Electric energy consumption

Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy. Electric energy consumption is the actual energy demand made on existing electricity supply.

2016 World [civil] power generation by source [IEA, 2018] (Percentages of 24.973 TWh)[1]

  Coal (38.4%)
  Natural Gas (23.2%)
  Hydro (16.3%)
  Nuclear fission (10.4%)
  Oil (3.7%)
  Non hydro renew. (8%)

The total electricity consumption in 2012 was 20,900 TWh.

Overview

Electric energy is most often measured either in joules (J), or in watt hours (W·h) representing a constant power over a period of time.

1 W·s = 1 J
1 W·h = 3600 W·s = 3600 J

Electric and electronic devices consume electric energy to generate desired output (i.e., light, heat, motion, etc.). During operation, some part of the energy—depending on the electrical efficiency—is consumed in unintended output, such as waste heat.

Electricity has been generated in power stations since 1882.[2] The invention of the steam turbine in 1883 to drive the electric generator started a strong increase of world electricity consumption.

In 2008, the world total of electricity production was 20.279 petawatt-hours (PWh). This number corresponds to an average power of 2.31 TW continuously during the year. The total energy used in a thermal power station to produce this power is roughly a factor 2 to 3 higher because the efficiency of generating electricity is roughly 30–50%. The generated power is thus in the order of 5 TW. This is approximately a third of the total energy consumption of 15 TW (see world energy consumption).

In 2005, the primary energy used to generate electricity was 12,190 terawatt-hours (41.60 quad). This was compounded of Coal 6,160 TWh (21.01 quad), Natural (fossil) gas 1,960 TWh (6.69 quad), Petroleum 390 TWh (1.32 quad), Nuclear electric power 2,380 TWh (8.13 quad), Renewable energy 1,240 TWh (4.23 quad) respectively. The gross generation of electricity in that year was 4,250 TWh (14.50 quad); the difference of 7,940 TWh (27.10 quad) was conversion losses. Among all electricity, 1,420 TWh (4.84 quad) was used in residential area, 1,270 TWh (4.32 quad) used in commercial, 1,020 TWh (3.47 quad) used in industrial and 8.8 TWh (0.03 quad) used in transportation.

1 Quad = 1 Quadrillion BTU = 1 x 1015 BTU = 293 TWh

During the year 16,816 TWh (83%) of electric energy was consumed by final users. The difference of 3,464 TWh (17%) was consumed in the process of generating power and lost in transmission to end users.

A sensitivity analysis on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy network model for electric demand estimation shows that employment is the most critical factor influencing electrical consumption.[3] The study used six parameters as input data, employment, GDP, dwelling, population, heating degree day and cooling degree day, with electricity demand as output variable.

World electricity consumption down in 2009

At the world level, energy consumption was cut down by 1.5% during 2009, for the first time since World War II.[4] Except in Asia and Middle East, consumptions were reduced in all the world regions. In OECD countries, accounting for 53% of the total, electricity demand scaled down by more than 4.5% in both Europe and North America while it shrank by above 7% in Japan. Electricity demand also dropped by more than 4.5% in CIS countries, driven by a large cut in Russian consumption. Conversely, in China and India (22% of the world's consumption), electricity consumption continued to rise at a strong pace (+6-7%) to meet energy demand related to high economic growth. In Middle East, growth rate was softened but remained high, just below 4%.

World electricity consumption (2011)

The table lists the top 37 electricity consuming countries, which use 19,000 TWh/a. i.e. 90% of the consumption of all more than 190 countries. The total consumption (including the amount consumed by the power plants) and the energy sources to generate this electricity is given per country. The data is from 2012.[5][6]

