English name

English names are names used in, or originating in, England. In England as elsewhere in the English-speaking world, a complete name usually consists of a given name, commonly referred to as a first name or Christian name, and a (most commonly patrilineal) family name or surname, also referred to as a last name. There can be several given names, some of these being often referred to as a second name, or middle name(s).[1]

For English names in biology, see Common name

Given names

Most given names used in England do not have English derivation. Most traditional names are Hebrew (Daniel, David, Elizabeth, Susan), Greek (Nicholas, Dorothy, George, Helen), Germanic names adopted via the transmission of Old French/Norman (Robert, Richard, Gertrude, Charlotte), or Latin (Adrian, Amelia, Patrick).

There remains a limited set of given names which have an actual English derivation (see Anglo-Saxon names); examples include Alfred, Ashley, Edgar, Edmund, Edward, Edwin, Harold and Oswald. A distinctive feature of Anglophone names is the surnames of important families used as given names, originally to indicate political support or patronage. Many examples have now become normal names chosen because parents like them, and any political sense lost. Most are male names like Cecil, Gerald, Howard, Percy, Montague, Stanley or Gordon, though some have female versions like Cecilia or Geraldine. Other languages have few equivalents, although the saint's surname Xavier is often used by Roman Catholics.

During most of the 19th century, the most popular given names were Mary and either John or William for girls and boys, respectively. Throughout the Early Modern period, the variation of given names was comparatively small; the three most frequent male given names accounted for close to 50% of male population throughout this period. For example, of the boys born in London in the year 1510, 24.4% were named John, 13.3% were named Thomas and 11.7% were named William.[2] A trend towards more diversity in given names began in the mid-19th century, and by 1900, 22.9% of the newborn boys, and 16.2% of the newborn girls in the UK shared the top three given names. The trend continued during the 20th century, and by 1994, these figures had fallen to 11% and 8.6%, respectively. This trend is a result of a combination of greater individualism in the choice of names, and the increasing ethnic heterogeneity of UK population, which led to a wider range of frequent given names from non-European traditions.

