Elizabeth Warren

Elizabeth Ann Warren (née Herring; born June 22, 1949) is an American politician and former academic, serving as the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013. She was formerly a law school professor specializing in bankruptcy law. A member of the Democratic Party and a self-described progressive, Warren has focused on consumer protection, economic opportunity, and the social safety net while in the Senate.

Elizabeth Warren
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
Assumed office
January 3, 2013
Serving with Ed Markey
Preceded byScott Brown
Vice Chair of the Senate Democratic Caucus
Assumed office
January 3, 2017
Serving with Mark Warner
LeaderChuck Schumer
Preceded byChuck Schumer
Special Advisor for the
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
In office
September 17, 2010  August 1, 2011
PresidentBarack Obama
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byRaj Date
Chair of the Congressional Oversight Panel
In office
November 25, 2008  November 15, 2010
DeputyDamon Silvers
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byTed Kaufman
Personal details
Elizabeth Ann Herring

(1949-06-22) June 22, 1949
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic (1996–present)
Other political
Republican (before 1996)[1]
Children2, including Amelia
ResidenceCambridge, Massachusetts
WebsiteSenate website

Warren is a graduate of the University of Houston and Rutgers Law School and has taught law at several universities, including the University of Houston, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Pennsylvania, and Harvard University. She was one of the most influential professors in the field of commercial law before beginning her political career. She has authored five and coauthored six books.

Warren's first foray into public policy began in 1995 when she worked to oppose what eventually became a 2005 act restricting bankruptcy access for individuals. Her national profile grew during the late 2000s following her forceful public stances in favor of more stringent banking regulations after the 2007–08 financial crisis. She served as chair of the Congressional Oversight Panel of the Troubled Asset Relief Program and was instrumental in creating the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, of which she served as the first Special Advisor under President Obama.

In November 2012, Warren won the U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts, defeating incumbent Republican Scott Brown and becoming the first female Senator from Massachusetts. She was assigned to the Senate Special Committee on Aging; the Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee; and the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Warren won reelection by a wide margin in 2018, defeating Republican nominee Geoff Diehl. On February 9, 2019, at a rally in Lawrence, Massachusetts, Warren announced her candidacy in the 2020 United States presidential election.[2]

Early life, education, and family

Warren was born Elizabeth Ann Herring in Oklahoma City on June 22, 1949,[3][4][5][6] the fourth child of middle-class parents Pauline (née Reed, 1912–1995) and Donald Jones Herring (1911–1997). Warren has described her family as teetering "on the ragged edge of the middle class" and "kind of hanging on at the edges by our fingernails".[7][8] She had three older brothers and was raised Methodist.[9][10]

Warren lived in Norman, Oklahoma, until she was 11 years old, when her family moved back to Oklahoma City.[8] When she was 12, her father, a salesman at Montgomery Ward,[8] had a heart attack, which led to many medical bills as well as a pay cut because he could not do his previous work.[5] After leaving his sales job, he worked as a maintenance man for an apartment building.[11] Eventually, the family's car was repossessed because they failed to make loan payments. To help the family finances, her mother found work in the catalog-order department at Sears.[5] When she was 13, Warren started waiting tables at her aunt's restaurant.[12][13]

Warren became a star member of the debate team at Northwest Classen High School and won the state high school debating championship. She also won a debate scholarship to George Washington University (GWU) at the age of 16.[5] She initially aspired to be a teacher, but left GWU after two years in 1968 to marry Jim Warren, whom she had met in high school.[5][12][14]

Warren and her husband moved to Houston, where he was employed by IBM.[5][15] She enrolled in the University of Houston and graduated in 1970 with a Bachelor of Science degree in speech pathology and audiology.[11][16]

The Warrens moved to New Jersey when Jim received a job transfer. She soon became pregnant and decided to stay at home to care for their daughter, Amelia.[5][7][17] After Amelia turned two, Warren enrolled in Rutgers Law School at Rutgers University–Newark.[17] Shortly before graduating in 1976, Warren became pregnant with their second child, Alexander.[5][7] She received her J.D. and passed the bar examination.[14][17]

The Warrens divorced in 1978,[5][7] and two years later, Warren married law professor Bruce H. Mann on July 12, 1980,[18] but kept her first husband's surname.[7][19] Warren has three grandchildren through her daughter Amelia.[20]

Career before elected office

In 1970, after obtaining a degree in speech pathology and audiology, but before enrolling in law school, Warren taught children with disabilities for a year in a public school.[21] During law school, Warren worked as a summer associate at Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft. After she received her J.D. and passed the bar examination, she decided to offer legal services from home, writing wills and doing real estate closings.[14][17]

In the late 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, Warren taught law at several American universities while researching issues related to bankruptcy and middle-class personal finance.[17] She became involved with public work in bankruptcy regulation and consumer protection in the mid-1990s.


Warren began her academic career as a lecturer at Rutgers University, Newark School of Law (1977–78). She then moved to the University of Houston Law Center (1978–83), where she became an associate dean in 1980 and obtained tenure in 1981. She taught at the University of Texas School of Law as visiting associate professor in 1981 and returned as a full professor two years later (staying from 1983 to 1987). She was a research associate at the Population Research Center of the University of Texas at Austin from 1983 to 1987[16] and was also a visiting professor at the University of Michigan in 1985. During this period, Warren also taught Sunday school.[9][22]

Warren's earliest academic work was heavily influenced by the law and economics movement, which aimed to apply neoclassical economic theory to the study of law with an emphasis on economic efficiency. One of her articles, published in 1980 in the Notre Dame Law Review, argued that public utilities were over-regulated and that automatic utility rate increases should be instituted.[23] But Warren soon became a proponent of on-the-ground research into how people respond to laws. Her work analyzing court records and interviewing judges, lawyers, and debtors, established her as a rising star in the field of bankruptcy law.[24] According to Warren and economists who follow her work, one of her key insights was that rising bankruptcy rates were caused not by profligate consumer spending but by middle-class families' attempts to buy homes in good school districts.[25] Warren worked in this field alongside colleagues Teresa A. Sullivan and Jay Westbrook, and the trio published their research in the book As We Forgive Our Debtors in 1989. Warren later recalled that she had begun her research believing that most people filing for bankruptcy were either working the system or had been irresponsible in incurring debts, but that she concluded that such abuse was in fact rare and that the legal framework for bankruptcy was poorly designed, describing the way the research challenged her fundamental beliefs as "worse than disillusionment" and "like being shocked at a deep-down level".[23] In 2004, she published an article in the Washington University Law Review in which she argued that correlating middle-class struggles with over-consumption was a fallacy.[26]