RankCountryTotal TWhFossilNuclearRenewableInhabitants
(millions)
per capita (MWh/a)
WORLD20,900 (20.9 PWh)68%11%21%7,0402.97
1 China4,830 (4.83 PWh)78%2%20%1,3563.56
2 United States4,070 (4 PWh)66%19%13%31412.96
3 Japan98985%1% [7]12%1287.73
4 Russia94863%16%21%1446.58
5 India94081%3%16%1,2370.760
6 Canada54324%15%59%34.915.56
7 Mexico24675%2%23%1172.10
8 Brazil49817%1%82%1992.50
9 Argentina12454%4%41%41.13.02
10 Venezuela10235%065%30.03.40
11 Germany58557%15%25%81.97.14
12 France4829%75%16%65.47.37
13 United Kingdom34767%19%12%63.75.45
14 Italy32168%032%60.95.27
15 Spain26148%21%31%46.25.65
16 Ukraine16645%47%8%45.63.64
17 Poland14889%010%38.53.84
18 Sweden1362%38%60%9.514.3
19 Norway1192%098%5.023.8
20 Netherlands11581%4%14%16.86.85
21 Belgium88.935%48%14%11.18.01
22 Finland84.926%33%41%5.415.7
23 Turkey20773%027%74.92.76
24 United Arab Emirates93.7100%009.210.18
25 South Korea51770%28%2%5010.3
26 Taiwan24179%16%5%23.410.3
27 Iran18694%1%5%80.82.30
28 Indonesia18189%011%2470.733
29 Thailand16995%05%67.72.50
30 Malaysia12684%016%29.24.32
31 Vietnam10460%040%93.41.11
32 Kazakhstan85.488%012%16.85.08
33 Pakistan80.164%6%29%1790.447
34 Australia23689%09%23.110.2
35 South Africa24083%5%12%52.34.59
36 Egypt14688%012%80.71.81
- Iceland0.01800100%0.3555

Consumption per head

Total consumption (2nd column) divided by number of inhabitants (last column) gives a country's consumption per head. In W-Europe this is between 5 and 8 MWh/a. (1 MWh equals 1000 kWh.) In Scandinavia, USA, Canada, Taiwan and South Korea it is much more, in developing countries much less. The worlds average is 3 MWh/a. A very low consumption per head, as in Indonesia, means that many inhabitants are not connected to the electricity grid, and this is the reason that the world's 7th and 8th most populous countries—Nigeria (177M) and Bangladesh (156M)—do not appear in the table.

2012–2014

From 2012 to 2014 worldwide electricity consumption increased 5%. Nuclear and fossil generated electricity rose 3%, renewable electricity 12%.

A small part of the renewables, solar and wind electricity, increased much more, 46%[8] in line with the strong growth since 1990.[9]

In Brazil, wind power increased 140%, in China not only solar and wind increased fast, 81%, but also nuclear, 36%.

Electricity generation and GDP (2009)

Listed countries are top 20 populous countries and/or top 20 GDP (PPP) countries and Saudi Arabia as of CIA World Factbook 2009.
30 countries (exclude EU/IEA) in this table represent 77% of world population, 84% of world GDP, 83% of world electricity generation.
Productivity per Electricity generation (concept similar to Energy intensity) can be measured by dividing GDP amount by the electricity generated. World average was $3.5 production/kWh.
Electricity generation include Final consumption, in process consumption, and losses.