Translations of male English given names
English French German Italian Spanish
AaronAaronAaronAronneAarón
AdamAdamAdamAdamoAdán
AdolphAdolpheAdolfAdolfoAdolfo
AdrianAdrienAdrianAdrianoAdrián
AlexanderAlexandreAlexanderAlessandroAlejandro
AlfredAlfredAlfredAlfredoAlfredo
AlphonseAlphonseAlfonsAlfonsoAlfonso
AmadeusAmédéeAmadeusAmedeoAmadeo
AndrewAndréAndreasAndreaAndrés
AnthonyAntoineAntonAntonioAntonio
ArcadiusArcadiusArkadiusArcadioArcadio
ArthurArthurArthurArturoArturo
CharlesCharlesCarlCarloCarlos
ChristianChristianChristianCristianoCristián
ChristopherChristopheChristophCristoforoCristóbal
CorneliusCorneilleCorneliusCornelioCornelio
DamianDamienDamianDamianoDamián
DavidDavidDavidDavideDavid
DennisDenisDennisDionisioDionisio
EdmundEdmondEdmundEdmundoEdmundo
EdwardÉdouardEduardEdoardoEduardo
ElijahÉlieEliasEliaElías
EmmanuelEmmanuelEmanuelEmanueleManuel
EugeneEugèneEugenEugenioEugenio
EustaceEustacheEustachiusEustachioEustaquio
FrancisFrançoisFranzFrancescoFrancisco
FrederickFrédéricFriedrichFedericoFederico
GavinusGabinGabinusGavinoGabino
GeorgeGeorgesGeorgGiorgioJorge
GeraldGéraldGerholdGiraldoGeraldo
GerardGérardGerhardGerardoGerardo
GregoryGrégoireGregorGregorioGregorio
HaroldHaroldHaraldAroldoHaroldo
HenryHenriHeinrichEnricoEnrique
HerbertHerbertHeribertErbertoHerberto
HonoriusHonoréHonoriusOnorioHonorio
HoraceHoraceHorazOrazioHoracio
HughHugoHugoUgoHugo
IsaiahIsaïeJesajaIsaiaIsaías
JacobJacquesJakobGiacobbeJacobo
JeremiahJérémieJeremiasGeremiaJeremías
JeromeJérômeHieronymusGerolamoJerónimo
JohnJeanJohannGiovanniJuan
JonahJonasJonaGionaJonás
JosephJosephJosefGiuseppeJosé
JulianJulienJulianGiulianoJulián
JuliusJulesJuliusGiulioJulio
LaurenceLaurentLorenzLorenzoLorenzo
LazarusLazareLazarusLazzaroLázaro
LouisLouisLudwigLuigiLuis
MarcusMarcMarkusMarcoMarcos
MartinMartinMartinMartinoMartín
MichaelMichelMichaelMicheleMiguel
MosesMoïseMoseMosèMoisés
NathanNathanNatanNatanNatán
NicholasNicolasNikolausNiccolòNicolás
NoahNoéNoachNoèNoé
OctaviusOctaveOktavianOttavioOctavio
OrpheusOrphéeOrpheusOrfeoOrfeo
OscarOscarOskarOscarÓscar
OswaldOsvaldOswaldOsvaldoOsvaldo
PatrickPatricePatrickPatrizioPatricio
PaulPaulPaulPaoloPablo
PeterPierrePeterPietroPedro
PhilipPhilippePhilippFilippoFelipe
PlutarchPlutarquePlutarchPlutarcoPlutarco
ProsperProsperProsperProsperoPróspero
RalphRaoulRalphRaulRaúl
RaphaelRaphaëlRaphaelRaffaeleRafael
RichardRichardRichardRiccardoRicardo
RobertRobertRobertRobertoRoberto
RoderickRodrigueRoderichRodrigoRodrigo
RudolphRodolpheRudolfRodolfoRodolfo
StanislausStanislasStanislausStanislaoEstanislao
StephenÉtienneStephanStefanoEsteban
ThomasThomasThomasTommasoTomás
VictorVictorViktorVittoreVíctor
WilliamGuillaumeWilhelmGuglielmoGuillermo
Translations of female English given names
English French German Hungarian Italian Portuguese Spanish
AlexandraAlexandraAlexandraAlexandraAlessandraAlexandraAlejandra
AmyAiméeAmátaAmataAmadaAmada
AngelaAngèleAngelaAngélaAngelaÂngelaÁngela
AngelicaAngéliqueAngelikaAngyalkaAngelicaAngélicaAngélica
AnnaAnneAnnaAnnaAnnaAnaAna
AnnabelAnnabelle---AnabelaAnabel
CharlotteCharlotteCharlotteSaroltaCarlottaCarlotaCarlota
ChristinaChristineChristinaKrisztinaCristinaCristinaCristina
DorothyDorothéeDorotheaDorottyaDoroteaDoroteiaDorotea
EleanorÉléonoreEleonoraEleonóraEleonoraLeonorLeonor
ElizabethÉlisabethElisabethErzsébetElisabettaIsabelIsabel
FelicityFélicitéFelicitasFelicitásFelicitaFelicidadeFelicidad
JosephaJosèpheJosephaJozefaGiuseppaJosefaJosefa
JosephineJoséphineJosephineJozefinaGiuseppinaJosefinaJosefina
LouisaLouiseLouisaLujzaLuisaLuísaLuisa
LucyLucieLuciaLucaLuciaLúciaLucía
MagdaleneMadeleineMagdalenaMagdalénaMaddalenaMadalenaMagdalena
MargaretMargueriteMargaretaMargarétaMargheritaMargaridaMargarita
MaryMarieMariaMáriaMariaMariaMaría
SophiaSophieSophiaZsófiaSofiaSofiaSofía
SusanSuzanneSusanneZsuzsannaSusannaSusanaSusana
SylviaSylvieSylviaSzilviaSilviaSílviaSilvia
TheresaThérèseTheresaTeréziaTeresaTeresaTeresa

Surnames

According to Christopher Daniell, in From Norman Conquest to Magna Carta, 1140 marked what might be the first recorded use of a modern surname, inherited by multiple generations. The sons of a Norman named Robert used a modern inheritable surname, FitzGerald, in honour of an earlier relative, named Gerald.[3]

The introduction of parish registers in 1538 contributed significantly to the stabilization of the surname system, but it was not until the late 17th century that fixed surnames were introduced throughout England.

According to the Office for National Statistics, the top ten most frequent surnames in England during the 1990s were:

  1. Smith
  2. Jones
  3. Williams
  4. Taylor
  5. Brown
  6. Davies
  7. Evans
  8. Wilson
  9. Thomas
  10. Johnson

Compound surnames

Double-barrelled names may be formed for a variety of reasons, including combining of spouses' surnames upon marriage or, more commonly in the past, adding another family's surname as a condition of inheritance.[4]

Compound surnames in English feature two words, often joined by a hyphen or hyphens, for example Henry Hepburne-Scott, with some families having as many as three or four words making up their surname, such as Charles Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis, 21st Baron Clinton and Alexander Charles Robert Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 9th Marquess of Londonderry. However, it is not unusual for compound surnames to be composed of separate words not linked by a hyphen, for example Iain Duncan Smith, a former leader of the Conservative Party, whose surname is "Duncan Smith".

See also

References

  1. "English Names". www.behindthename.com.
  2. Douglas A. Galbi. Long-Term Trends in Personal Given Name Frequencies in the UK, 2002
  3. Christopher Daniell (2013). From Norman Conquest to Magna Carta: England 1066–1215. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781136356971. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  4. Denison, David; Hogg, Richard (2008). A History of the English Language. Cambridge University Press. p. 334.
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