Warren joined the University of Pennsylvania Law School as a full professor in 1987 and obtained an endowed chair in 1990, becoming the William A. Schnader Professor of Commercial Law. In 1992, she taught for a year at Harvard Law School as Robert Braucher Visiting Professor of Commercial Law. In 1995, Warren left Penn to become Leo Gottlieb Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. In 1996 she became the highest-paid professor at Harvard University who was not a dean, with a $181,300 salary and total compensation of $291,876.[27][16] As of 2011, she was Harvard's only tenured law professor who had attended law school at an American public university.[24] Warren was a highly influential law professor. She published in many fields, but her expertise was in bankruptcy and commercial law. From 2005 to 2009 Warren was among the three most-cited scholars in those fields.[28][29]

Advisory roles

In 1995, the National Bankruptcy Review Commission's chair, former Congressman Mike Synar, asked Warren to advise the commission. Synar had been a debate opponent of Warren's during their school years.[30] She helped draft the commission's report and worked for several years to oppose legislation intended to severely restrict consumers' right to file for bankruptcy. Warren and others opposing the legislation were not successful; in 2005, Congress passed the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, which curtailed consumers' ability to file for bankruptcy.[12][31]

From 2006 to 2010, Warren was a member of the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Advisory Committee on Economic Inclusion.[32] She is a member of the National Bankruptcy Conference, an independent organization that advises the U.S. Congress on bankruptcy law,[33] a former vice president of the American Law Institute and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[34]

Warren's scholarship and public advocacy were the impetus for establishing the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau in 2011.[35]

TARP oversight

On November 14, 2008, U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid appointed Warren to chair the five-member Congressional Oversight Panel created to oversee the implementation of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act.[36] The panel released monthly oversight reports evaluating the government bailout and related programs.[37] During Warren's tenure, these reports covered foreclosure mitigation, consumer and small business lending, commercial real estate, AIG, bank stress tests, the impact of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) on the financial markets, government guarantees, the automotive industry and other topics.[38][39][40]

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Warren was an early advocate for creating a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). The bureau was established by the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, signed into law by President Obama in July 2010. In September 2010, Obama named Warren Assistant to the President and Special Advisor to the Secretary of the Treasury on the CFPB to set up the new agency.[41] While liberal groups and consumer advocacy groups urged Obama to formally nominate Warren as the agency's director, financial institutions and Republican members of Congress strongly opposed her, believing she would be an overly zealous regulator.[12][42][43] Reportedly convinced that Warren could not win Senate confirmation as the bureau's first director,[44] in January 2012, Obama appointed former Ohio Attorney General Richard Cordray to the post in a recess appointment over Republican senators' objections.[45][46]

Political affiliation

Friends and colleagues of Warren's from her high school days to the early part of her academic career in the 1980s have characterized her as a "die-hard conservative" with a belief in laissez-faire economics and "surprisingly anti-consumer views". Gary L. Francione, who had been a colleague of hers at the University of Pennsylvania, recalled in 2019 that when he heard her speak at the time she was becoming politically prominent, he "almost fell off [his] chair... She’s definitely changed".[23] Warren was registered as a Republican from 1991 to 1996.[1] She voted Republican for many years. "I was a Republican because I thought that those were the people who best supported markets", she has said.[5] But she has also said that in the six presidential elections before 1996 she voted for the Republican nominee only once, in 1976, for Gerald Ford.[23] Warren has said that she began to vote Democratic in 1995 because she no longer believed that the Republicans were the party who best supported markets, but she has said she has voted for both parties because she believed that neither should dominate.[47] According to Warren, she left the Republican Party because it is no longer "principled in its conservative approach to economics and to markets" and is instead tilting the playing field in favor of large financial institutions and against middle-class American families.[48][49]

U.S. Senate



On September 14, 2011, Warren declared her intention to run for the Democratic nomination for the 2012 election in Massachusetts for the U.S. Senate. Republican Scott Brown had won the seat in a 2010 special election after Ted Kennedy's death.[50][51] A week later, a video of Warren speaking in Andover went viral on the Internet.[52] In it, Warren responds to the charge that asking the rich to pay more taxes is "class warfare" by saying that no one grew rich in the U.S. without depending on infrastructure paid for by the rest of society:[53][54]

There is nobody in this country who got rich on his own. Nobody. ... You moved your goods to market on the roads the rest of us paid for; you hired workers the rest of us paid to educate; you were safe in your factory because of police forces and fire forces that the rest of us paid for. You didn't have to worry that marauding bands would come and seize everything at your factory, and hire someone to protect against this, because of the work the rest of us did. Now look, you built a factory and it turned into something terrific, or a great idea. God bless. Keep a big hunk of it. But part of the underlying social contract is, you take a hunk of that and pay forward for the next kid who comes along.

President Obama later echoed her sentiments in a 2012 election campaign speech.[55]

Warren ran unopposed for the Democratic nomination and won it on June 2, 2012, at the state Democratic convention with a record 95.77% of the votes of delegates.[56][57][58] She encountered significant opposition from business interests. In August, the political director for the U.S. Chamber of Commerce commented that "no other candidate in 2012 represents a greater threat to free enterprise than Professor Warren".[59] Warren nonetheless raised $39 million for her campaign, more than any other Senate candidate in 2012, and showed, according to The New York Times, "that it was possible to run against the big banks without Wall Street money and still win".[60]

Warren received a prime-time speaking slot at the 2012 Democratic National Convention on September 5, 2012. She positioned herself as a champion of a beleaguered middle class that "has been chipped, squeezed, and hammered". According to Warren, "People feel like the system is rigged against them. And here's the painful part: They're right. The system is rigged." Warren said Wall Street CEOs "wrecked our economy and destroyed millions of jobs" and that they "still strut around congress, no shame, demanding favors, and acting like we should thank them".[61][62][63]


On January 6, 2017, in an email to supporters, Warren announced that she would be running for a second term as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, writing, "The people of Massachusetts didn't send me to Washington to roll over and play dead while Donald Trump and his team of billionaires, bigots, and Wall Street bankers crush the working people of our Commonwealth and this country. ... This is no time to quit."[64]

In the 2018 election Warren defeated Republican nominee Geoff Diehl, 60% to 36%.