Electricity Generation (2008) and GDP (PPP) (2009)
Country Population
million
rank* GDP (PPP)
billion USD
rank* GDP (PPP)
per capita
rank* Electricity
generation
(GWh/yr)
rank** daily kWh
per capita
rank** GDP (PPP)
/kWh*
 China 1,3391$7,9922$5,9691333,444,10827.0417$2.3
 India 1,1662$3,3044$2,834166860,72352.0223$3.8
 USA 3073$14,4401$47,036114,401,698139.252$3.3
 EU* 541$16,221$29,9833,635,60418.40$4.5
 Indonesia 2404$91715$3,821158149,437201.7024$6.1
 Brazil 1995$1,9989$10,040102505,08396.9518$4.0
 Pakistan 1766$43127$2,44917291,626241.4326$4.7
 Bangladesh 1567$22649$1,44919635,893270.6327$6.3
 Nigeria 1498$33635$2,25517621,110280.3928$15.9
 Russia 1409$2,2716$16,221721,022,726420.0010$2.2
 Japan 12710$4,3403$34,173361,083,142323.356$4.0
 Mexico 11111$1,56711$14,11777257,812146.3619$6.1
 Philippines 9812$31837$3,42516260,819261.7025$5.2
 Vietnam 8713$24245$2,78216776,269252.4022$3.2
 Ethiopia 8514$7078$8242163,777300.1230$18.5
 Egypt 8315$44526$5,361135130,144224.2921$3.4
 Germany 8216$2,9255$35,67133617,132720.618$4.7
 Turkey 7717$90416$11,74092198,085197.0416$4.6
 DR Congo 6918$21120$3042266,939290.2829$3.0
 Iran 7519$84417$12,78886211,972178.7915$4.0
 Thailand 6620$54924$8,318115149,034216.1820$3.7
 France 6421$2,1338$33,32838526,862822.547$4.0
 UK 6122$2,2367$36,65630400,3901117.9713$5.6
 Italy 5823$1,82710$31,50041359,1611216.9514$5.1
 South Korea 4925$1,33813$27,30649443,8881024.805$3.0
 Spain 4132$1,40212$34,19535303,1791320.259$4.6
 Canada 3337$1,30314$39,48522620,684651.501$2.1
 Saudi Arabia 2941$57822$19,93159204,2001819.2812$2.8
 Taiwan 2349$71419$31,04342238,4581628.394$3.0
 Australia 2154$80318$38,23825257,2471533.543$3.1
 Netherlands 1759$67420$39,64720123,4962319.8911$5.66
World6,784$70,048$10,32520,279,6408.18$3.5
  • Population and GDP data are from CIA World Factbook 2009
  • Electricity data are from IEA/OECD 2008[10] (retrieved on April 2011)
  • rank* of Population and GDP are World ranking
  • rank** of Electricity consumption are ranking within this list
  • GDP PP/kWh Amount of GDP (PPP) (USD) produced per every kilowatt-hour
  • EU* only considers EU states which are member of the IEA (Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) but also includes non-EU members of the IEA (Norway, Switzerland and Turkey).

Electricity final consumption by categories (2008)

About 17% of total electricity production is consumed by in-processes, such as self-consumption of power plants, grid losses and storage losses. In 2008, total electricity generation accounted for 20,261 TWh (20.26 PWh), while 3,464 TWh (3.46 PWh) were self-consumption and losses and 16,816 TWh (16.82 PWh) went to final consumption.[10]

In the consumption rate in Industry, China is highest with 67.8%, South Korea is 51.0% (7th), Germany 46.1% (11th), Japan 31.5% (26th), USA 24.0% (28th) In the Commercial and Public Service, Japan is highest with 36.4%, USA 35.6% (3rd), China 5.4% (29th). For Domestic usage, Saudi Arabia is highest with 56.9%, USA 36.2% (8th), Japan 29.8% (16th), China 15.5% (29th), Korea 13.8% (30th).

