both linear and non-linear connectivities.


There are three axioms of ecological humanities:

  1. The axiom of submission to ecosystem laws;
  2. The axiom of ecological kinship, which situates humanity as a participant in a larger living system; and
  3. The axiom of the social construction of ecosystems and ecological unity, which states that ecosystems and nature may be merely convenient conceptual entities (Marshall, 2002).

Putting the first and second axioms another way, the connections between and among living things are the basis for how ecosystems are understood to work, and thus constitute laws of existence and guidelines for behaviour (Rose 2004)

The first of these axioms has a tradition in social sciences (see Marx, 1968: 3). From the second axiom the notions of "ecological embodiment/ embeddedness" and "habitat" have emerged from Political Theory with a fundamental connectivity to rights, democracy, and ecologism (Eckersley 1996: 222, 225; Eckersley 1998).

The third axiom comes from the strong 'self-reflective' tradition of all 'humanities' scholarship and it encourages ecological humanities to investigate its own theoretical basis (and without which, ecological humanities is just 'ecology').

Contemporary ideas

Political economic ecology

Some theorists have suggested that the inclusion of non-humans in the consideration of justice links ecocentric philosophy with political economics. This is because the theorising of justice is a central activity of political economic philosophy. If in accordance with the axioms of ecological humanities, theories of justice are enlarged to include ecological values then the necessary result is the synthesis of the concerns of ecology with that of political economy: i.e. Political Economic Ecology.

French philosopher Edgar Morin, considered one of the great living thinkers, is concerned with the future of Earth and Humanity as part of the systems theory. He alerts us to the complexity of the problem, to the need of finding solutions as a global emergency and proclaims that an interdisciplinary method is essential to achieve basic results. He says the solutions will not be only scientific but mainly political. [5] [6]

Energy systems language

The question of what language can best depict the linear and non-linear causal connections of ecological systems appears to have been taken up by the school of ecology known as systems ecology. To depict the linear and non-linear internal relatedness of ecosystems where the laws of thermodynamics hold significant consequences (Hannon et al. 1991: 80), Systems Ecologist H.T. Odum (1994) predicated the Energy Systems Language on the principles of ecological energetics. In ecological energetics, just as in ecological humanities, the causal bond between connections is considered an ontic category (see Patten et al. 1976: 460). Moreover, as a result of simulating ecological systems with the energy systems language, H.T.Odum make the controversial suggestion that embodied energy could be understood as value, which in itself is a step into the field of Political Economic Ecology noted above.

See also


  1. Rose, Deborah Bird; van Dooren, Thom; Chrulew, Matthew; Cooke, Stuart; Kearnes, Matthew; O'Gorman, Emily (2012-05-01). "Thinking Through the Environment, Unsettling the Humanities". Environmental Humanities. 1 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1215/22011919-3609940. ISSN 2201-1919.
  2. "The Environmental Humanities at UCLA". Retrieved 2019-09-25.
  3. Emmett, Robert S., 1979- author. The environmental humanities : a critical introduction. ISBN 9780262036764. OCLC 978286393.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Emmett, Robert S., 1979- author. The environmental humanities : a critical introduction. ISBN 9780262036764. OCLC 978286393.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. Towards Ecologised Thought. Interview with Edgar Morin
  6. HAVING TO BE – article highlighting Morin’s thought on Earth safeguard
  1. ^ S. Kingsland (1985). Modeling Nature. The University of Chicago Press. Chapter 2.
  2. ^ L. Courtart, translated by D. Rutherford, R. T. Monroe (2002). The Logic of Leibniz. Chapter 5. Archived from the original on 2005-12-17. Retrieved 2006-01-27.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)


  • Italo Calvino, On Fourier, III: A Utopia of Fine Dust, The Literature Machine, Picador, London.
  • R. Eckersley (1996) ‘Greening Liberal Democracy’, in Doherty, B. and de Geus, M. ed. Democracy & Green Political Thought: Sustainability, Rights and Citizenship, Routledge, London, pp. 212–236.
  • R. Eckersley (1998) ‘The Death of Nature and the Birth of Ecological Humanities’, Organization and Environment, Vol 11, No. 2, pp. 183–185.
  • R. Eckersley (2001) 'Symposium Green Thinking – from Australia', Environmental Politics, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 85–102.
  • J.B. Foster and P.Burkett (2004) ‘Ecological Economics And Classical Marxism’, Organization & Environment, Vol. 17, No.1, pp. 32–60.
  • B. Hannon, R.Costanza and R.Ulanowicz (1991) ‘A General Accounting Framework for Ecological Systems: A Functional Taxonomy for Connectivist Ecology’, Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 40, 78-104.
  • A. Marshall (2002) The Unity of Nature: Wholeness and Disintegration in Ecology and Science. London: Imperial College Press.
  • J. Martinez-Alier (1987) Ecological Economics, Basil Blackwell.
  • K. Marx (1968), in Karl Marx: 1818/1968, a collection of essays, Inter Nationes, Bad Godesberg.
  • H.T. Odum (1994) Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology, Colorado University Press, Boulder, Colorado.
  • B.C. Patten, R.W.Bosserman, J.T.Finn and W.B.Cale (1976) ‘Propagation of Cause in Ecosystems’, in Patten, B.C. ed. Systems Analysis and Systems Simulation in Ecology, Academic Press inc. New York.
  • S. Podolinsky (2004) ‘Socialism And The Unity Of Physical Forces’, Organization & Environment, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 61–75.
  • D. Rose and L. Robin (2004) 'The Ecological Humanities in Action: An Invitation', Australian Humanities Review, 31-2
  • D.R. Weiner (2000) Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia, University of Pittsburgh Press, U.S.A.
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