On November 6, 2012, Warren defeated Brown with 53.7% of the vote. She is the first woman ever elected to the U.S. Senate from Massachusetts,[3] as part of a sitting U.S. Senate that had 20 female senators in office, the largest female U.S. Senate delegation in history at the time, following the November 2012 elections. In December 2012, Warren was assigned a seat on the Senate Banking Committee, which oversees the implementation of Dodd–Frank and other regulation of the banking industry.[65] Vice President Joe Biden swore Warren in on January 3, 2013.[66]

At Warren's first Banking Committee hearing in February 2013, she pressed several banking regulators to say when they had last taken a Wall Street bank to trial and said, "I'm really concerned that 'too big to fail' has become 'too big for trial'." Videos of Warren's questioning amassed more than one million views in a matter of days.[67] At a March Banking Committee hearing, Warren asked Treasury Department officials why criminal charges were not brought against HSBC for its money laundering practices. Warren compared money laundering to drug possession, saying: "If you're caught with an ounce of cocaine, the chances are good you're going to go to jail ... But evidently, if you launder nearly a billion dollars for drug cartels and violate our international sanctions, your company pays a fine and you go home and sleep in your own bed at night."[68]

In May 2013, Warren sent letters to the Justice Department, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Federal Reserve questioning their decisions that settling would be more fruitful than going to court.[69] Also in May, saying that students should get "the same great deal that banks get", Warren introduced the Bank on Student Loans Fairness Act, which would allow students to take out government education loans at the same rate that banks pay to borrow from the federal government, 0.75%.[70] Independent Senator Bernie Sanders endorsed her bill, saying: "The only thing wrong with this bill is that [she] thought of it and I didn't".[71]

During the 2014 election cycle, Warren was a top Democratic fundraiser. After the election, Warren was appointed to become the first-ever Strategic Adviser of the Democratic Policy and Communications Committee, a position created for her. The appointment added to speculation that Warren would run for president in 2016.[72][73][74][75]

Saying "despite the progress we've made since 2008, the biggest banks continue to threaten our economy", in July 2015 Warren, along with John McCain (R-AZ), Maria Cantwell (D-WA), and Angus King (I-ME) reintroduced the 21st Century Glass–Steagall Act, a modern version of the Banking Act of 1933. The legislation was intended to reduce the American taxpayer's risk in the financial system and decrease the likelihood of future financial crises.[76]

In a September 20, 2016 hearing, Warren called on Wells Fargo CEO John Stumpf to resign, adding that he should be "criminally investigated" over Wells Fargo's opening of two million checking and credit-card accounts without the customers' consent.[77][78]

In December 2016, Warren gained a seat on the Senate Armed Services Committee, which The Boston Globe called "a high-profile perch on one of the chamber's most powerful committees" that would "fuel speculation about a possible 2020 bid for president".[79]

During the debate on Senator Jeff Sessions's nomination for United States Attorney General in February 2017, Warren quoted a letter Coretta Scott King had written to Senator Strom Thurmond in 1986 when Sessions was nominated for a federal judgeship.[80] King wrote, "Mr. Sessions has used the awesome power of his office to chill the free exercise of the vote by black citizens in the district he now seeks to serve as a federal judge. This simply cannot be allowed to happen."[80] Senate Republicans voted that by reading the letter from King, Warren had violated Senate rule 19, which prohibits impugning another senator's character.[80] This prohibited Warren from further participating in the debate on Sessions's nomination, and Warren instead read King's letter while streaming live online.[81][82] In rebuking Warren, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said on the Senate floor, "She was warned. She was given an explanation. Nevertheless, she persisted."[82] McConnell's language became a slogan for Warren and others.[82][83]

On October 3, 2017, during Wells Fargo chief executive Timothy J. Sloan's appearance before the Senate Banking Committee, Warren called on him to resign, saying, "At best you were incompetent, at worst you were complicit."[84]

On July 17, 2019, Warren and Rep. AI Lawson introduced legislation that would make low-income college students eligible for benefits under the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) according to The College Student Hunger Act of 2019.[85]

Committee assignments

2016 presidential election

In the run-up to the 2016 U.S. presidential election, supporters put Warren forward as a possible presidential candidate, but she repeatedly said she would not run for president in 2016.[86][87][88][89] In October 2013, she joined the other 15 female Democratic senators in signing a letter that encouraged Hillary Clinton to run.[90] There was much speculation about Warren being added to the Democratic ticket as a vice-presidential candidate.[91][92] On June 9, 2016, after the California Democratic primary, Warren formally endorsed Clinton for president. In response to questions when she endorsed Clinton, Warren said that she believed herself to be ready to be vice president, but she was not being vetted.[93] On July 7, CNN reported that Warren was on a five-person short list to be Clinton's running mate.[93][94] Clinton eventually chose Tim Kaine.

Until her June endorsement, Warren was neutral during the Democratic primary but made public statements that she was cheering Bernie Sanders on.[95] In June, Warren endorsed and campaigned for Clinton before Sanders endorsed Clinton.[96] She called Donald Trump, the presumptive Republican nominee, dishonest, uncaring, and "a loser".[97][98][99]

2020 presidential campaign

At a town hall meeting in Holyoke, Massachusetts, on September 29, 2018, Warren said she would "take a hard look" at running for president in the 2020 election after the 2018 United States elections concluded.[100] On December 31, 2018, Warren announced that she was forming an exploratory committee to run for president.[101][102]

On February 9, 2019, Warren officially announced her candidacy at a rally in Lawrence, Massachusetts, at the site of the 1912 Bread and Roses strike.[103] She staged her first campaign event in Lawrence, a former industrial mill town famous for that strike, to demonstrate the constituency groups she hopes to appeal to, including working class families, union members, women, and new immigrants. Warren called for major changes in government.

It won't be enough to just undo the terrible acts of this administration. We can't afford to just tinker around the edges – a tax credit here, a regulation there. Our fight is for big, structural change. This is the fight of our lives. The fight to build an America where dreams are possible, an America that works for everyone.[2]

A longtime critic of President Trump, at her opening rally Warren called him a "symptom of a larger problem [that has resulted in] a rigged system that props up the rich and powerful and kicks dirt on everyone else".[104]


In early June 2019, Warren placed second in some polls, with Joe Biden in first place and Bernie Sanders in third.[105] In the following weeks her poll numbers steadily increased, and a September Iowa poll placed her in the lead with 22% to Biden's 20%. The Iowa poll also rated the number of voters at least considering voting for each candidate; Warren scored 71% to Biden's 60%. Poll respondents also gave her a higher "enthusiasm" rating, with 32% of her backers extremely enthusiastic to Biden's 22%.[106]

An October 24 Quinnipiac poll placed Warren in the lead at 28%, with Biden at 21% and Sanders at 15%. When asked which candidate had the best policy ideas, 30% of respondents named Warren, with Sanders at 20% and Biden 15%. Sanders was most often named as the candidate who "cares most about people like you," with Warren in second place and Biden third. Sanders also placed first at 28% when respondents were asked which candidate was the most honest, followed by Warren and Biden at 15% each.[107]


Warren and Bernie Sanders are the only leading 2020 candidates who are running their campaigns entirely on grassroots cash. The Los Angeles Times reported that of the front-runners in the presidential race, only Sanders and Warren have previously won an election with almost exclusively small online contributions, and that no presidential primary in recent history has had two of the top three candidates refuse to use bundlers or hold private fundraisers with wealthy donors. Noting Sanders's and Warren's willingness to appear at events not sponsored by potential wealthy donors, the Times wrote that of all the candidates invited to an African American church-based presidential forum in Atlanta, only Sanders and Warren attended; the others reported "scheduling conflicts".[108]