Definition

  • Industry: iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals, transport equipment, machinery, mining, Food and tobacco, Paper, pulp and print, wood and wood product, construction, textile and leather, non-specified.
  • Transport: domestic aviation, Land transportation, Rail, Pipeline transport, domestic navigation, non-specified. note international marine and aviation bunkers are not included.
  • Fishery: some country include fishing with agriculture or forestry.
Electricity Consumption 2008 (TWh)
Country/ Geographical Region Total
(TWh)
Industry Transport Commercial
/Public
Services
Agriculture
/Forestry
Fishery Residential other
 China 2,84267.8%1.05%5.4%3.12%0.000%15.5%7.19%
 India 60246.4%1.93%8.0%17.92%0.000%20.7%5.05%
 USA 3,81424.0%0.20%35.0%0.00%0.000%36.2%4.59%
 Indonesia 12937.2%0.00%23.9%0.00%0.000%38.9%0.00%
 Brazil 41048.1%0.39%23.7%4.49%0.000%23.3%0.00%
 Pakistan 7027.5%0.01%14.2%12.50%0.000%45.9%0.00%
 Bangladesh 3256.3%0.00%6.0%3.37%0.000%32.9%0.00%
 Nigeria 1920.0%0.00%24.7%0.00%0.000%55.3%0.00%
 Russia 72549.6%11.45%20.6%2.14%0.037%16.1%0.00%
 Japan 96431.5%1.95%36.4%0.09%0.000%29.8%0.23%
 Mexico 20061.3%0.55%10.3%4.05%0.000%23.7%0.00%
 Philippines 4934.6%0.23%28.7%2.30%0.311%33.8%0.00%
 Vietnam 6851.8%0.75%8.1%0.97%0.000%38.4%0.00%
 Ethiopia 3.138.0%0.00%23.6%0.00%0.000%37.7%0.74%
 Egypt 11233.4%0.00%15.4%4.13%0.000%39.2%7.84%
 Germany 52646.1%3.14%22.6%1.66%0.000%26.5%0.00%
 Turkey 15945.4%0.60%25.6%3.54%0.102%24.8%0.00%
 DR Congo 6.163.4%0.00%3.1%0.00%0.000%33.5%0.00%
 Iran 16433.2%0.15%19.0%12.92%0.001%32.3%2.50%
 Thailand 13542.4%0.04%35.6%0.21%0.000%21.3%0.54%
 France 43332.6%3.06%25.0%0.88%0.028%35.9%2.57%
 UK 34233.2%2.47%28.6%1.19%0.000%34.5%0.00%
 Italy 30945.8%3.50%26.8%1.81%0.022%22.1%0.00%
 South Korea 40751.0%0.55%32.5%1.61%0.449%13.8%0.00%
 Spain 26538.9%1.10%29.5%2.29%0.000%27.1%1.08%
 Canada 51936.3%0.81%30.0%1.86%0.000%31.0%0.00%
 Saudi Arabia 17012.4%0.00%28.5%2.04%0.000%56.9%0.14%
 Taiwan 21055.7%0.52%13.7%0.78%0.459%20.3%8.48%
 Australia 21244.7%1.33%25.6%0.88%0.000%27.4%0.00%
 Netherlands 10938.6%1.48%30.0%7.15%0.000%22.7%0.00%
World16,81641.7%1.60%23.4%2.50%0.025%27.4%3.43%
Notes:
  • For more recent data World Electricity production 2012 [11]
  • Listed are top 20 countries, either by population or by GDP (PPP), as well as Saudi Arabia.

Electricity consumption of OECD member countries (2008)

Electric energy consumption per inhabitant by primary energy source in some countries and areas in 2008 is in the table.

1 MW·h/yr = 114 watt

For the OECD with 8 991 kWh/yr/person: 1.026 watt/person.

