Emiran culture was a culture that existed in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine), and Arabia between the Middle Paleolithic and the Upper Paleolithic periods. It is the oldest known of the Upper Paleolithic cultures and remains an enigma as it transitionally has no African progenitor.[3][4] This has led some scholars to conclude that the Emiran is autochthonous to the Levant.[5]

Emiran culture
Emiran culture
Map showing the approximate location of the Emiran culture
Geographical rangeLevant, Arabia
PeriodUpper Paleolithic
Dates100,000–40,000 cal B.P.[1][2]
Preceded byMousterian, Aterian
Followed byBohunician, Ahmarian, Antelian, Levantine Aurignacian
The Paleolithic
Pliocene (before Homo)

Emiran period

Emiran culture apparently developed from the local Mousterian without rupture, keeping numerous elements of the Levalloise-Mousterian, together with the locally typical Emireh point. The Emireh point is the type tool of stage one of the Upper Paleolithic, first identified in the Emiran culture.[6] Numerous stone blade tools were used, including curved knives similar to those found in the Châtelperronian culture of Western Europe.

The Emiran eventually evolved into the Ahmarian, and later the Levantine Aurignacian culture (formerly called Antelian), still of Levalloise tradition but with some Aurignacian influences.[7]

According to Dorothy Garrod, the Emireh point, known from several sites in Palestine, is the hallmark of this culture.[8]


"Levantine Aurignacian", from the Levant, is a type of blade technology very similar to the European Aurignacian, following chronologically the Emiran and Early Ahmarian in the same area of the Near East, and closely related to them.[9]

See also


  1. Jeffrey I. Rose, Anthony E. Marks: «Out of Arabia» and the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition in the Southern Levant. In: Quartär, 61, 2014, p 49–85, doi 10.7485/qu61_03.
  2. Bosch, Marjolein D. (April 30, 2015). "New chronology for Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (25). doi:10.1073/pnas.1501529112. PMC 4485136.
  3. https://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/12/arabian-origin-of-upper-paleolithic-in.html
  4. https://www.academia.edu/5401210/Through_a_prism_of_paradigms_a_century_of_research_into_the_origins_of_the_Upper_Palaeolithic_in_the_Levant
  5. Lorraine Copeland; P. Wescombe (1965). Inventory of Stone-Age sites in Lebanon, p. 48 & Figure IV, 4, p. 150. Imprimerie Catholique. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  6. Shea, John J. (2013). Stone Tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Near East: A Guide. Cambridge University Press. p. 154. ISBN 9781107006980.
  7. Archaeology in Cultural Systems, Sally R. Binford, Lewish Roberts Binford
  8. Shea, John J. (2013). Stone Tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Near East: A Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–155. ISBN 9781107006980.

Further reading

  • M. H. Alimen and M. J. Steve, Historia Universal siglo XXI. Prehistoria. Siglo XXI Editores, 1970 (reviewed and corrected in 1994) (original German edition, 1966, titled Vorgeschichte). ISBN 84-323-0034-9
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