In October 2019, Warren announced that her campaign would not accept contributions of more than $200 from executives at banks, large tech companies, private equity firms, or hedge funds, in addition to her previous refusal to accept donations of over $200 from fossil fuel or pharmaceutical executives.[109]

In the third quarter of 2019 Warren's campaign raised $24.6 million, just less than the $25.3 million Sanders's campaign raised and well ahead of Joe Biden, the front-runner in the polls, who raised $15.2 million. Warren’s average donation was $26; Sanders's was $18.[110]

Public appearances

As of September 2019, Warren had attended 128 town halls. She is known for remaining afterward to talk with audience members and for the large numbers of selfies she has taken with them.[108] On September 17, over 20,000 people attended a Warren rally at New York City’s Washington Square Park. After her speech long lines formed, and people waited up to four hours for selfies.[111]

Political positions

Since announcing her candidacy in the 2020 presidential election, Warren has released several policy proposals including plans to assist family farms by addressing the advantages held by large agricultural conglomerates, plans to reduce student loan debt and offer free tuition at public colleges, a plan to make large corporations pay more in taxes and better regulate large technology companies, and plans to address opioid addiction. She has introduced an "Economic Patriotism" plan intended to create opportunities for American workers, and proposals inspired by opposition to President Trump, including one that would make it permissible to indict a sitting president.[105] Warren supports worker representation on corporations' board of directors, breaking up monopolies, stiffening sentences for white-collar crime, a Medicare-for-all plan to provide health insurance for all Americans, and a higher minimum wage.[113] On her website, she lists more than 45 plans for topics including health care, universal child care, ending the opioid crisis, clean energy, climate change, foreign policy, reducing corporate influence at the Pentagon, and ending "Wall Street's stranglehold on [the American] economy".[114]

Warren has been highly critical of the Trump administration. She has expressed concerns over what she says are Trump's conflicts of interest. The Presidential Conflicts of Interest Act, written by Warren, was first read in the Senate in January 2017.[115][116] In November 2018 Warren said she would not vote for Trump's United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA): "It won't stop outsourcing, it won't raise wages, and it won't create jobs. It's NAFTA 2.0." She has also said she believes USMCA would make it harder to reduce drug prices because it would allow drug companies to lock in the prices they charge for many drugs.[117] Warren has been highly critical of Trump's immigration policies. In 2018 she called for abolishing U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).[118] Warren has criticized U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen in support of Yemen's government against the Houthis.[119][120]

In January 2019, Warren criticized Trump's decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria and Afghanistan. She agreed that US troops should be withdrawn from Syria and Afghanistan but said such withdrawals should be part of a "coordinated" plan formed with US allies.[121] In April 2019, after reading the Mueller Report, Warren called on the House of Representatives to begin impeachment proceedings against Trump, saying, "The Mueller report lays out facts showing that a hostile foreign government attacked our 2016 election to help Donald Trump and Donald Trump welcomed that help. Once elected, Donald Trump obstructed the investigation into that attack."[122]

According to the UK magazine New Statesman, Warren ranks among the "top 20 US progressives".[123]

Public image

Ancestry and Native American relations

According to Warren and her brothers, older family members told them during their childhood that they had Native American ancestry.[124][125] In 2012, she said that "being Native American has been part of my story, I guess, since the day I was born".[126] In 1984,[127][128] Warren contributed recipes to a Native American cookbook and identified herself as Cherokee.[129][130] The Washington Post reported that in 1986, Warren identified her race as "American Indian" on a State Bar of Texas write-in form used for statistical information gathering, but added that there was "no indication it was used for professional advancement".[131] A comprehensive Boston Globe investigation concluded that her reported ethnicity played no role in her rise in the academic legal profession.[132] In February 2019, Warren apologized for having identified as Native American.[130][133][134]

During Warren's first Senate race in 2012, her opponent, Scott Brown, speculated that she had fabricated Native ancestry to gain advantage on the employment market and used Warren's ancestry in several attack ads.[135][136][137] Warren has denied that her heritage gave her any advantages in her schooling or her career.[138] Several colleagues and employers (including Harvard) have said her reported ethnic status played no role in her hiring.[139][140] From 1995 to 2004, her employer, Harvard Law School, listed her as a Native American in its federal affirmative action forms; Warren later said she was unaware of this.[141] A 2018 Boston Globe investigation found "clear evidence, in documents and interviews, that her claim to Native American ethnicity was never considered by the Harvard Law faculty, which voted resoundingly to hire her, or by those who hired her to four prior positions at other law schools" and that "Warren was viewed as a white woman by the hiring committees at every institution that employed her".[132]

President Donald Trump has "persistently mocked" Warren for her assertions of Native American ancestry.[142] At a July 2018 Montana rally, Trump promised that if he debated Warren, he would offer to pay $1 million to her favorite charity if she could prove her Native American ancestry via a DNA test. Warren released results of a DNA test in October 2018, then asked Trump to donate the money to the National Indigenous Women's Resource Center. Trump responded by denying that he had made the challenge.[143][144] The DNA test found that Warren's ancestry is mostly European but "strongly support[ed] the existence of an unadmixed Native American ancestor", likely "in the range of 6 to 10 generations ago."[145] The Cherokee Nation criticized the use of DNA testing to determine Native American heritage as "inappropriate and wrong".[140][146] According to Politico, "Warren's past claims of American Indian ancestry garnered fierce criticism from both sides of the aisle, with President Donald Trump labeling her with a slur, 'Pocahontas,' and tribal leaders calling out Warren for claiming a heritage she did not culturally belong to."[147]

During a January 2019 public appearance in Sioux City, Iowa, Warren was asked by an attendee, "Why did you undergo the DNA testing and give Donald more fodder to be a bully?" Warren responded in part, "I am not a person of color; I am not a citizen of a tribe. Tribal citizenship is very different from ancestry. Tribes, and only tribes, determine tribal citizenship, and I respect that difference."[148] She later reached out to leadership of the Cherokee Nation to apologize "for furthering confusion over issues of tribal sovereignty and citizenship and for any harm her announcement caused". Cherokee Nation executive director of communications Julie Hubbard said that Warren understands "that being a Cherokee Nation tribal citizen is rooted in centuries of culture and laws not through DNA tests."[149]

In mid-February 2019, Warren received a standing ovation during a surprise visit to a Native American conference, where she was introduced by freshman Representative Deb Haaland (D-NM), one of the first two Native American women elected to the US Congress.[150][151] Haaland endorsed Warren for president in July 2019, calling her "a great partner for Indian Country".[152]

Honors and awards

In 2009 The Boston Globe named Warren the Bostonian of the Year[11] and the Women's Bar Association of Massachusetts honored her with the Lelia J. Robinson Award.[163] She was named one of Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2009, 2010 and 2015.[164][165][166][167] The National Law Journal has repeatedly named Warren one of the Fifty Most Influential Women Attorneys in America,[168][169] and in 2010 named her one of the 40 most influential attorneys of the decade.[170] In 2011 Warren was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame.[171] In January 2012 New Statesman magazine named her one of the "top 20 US progressives".[123]