Electric energy per capita for 2008, in kilowatt-hour per person[12]
# Territory Use Production Import/
Export
Non-RE* RE % *
Total Fossil Nuclear RE-Bio Bio+waste
1Iceland53,12953,1290053,129000100%
2Norway27,39830,355151030,13074-2,957-2,806110.2%
3Canada18,11119,0924,6532,83411,333272-9816,50764.1%
4Finland*17,03614,6125,1824,345x3,3561,7272,42411,95329.8%
5Sweden16,01816,2255276,9227,6871,088-2067,24454.8%
6USA14,37814,27010,1622,7461,13922410813,0159.5%
7Switzerland9,0529,1981303,6885,057322-1463,67259.4%
8OECD8,9918,9825,5541,9051,34018297,46816.9%
9Belgium8,9617,9622,9974,2952524189998,2917.5%
10Japan8,5078,5075,6692,01068214707,6799.7%
11France8,2338,9848536,8721,16891-7516,97415.3%
12Netherlands7,4636,5135,5902522753969506,7929.0%
13Germany7,4507,6934,6351,804873381-2436,1966.8%
14EU-157,4097,3213,7982,1211,141261896,00718.9%
15Denmark6,9126,6564,68001,2727062564,93428.6%
16United Kingdom6,5736,3925,0698602661981806,1087.1%
17Spain6,5236,7644,0661,2861,31894-2415,11121.6%
18Italy6,0545,3844,27109921206714,94218.4%
19Poland4,0334,0643,865096103-323,8335.0%
  • RE-Bio includes hydro power, wind power, solar power and geothermal electricity
  • Bio+waste includes biofuel and waste
  • Non-RE (Non-Renewable electricity) = electricity use – (RE-Bio) – (Bio+waste)
  • RE % = (own RE production (RE+ Bio+waste) / electricity use) * 100%
  • Obs. No specification if waste includes fossil wastes (e.g. The share of fossil wastes in Finland in 2006 was 2% of electricity use 1.78/90TWh). Norway exported 2.8 TWh per person renewable electricity.
  • In Finland 1,600 MW nuclear reactor under construction since 2002

Electricity scenarios until 2040

In all scenarios, increasing efficiency will result in less electricity needed for a given demand of power and light. But demand will increase strongly on account of

  • growing economy in developing countries and
  • electrification of transport and heating. Combustion engines are replaced by electric drive and for heating less gas and oil, but more electricity is used, if possible with heat pumps.

As transport and heating become more climate-friendly, the environmental effect of energy consumption will be more determined by electricity. This is mainly supplied by burning fossil fuel which disturbs the natural carbon cycle. The scenarios arrive at very different results for the environment.

The International Energy Agency expects revision of subsidy for fossil fuel which amounted to 550 billion dollar in 2013, more than four times renewable energy subsidy. In this scenario[13] almost half of the increase in 2040 of electricity consumption is covered by more than 80% growth of renewable energy. Many new nuclear plants will be constructed, mainly to replace old ones. The nuclear part of electricity generation will increase from 11 to 12%. The renewable part goes up much, from 21 to 33%. The IEA warns that in order to restrict global warming to 2 °C, the carbon dioxide emission[14] must not exceed 1000 gigaton (Gt) from 2014. This limit is reached in 2040 and emissions will not drop to zero ever.

The World Energy Council[15] sees world electricity consumption increasing to more than 40,000 TWh/a in 2040. The fossil part of generation depends on energy policy. It can stay around 70% in the so-called Jazz scenario where countries rather independently "improvise" but it can also decrease to around 40% in the Symphony scenario if countries work "orchestrated" for more climate friendly policy. Carbon dioxide emission, 32 Gt/a in 2012, will increase to 46 Gt/a in Jazz but decrease to 26 Gt/a in Symphony. Accordingly, until 2040 the renewable part of generation will stay at about 20% in Jazz but increase to about 45% in Symphony.

See also

References

  1. "Key World Energy Statistics (2018)" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2018. p. 14.
  2. "Electricity Generation". Institute for Energy Research. Institute for Energy Research. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  3. Zahedi, Gholamreza; Azizi, Saeed; Bahadori, Alireza; Elkamel, Ali; R. Wan Alwi, Sharifah (2013). "Electricity demand estimation using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy network: A case study from the Ontario province – Canada". Energy. 49: 323–328. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2012.10.019.
  4. Enerdata Statistical Review 2012
  5. IEA World energy statistics
  6. IEA Statistics search
  7. 25% before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
  8. Compare World: IEA Statistics search, World, Electricity and Heat, 2012 and 2014.
  9. IEA Key Renewables Trends
  10. IEA/OECD IEA Statistics/Electricity and Heat by country
  11. World Electricity production 2012
  12. Energiläget i siffror 2009 Archived January 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Energimyndigheten Sweden, Table 25: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source, 2008, kWh/person, Source: Electricity information 2009 IEA/OECD
  13. IEA World energy outlook
  14. by fossil fuel
  15. World energy scenarios
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