In 2009 Warren became the first professor in Harvard's history to win the law school's Sacks–Freund Teaching Award for a second time.[172] In 2011 she delivered the commencement address at the Rutgers Law School in Newark, her alma mater, and obtained an honorary Doctor of Laws degree and membership in the Order of the Coif.[173]

In 2018 the Women's History Month theme in the United States was "Nevertheless, She Persisted: Honoring Women Who Fight All Forms of Discrimination against Women", referring to McConnell's remark about Warren.[174]

Books and other works

In 2004, Warren and her daughter, Amelia Tyagi, wrote The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Mothers and Fathers Are Going Broke. In the book they state that at that time, a fully employed worker earned less inflation-adjusted income than a fully employed worker had 30 years earlier. Although families spent less at that time on clothing, appliances, and other forms of consumption, the costs of core expenses such as mortgages, health care, transportation, and child care had increased dramatically. According to the authors, the result was that even families with two income earners were no longer able to save and incurred ever greater debt.[175]

In an article in The New York Times, Jeff Madrick said of the book:

The authors find that it is not the free-spending young or the incapacitated elderly who are declaring bankruptcy so much as families with children ... their main thesis is undeniable. Typical families often cannot afford the high-quality education, health care, and neighborhoods required to be middle class today. More clearly than anyone else, I think, Ms. Warren and Ms. Tyagi have shown how little attention the nation and our government have paid to the way Americans really live.[176]

In 2005, Warren and David Himmelstein published a study on bankruptcy and medical bills[177] that found that half of all families filing for bankruptcy did so in the aftermath of a serious medical problem. They say that three-quarters of such families had medical insurance.[178] The study was widely cited in policy debates, but some have challenged its methods and offered alternative interpretations of the data, suggesting that only 17% of bankruptcies are directly attributable to medical expenses.[179]

Metropolitan Books published Warren's book A Fighting Chance in April 2014.[180] According to a Boston Globe review, "the book's title refers to a time she says is now gone, when even families of modest means who worked hard and played by the rules had at a fair shot at the American dream."[181]

In April 2017, Warren published her 11th book,[182] This Fight Is Our Fight: The Battle to Save America's Middle Class, in which she explores the plight of the American middle class and argues that the federal government needs to do more to help working families with stronger social programs and increased investment in education.[183]


See also


  1. Ebbert, Stephanie; Levenson, Michael (August 19, 2012). "For Professor Warren, a steep climb". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  2. Lee, MJ; Krieg, Gregory (February 9, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren kicks off presidential campaign with challenge to super-wealthy – and other Democrats". CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  3. Bierman, Noah; Phillips, Frank (November 7, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren defeats Scott Brown". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  4. Dennis, Brady (August 13, 2010). "Elizabeth Warren, likely to head new consumer agency, provokes strong feelings". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  5. Packer, George (2013). The Unwinding, an inner history of the New America. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. pp. 345–346. ISBN 978-0-374-10241-8.
  6. "Elizabeth Warren Fast Facts". CNN. December 31, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  7. "10 Things You Didn't Know About Elizabeth Warren". U.S. News & World Report. October 4, 2010. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
  8. Bierman, Noah (February 12, 2012). "A girl who soared, but longed to belong". The Boston Globe. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  9. McGrane, Victoria (September 2, 2017). "Religion is constant part of Elizabeth Warren's life". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  10. Jacobs, Sally (September 16, 2017). "Warren's extended family split about heritage". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  11. Pierce, Charles P. (December 20, 2009). "The Watchdog: Elizabeth Warren". The Boston Globe (Sunday Magazine). Retrieved March 9, 2015.
  12. Andrews, Suzanna (November 2011). "The Woman Who Knew Too Much". Vanity Fair. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  13. "Elizabeth Warren". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  14. Pittman, Mark; Ivry, Bob (November 19, 2009). "Warren Winning Means No Sale If You Can't Explain It". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015.
  15. Ebbert, Stephanie (October 24, 2012). "Family long a bedrock for Warren". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  16. Warren, Elizabeth (2008). "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Harvard Law School. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  17. Kreisler, Harry (March 8, 2007). "Conversation with Elizabeth Warren". Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  18. Levenson, Michael (July 12, 2012). "Warren and Brown share July 12 anniversary date". The Boston Globe. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  19. Lee, MJ (April 16, 2014). "Elizabeth Warren: 'I was hurt, and I was angry'". Politico. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  20. Ebbert, Stephanie (October 25, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren's family". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
  21. "Elizabeth Warren biography". The Biography Channel. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
  22. Dionne Jr., Eugene Joseph (August 23, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren on health care and religion". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  23. Thompson, Alex (April 12, 2019). "Liz Was a Diehard Conservative". Politico. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  24. Neyfakh, Leon (October 22, 2011). "Elizabeth Warren's unorthodox career". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  25. Krugman, Paul (January 7, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren and Her Party of Ideas: She's what a serious policy intellectual looks like in 2019". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  26. Warren, Elizabeth (January 1, 2004). "The Over-Consumption Myth and Other Tales of Economics, Law, and Morality". Washington University Law Review. 82 (4): 1485–1511. ISSN 2166-7993.
  27. Hickey, Adam (September 19, 1997). "Harvard's Top Five Salaries Total More Than $1.5M". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  28. Leiter, Brian (May 1, 2012). "Right-Wing Crazy Obsession Du Jour: Elizabeth Warren Claimed to be Native American". Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  29. Leiter, Brian R. "Top 25 Law Faculties In Scholarly Impact, 2005–2009". Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  30. "National Bankruptcy Review Commission Fact Sheet". National Bankruptcy Review Commission (official website). August 12, 1997. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  31. Sahadi, Jeanne (October 17, 2005). "The new bankruptcy law and you". CNNMoney. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  32. "Advisory Committee on Economic Inclusion (ComE-IN)". FDIC..
  33. "Committees". National Bankruptcy Conference. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012.
  34. "President Obama Names Elizabeth Warren Assistant to the President and Special Advisor to the Secretary of the Treasury on the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau" (Press release). September 17, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  35. Nair, Pooja (March 15, 2014). "Insights from Professor Warren: Analyzing Elizabeth Warren's Academic Career". Bloomberg Law. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  36. Host: Terry Gross (December 11, 2008). "What Does $700 Billion Buy Taxpayers?". Fresh Air from WHYY. National Public Radio. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
  37. Kantor, Jodi (March 25, 2010). "Behind Consumer Agency Idea, a Tireless Advocate". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  38. "TARP and Other Government Assistance for AIG". U.S. Government Publishing Office. May 26, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  39. "Repeat Bank Stress Tests 'Right Now': TARP Panel Chair". CNBC. June 9, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  40. "Expert: Few Clues On How Banks Used TARP Funds". NPR. February 11, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  41. "President Obama Names Elizabeth Warren Assistant to the President and Special Advisor to the Secretary of the Treasury on the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau". The White House official website. September 17, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2014.
  42. Wyatt, Edward (July 4, 2011). "An Agency Builder, but Not Yet Its Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
  43. Rosenthal, Andres (December 8, 2011). "Lousy Filibusters: Richard Cordray Edition". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  44. Seelye, Katharine Q. (November 10, 2012). "A New Senator, Known Nationally and Sometimes Feared". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  45. Cooper, Helene (January 4, 2012). "Defying Republicans, Obama to Name Cordray as Consumer Agency Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  46. Wyatt, Edward (January 4, 2012). "Appointment Clears the Way for Consumer Agency to Act". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  47. Jacobs, Samuel P. (October 24, 2011). "Elizabeth Warren: 'I Created Occupy Wall Street'". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  48. Spross, Jeff (April 27, 2014). "Why Elizabeth Warren Left The GOP". ThinkProgress. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  49. Kruse, Michael (November 30, 2018). "The Making of Elizabeth Warren". Politico. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  50. Randall, Maya Jackson (September 14, 2011). "Warren Kicks Off Senate Campaign". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  51. Helderman, Rosalind S.; Weiner, Rachel (September 14, 2011). "Consumer advocate Elizabeth Warren launches US Senate campaign with tour of Massachusetts". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  52. Sargent, Greg (September 21, 2011). "Class warfare, Elizabeth Warren style". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  53. Benen, Steve (September 21, 2011). "The underlying social contract". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  54. Smerconish, Michael (July 30, 2012). "The context behind Obama's 'you didn't build that'". Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
  55. Kessler, Glenn (July 23, 2012). "An unoriginal Obama quote, taken out of context". The Fact Checker blog at The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  56. Rizzuto, Robert (June 2, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren lands party endorsement with record 95 percent support at Massachusetts Democratic Convention". The Republican. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  57. Bierman, Noah (May 30, 2012). "Deval Patrick endorses Elizabeth Warren for US Senate". The Boston Globe.
  58. Levenson, Michael (June 5, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren agrees to WBZ-TV debate with Scott Brown". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on June 7, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2012.
  59. Bierman, Noah (August 15, 2012). "US Chamber calls Elizabeth Warren threat to free enterprise". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  60. Seelyenov, Katharine Q. (November 10, 2012). "A New Senator, Known Nationally and Sometimes Feared". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  61. Krieg, Gregory J.; Hartfield, Elizabeth (September 5, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren: 'The System Is Rigged'". ABC News. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  62. Silva, Mark (September 5, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren: 'Wall Street CEOs' Still 'Strut Around Congress'". Political Capital. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  63. Kirchgaessner, Stephanie (September 6, 2012). "Warren attacks CEOs who 'wrecked economy'". Financial Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  64. McGrane, Victoria; Viser, Matt (January 6, 2017). "Warren announces she's running for re-election". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  65. Montopoli, Brian (December 12, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren assigned to Senate banking committee". CBS News. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  66. Thys, Fred (January 4, 2013). "Elizabeth Warren Sworn In As First Female Senator From Mass". WBUR. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
  67. Lynch, S. N. (February 19, 2013). "Senator Warren's rebuke of regulators goes viral". Reuters. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  68. Webster, Stephen (March 7, 2013). "Warren: Drug possession warrants jail time but laundering cartel money doesn't?". The Raw Story. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
  69. Eichelberger, Erika (May 14, 2013). "Elizabeth Warren to Obama Administration: Take the Banks to Court, Already!". Mother Jones. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
  70. Webley, Kayla (May 10, 2013). "Elizabeth Warren: Students Should Get the Same Rate as the Bankers". Time. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  71. Sanders, Bernie (May 17, 2013). "Student Loans". United States Senate. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
  72. Drum, Kevin (November 13, 2014). "Elizabeth Warren Gets a Promotion – Or Does She?". Mother Jones. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  73. Terkel, Amanda; Grim, Ryan (November 13, 2014). "Elizabeth Warren Gets Senate Democratic Leadership Spot". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  74. Miller, S.A. (November 13, 2014). "New chief: Senate Democrats Anoint Elizabeth Warren to Leadership Post". The Washington Times. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  75. Berman, Russell (November 13, 2014). "Elevating Elizabeth Warren". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  76. "Senators Warren, McCain, Cantwell and King Introduce 21st Century Glass–Steagall Act". Elizabeth Warren, U.S. Senator for Massachusetts (Press release). July 7, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  77. "Wells Fargo boss urged to resign over accounts scandal". BBC News. September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  78. Bryan, Bob (September 20, 2016). "Wells Fargo's CEO just got grilled by the Senate". Business Insider. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  79. McGrane, Victoria (December 14, 2016). "Warren raises foreign policy profile with Armed Services assignment". Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  80. "The Coretta Scott King Letter Elizabeth Warren was Trying to Read". CNN. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  81. Kane, Paul; O'Keefe, Ed (February 8, 2017). "Republicans vote to rebuke Elizabeth Warren, saying she impugned Sessions's character". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  82. Seung Min Kim (February 8, 2017). "Senate votes to shut up Elizabeth Warren". Politico. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  83. Reilly, Katie (March 1, 2018). "Why 'Nevertheless, She Persisted' Is the Theme for This Year's Women's History Month". Time. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  84. Sweet, Ken (October 3, 2017). "Wells Fargo CEO faces angry Warren, Congress". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
  85. Hess, Abigail (July 19, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren has introduced a bill that would expand food stamps for low-income college students". CNBC.
  86. Scheiber, Noam (November 10, 2013). "Elizabeth Warren is Hillary Clinton's Nightmare". The New Republic. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  87. Blake, Aaron (May 1, 2014). "Why Elizabeth Warren is perfectly positioned for 2016 (if she wanted to run)". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  88. Kim, Eun Kyung (March 31, 2015). "Elizabeth Warren on 2016: 'I'm not going to run' — and Hillary Clinton deserves 'a chance to decide'". Today. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
    Grier, Peter (December 15, 2014). "Is Elizabeth Warren really truly not running for president? (+video)". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  89. Cassidy, John (December 15, 2014). "Why Isn't Elizabeth Warren Running for President?". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  90. Jaffe, Alexandra (October 30, 2013). "Run, Hillary, run, say Senate's Dem women". The Hill. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
    Lowery, Wesley (April 27, 2014). "Elizabeth Warren: I hope Hillary Clinton runs for president". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  91. Mimms, Sarah (April 26, 2016). "Sanders and Clinton Campaigns Both Name Drop Elizabeth Warren for Veep". Vice News. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  92. Milbank, Dana (March 4, 2016). "Clinton must make Elizabeth Warren her vice president". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
    Garofalo, Pat (May 18, 2016). "The Case Against VP Warren". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  93. Linskey, Annie; McGrane, Victoria (June 9, 2016). "Elizabeth Warren endorses Clinton". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  94. Smith, Rob (July 8, 2016). "Hillary Clinton narrows VP list to 5 people". AOL. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
    Zeleny, Jeff; Merica, Dan (July 7, 2016). "Clinton narrowing VP choice, waiting for Trump". CNN. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
  95. Gaudiano, Nicole (March 25, 2016). "Elizabeth Warren: "I'm still cheering Bernie on"". USA Today.
  96. Dann, Carrie (June 9, 2016). "Elizabeth Warren Endorses Hillary Clinton on Rachel Maddow Show". NBC News.
  97. Sargent, Greg (May 25, 2016). "Elizabeth Warren just absolutely shredded Donald Trump. There's a lot more like this to come". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  98. Mimms, Sarah (March 21, 2016). "Elizabeth Warren Slams 'Loser' Donald Trump in Twitter Tirade". Vice. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  99. Wright, David (May 25, 2016). "Warren blasts Trump; he calls her 'Pocahontas'". CNN. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  100. DeBonis, Mike (September 29, 2018). "Sen. Elizabeth Warren says she will take 'hard look' at presidential run". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  101. Lee, MJ; Krieg, Gregory (December 31, 2018). "Elizabeth Warren launches exploratory committee ahead of likely 2020 presidential run". CNN. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  102. Herndon, Astead W.; Burns, Alexander (December 31, 2018). "Elizabeth Warren Announces She Is Running for President in 2020". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  103. Tennant, Paul (February 10, 2019). "Off and running: Warren launches presidential bid in Lawrence". The Daily News of Newburyport. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  104. Politi, Daniel (February 9, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren Launches Presidential Campaign: 'Our Fight is For Big, Structural Change'". Slate. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  105. Kolhatkar, Sheela (June 24, 2019). "Can Elizabeth Warren Win It All?". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  106. Agiesta, Jennifer. "Elizabeth Warren surges and Joe Biden fades in close Iowa race, new poll shows". CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  107. "October 24, 2019 – Warren Opens Up Lead In Dem Primary As Biden Slips, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Dems Say Sanders Is Most Honest Candidate". Quinnipiac University national poll. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  108. Halper, Evan. "Small donors don't cut it for many Democratic candidates. Back to the rich". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  109. Axelrod, Tal (October 15, 2019). "Warren targets 'big money' in campaigns, rules out donations from tech and bank executives". The Hill.
  110. Nilsen, Ella (October 4, 2019). "Warren and Sanders raised significantly more money than Biden in the third quarter". Vox.
  111. "'The lines keep getting longer': Crowd size takes center stage in 2020 race as Warren event rivals Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  112. Gallucci, Nicole. "'Elizabeth Warren has a plan for that' memes are here to test your rhyming skills". Mashable. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  113. Stein, Jeff. "Warren's 2020 agenda: Break up monopolies, give workers control over corporations, fight drug companies". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  114. "Plans | Elizabeth Warren". elizabethwarren.com. Elizabeth Warren Campaign website. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
  115. "All Information (Except Text) for S.65 – Presidential Conflicts of Interest Act of 2017". United States Congress. January 9, 2017. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  116. Worley, Will (December 16, 2016). "Donald Trump faces impeachment if new conflicts of interest bill passed". Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  117. Rodrigo, Chris (November 29, 2018). "Elizabeth Warren slams Trump trade deal as just 'NAFTA 2.0'". The Hill. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  118. Hirschfeld Davis, Julie (July 2, 2018). "White House Twitter Account, in Rare Broadside, Attacks 2 Democratic Senators Over ICE". The New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2019. ...they have been sharply critical of ICE, the agency that handles the detention and deportation of undocumented immigrants, among other responsibilities. Ms. Warren has called for the department's abolition...
  119. Emmons, Alex (August 14, 2018). "Elizabeth Warren Demands in Letter That U.S. Military Explain Its Role in Yemen Bombings". The Intercept. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  120. Warren, Elizabeth; Khanna, Ro (October 8, 2018). "End US complicity in Yemen's humanitarian disaster". CNN. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  121. Wise, Justin (January 3, 2019). "Warren on Syria troop pullout: Foreign policy shouldn't be conducted on Twitter". The Hill. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  122. MJ, Lee (April 20, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren says House should start impeachment proceedings for Trump". CNN. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  123. Hasan, Mehdi (January 11, 2012). "Who's left? The top 20 US progressives". New Statesman. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  124. Jacobs, Sally (September 16, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren's family has mixed memories about heritage". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
  125. Ashley Killough; and Kevin Liptak. "Brown continues offense on Warren over Native American claims". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved September 24, 2019. The New England Historic Genealogical Society provided CNN with initial research last week, showing several members of Warren's maternal family claiming Cherokee heritage. The Native American link extends to Warren's great-great-great grandmother O.C. Sarah Smith, who is said to be described as Cherokee in an 1894 marriage license application.
  126. Madison, Lucy (May 3, 2012). "Warren explains minority listing, talks of grandfather's 'high cheekbones'". CBS News. Retrieved October 18, 2018. And my Aunt Bea has walked by that picture at least a 1,000 times – remarked that he – that her father, my Papaw – had high cheek bones – 'like all of the Indians do'. Because that's how she saw it and she said 'and your mother got those same great cheek bones and I didn't'. She thought that was the bad deal she had gotten in life. Being Native American has been part of my story, I guess, since the day I was born
  127. Sanneh, Kelefa (June 3, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren's Family Ties". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  128. Chabot, Hillary (May 17, 2012). "'Pow Wow' factor: Elizabeth Warren touted native roots in '84 cookbook". Boston Herald. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  129. Hamby, Peter (October 17, 2018). ""You Can't Out-Trump Trump": Elizabeth Warren Shows Democrats How to Lose in 2020". Vanity Fair. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  130. Olmstead, Molly (February 6, 2019). "Report: Elizabeth Warren Identified as American Indian in Texas Bar Registration". Slate Magazine.
  131. Nilsen, Ella (October 16, 2018). "New evidence has emerged Elizabeth Warren claimed American Indian heritage in 1986". Vox. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  132. Linskey, Annie (September 1, 2018). "Ethnicity not a factor in Elizabeth Warren's rise in law". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  133. Linskey, Annie (February 5, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren apologizes for calling herself Native American". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  134. Tarlo, Shira (February 6, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren apologizes for identifying as Native American on Texas bar registration card". Salon. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  135. Touré (October 5, 2012). "Elizabeth Warren, Scott Brown and the Myth of Race". Time. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  136. Nickisch, Curt (September 25, 2012). "Despite Pledge, Gloves Are Off In Massachusetts Senate Race". WBUR News. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  137. Hicks, Josh (September 28, 2012). "Everything you need to know about Elizabeth Warren's claim of Native American heritage". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  138. Catanese, David (September 20, 2012). "Brown hits Warren on Cherokee claim". Politico. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  139. Seelye, Katharine Q.; Goodnough, Abby (April 30, 2012). "Candidate for Senate Defends Past Hiring". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2015. officials involved in her hiring at Harvard, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Texas and the University of Houston Law Center all said that she was hired because she was an outstanding teacher, and that her lineage was either not discussed or not a factor
  140. "Elizabeth Warren: DNA test finds 'strong evidence' of Native American blood". BBC News. October 15, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  141. Ebbert, Stephanie (April 30, 2012). "Directories identified Warren as minority". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013.
  142. Gray, Briahna (October 16, 2018). "What Elizabeth Warren Still Doesn't Get". The Intercept. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  143. Wang, Amy B.; Paul, Deanna (October 15, 2018). "Trump promised $1 million to charity if Warren proved her Native American DNA. Now he's waffling". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  144. Fabian, Jordan (October 15, 2018). "Trump denies offering $1 million for Warren DNA test, even though he did". The Hill. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  145. "Elizabeth Warren: DNA test shows strong likelihood I have Native-American heritage". www.cbsnews.com. CBS News. October 15, 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  146. "US senator Elizabeth Warren faces backlash after indigenous DNA claim". BBC News. October 16, 2018. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  147. Choi, Matthew (February 6, 2019). "Warren suggests 'American Indian' might appear on other documents". Politico. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  148. Weigel, David (January 5, 2019). "In Iowa, Sen. Elizabeth Warren tells a voter why she took that DNA test". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
  149. Grim, Ryan (January 31, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren Will Make Her Presidential Bid Official in February". The Intercept. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  150. Tarlo, Shira (December 7, 2018). "Elizabeth Warren receives standing ovation at surprise visit to Native American conference: report". Salon. Retrieved February 23, 2019. Democratic presidential candidate Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) received a standing ovation when she made a surprise appearance Tuesday at a Native American conference ... Warren apologized to the Cherokee Nation earlier this month for releasing a DNA test in an attempt to prove it. It was most recently revealed that Warren listed her race as "American Indian" when she filled out form for the Texas state bar in 1986.
  151. Lee, MJ (February 12, 2019). "Elizabeth Warren makes unannounced appearance at Native American luncheon in Washington". CNN. Retrieved February 23, 2019. the Washington Post reported that Warren had listed her race as 'American Indian' on a State Bar of Texas registration card in 1986. It marked the first time the claim had been documented in Warren's own handwriting, reignited a debate that had begun quiet down, and prompted yet another apology. 'As Senator Warren has said she is not a citizen of any tribe and only tribes determine tribal citizenship', Kristen Orthman, Warren's spokeswoman, said in a statement. 'She is sorry that she was not more mindful of this earlier in her career.'
  152. "Native American Congresswoman Endorses Elizabeth Warren For President". WBZ-TV, CBS Local Boston. AP. July 31, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  153. "Elizabeth Warren on Charlie Rose". May 11, 2009. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012.
    "Elizabeth Warren on Charlie Rose". March 4, 2010. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012.
  154. Harvey, Dennis (October 20, 2011). "Heist: Who Stole the American Dream? And How We Can Get It Back". Vareity. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  155. "Makers Profile: Elizabeth Warren".
  156. Smyth, Sean (February 12, 2017). "Senator Elizabeth Warren targeted by 'Saturday Night Live'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  157. Valby, Karen (October 13, 2019). "Saturday Night Live: Bow Down to Kate McKinnon's Elizabeth Warren". Vanity Fair.
  158. Warren, Elizabeth. "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez is on the 2019 TIME 100 List". Time. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  159. Dezenski, Lauren (August 13, 2017). "Inside the Elizabeth Warren merchandising empire". Politico. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  160. Guerra, Cristela (June 5, 2017). "Will Elizabeth Warren get an action figure?". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
  161. "She Persisted". YouTube. February 8, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  162. "Where Are You Elizabeth Warren?". YouTube. February 29, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  163. "Elizabeth Warren receives award from Women's Bar Association". Harvard Law Today. October 15, 2009. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  164. Marshall, Josh (April 30, 2009). "Elizabeth Warren". Time. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
  165. Bair, Sheila (April 29, 2010). "Elizabeth Warren". Time. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
  166. "The 2010 Time 100". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  167. "These Are The 100 Most Influential People In The World". Time. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  168. "The Decade's Most Influential Lawyers". The National Law Journal. March 29, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  169. "Featured Profile: Elizabeth Warren". Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network. 2010. Archived from the original on March 31, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  170. Brown, David (March 29, 2010). "The Decade's Most Influential Lawyers: Forty attorneys who have defined the decade in a dozen key legal areas". The Recorder. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2019 via The National Law Journal.
  171. "Warren, Elizabeth – 2011". Oklahoma Hall of Fame. 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  172. "Elizabeth Warren Wins Sacks–Freund Award for Teaching". June 3, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  173. Capizzi, Carla (May 10, 2011). "Legal Scholar Elizabeth Warren, Historian Annette Gordon-Reed, Entrepreneur Marc Berson to Address Graduates of Rutgers University, Newark". Rutgers–Newark Newscenter. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  174. Lord, Debbie (February 24, 2018). "National Women's History Month: What is it, when did it begin, who is being honored this year?". KIRO 7. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  175. Warren, Elizabeth; Amelia Warren Tyagi (2005). All Your Worth: The Ultimate Lifetime Money Plan. Free Press. pp. 1–12. ISBN 978-0-7432-6987-2.
  176. Madrick, Jeff (September 4, 2003). "Necessities, not luxuries, are driving Americans into debt, a new book says". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
  177. Himmelstein, David U.; Warren, Elizabeth; Thorne, Deborah; Woolhandler, Steffie J. (February 8, 2005). "Illness and Injury as Contributors to Bankruptcy". doi:10.2139/ssrn.664565. SSRN 664565. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  178. Warren, Elizabeth (February 9, 2005). "Sick and Broke". The Washington Post. p. A23.
  179. Langer, Gary (March 5, 2009). "Medical Bankruptcies: A Data-Check". ABC News. The Numbers blog. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  180. "A Fighting Chance By Elizabeth Warren". (book official website). Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  181. Jonas, Michael (April 21, 2014). "Book review: 'A Fighting Chance' by Elizabeth Warren". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  182. Italie, Hillel (April 18, 2017). "US Sen. Elizabeth Warren launches book tour". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  183. Krugman, Paul (April 18, 2017). "Elizabeth Warren Lays Out the Reasons Democrats Should Keep Fighting". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2017.

Further reading


Media coverage


This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.