An Electress (German: Kurfürstin, Latin: electrix) was the consort of a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, one of the Empire's greatest princes.[1]

The Golden Bull of 1356 established by Emperor Charles IV settled the number of Electors at seven. However, three of these were Roman Catholic archbishops, and so had no consorts; while of the four secular Electors, one was King of Bohemia, and his consort was always known by the more prestigious title of "Queen of Bohemia". The consorts usually referred to as Electresses, therefore, were:

To these were added, in 1623 and 1692 respectively:

In the final years of the Empire, several Electors were added, who however only held their offices for less than three years before the Empire's final dissolution. The consorts of these last Electors were:

  • The Electress of Württemberg;
  • The Electress of Hesse-Kassel.

There was also an Elector of Baden, but the only ruler to use this title was married morganatically and so his spouse did not share his title.

The rulers of Hesse-Kassel continued to use the title of "Elector" until the annexation of the principality by Prussia in 1866.

Persons using or entitled to use the title of "Electress" are listed below. Spouses of Electors in morganatic or unequal marriages are given in a separate table at the bottom of the page.


Electresses of the Palatinate

Ceased to
be Electress
Wittelsbach Dynasty
ElizabethJohn I, Count of Namur1340135013561382Rupert I
BeatriceWilliam I, Duke of Berg1360138516 Feb 13901395
ElizabethFrederick V, Burggrave of Nuremberg135827 Jun 13746 Jan 139818 May 141026 Jul 1411Rupert III
MatildaAmadeo, Prince of Achaea139030 Nov 141730 Dec 143614 May 1438Louis III
MargaretAmadeus VIII of Savoy7 Aug 142018 Oct 144513 Aug 144930 Sep 1479Louis IV
MargaretLouis IX, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut7 Nov 145621 Feb 147412 Dec 147625 Feb 1501Philip
SibylleAlbert IV, Duke of Bavaria16 Jun 148923 Feb 151118 Apr 1519Louis V
DorotheaChristian II of Denmark10 Nov 152026 Sep 153516 Mar 154426 Feb 155620 Sep 1580Frederick II
Line of Simmern
MarieCasimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth13 Oct 151912 Jun 153712 Feb 155931 Oct 1567Frederick III
AmaliaGumprecht IV, Count of Neuenahrc. 154025 Apr 156926 Oct 157610 Apr 1602
ElisabethPhilip I, Landgrave of Hesse13 Feb 15398 Jul 156026 Oct 157614 Mar 1582Louis VI
AnneEdzard II, Count of East Frisia26 June 156212 Jul 158322 Oct 158321 Apr 1621
Louise JulianaWilliam I of Orange31 Mar 157612 Jun 159319 Sep 161015 Mar 1644Frederick IV
Queen of Bohemia
James I of England19 Aug 159614 Feb 161323 Feb 1623
14 Feb 1662Frederick V
House of Wittelsbach – Bavaria
Elisabeth RenataCharles III of Lorraine9 Oct 15746 Feb 159523 Feb 16234 Jan 1635Maximilan I
Maria AnnaEmperor Ferdinand II13 Jan 161015 Jul 1635164825 Sep 1665
Ceased to
be Electress

Electresses of Bavaria

Ceased to
be Electress
Wittelsbach Dynasty
Elisabeth RenataCharles III, Duke of Lorraine9 Oct 15746 Feb 159523 Feb 16234 Jan 1635Maximilan I
Maria AnnaEmperor Ferdinand II13 Jan 161015 Jul 163527 Sep 165125 Sep 1665
Henriette AdelaideVictor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy6 Nov 16368/11 Dec 165027 Sep 165113 Jun 1676Ferdinand Maria
Maria AntoniaEmperor Leopold I166915 Jul 168524 Dec 1692Maximilian II
Teresa KunegundaJohn III of Poland4 Mar 16762 Jan 169526 Feb 172610 Mar 1730
Maria Amalia
Holy Roman Empress 1742–1745
Emperor Joseph I22 Oct 17015 Oct 172226 Feb 172620 Jan 174511 Dec 1756Charles Albert
Maria Anna SophiaAugustus III of Poland29 Aug 17289 Jul 174730 Dec 177717 Feb 1797Maximilian III
Elizabeth Maria AugustaJoseph Charles of Sulzbach17 Jan 172117 Jan 174230 Dec 177717 Aug 1794Charles Theodore
Maria Leopoldine of Austria-EsteFerdinand of Austria10 Dec 177615 Feb 179516 Feb 179923 Jun 1848
Frederica Caroline WilhelminaCharles Louis of Baden13 Jul 17769 Mar 179716 Feb 17991 Jan 1806
became Queen of Bavaria
13 Nov 1841Maximilian IV

Electresses of Saxony

NameImageFatherBornMarriedBecame ElectressCeased to be ElectressDiedHusband
Ascanian Dynasty
ElizabethLandgrave Otto I of Hesse???6 Dec 137015 Nov 1373Rudolph II
CaeciliaFrancis of Carrara, Duke of Padua?23 Jan 1367 or 137615 May 13881430–1434Wenceslaus I
AnnaBalthasar, Landgrave of Thuringia?1387/1389?4 Jul 1395Rudolph III
BarbaraRupert, Duke of Silesia-Liegnitz?6 Mar 139611 Jun 141917 May 1435
EuphemiaConrad II of Silesia?14 Jan 140211 Jun 141912 Nov 14221444Albert
Wettin Dynasty
KatharineHenry II of Brunswick-Lüneburg13958 Feb 14026 Jan 14234 Jan 14281442Frederick I
MargaretErnest, Duke of Austria1416/173 Jun 14317 Sep 146412 Feb 1486Frederick II
ElizabethAlbert III, Duke of Bavaria2 Feb 144319 Nov 14607 Sep 14645 Mar 1486Ernest
SybilleJohn III, Duke of Cleves17 Jan 15129 Feb 152716 Aug 15324 Jun 1547
husband deposed
21 Feb 1554John Frederick I
AgnesPhilip I, Landgrave of Hesse31 May 15279 Jan 15414 Jun 15479 Jul 15534 Nov 1555Maurice
AnnaChristian III of Denmark22 Nov 15327 Oct 154811 Jul 15531 Oct 1585Augustus
Agnes HedwigJoachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau15733 Jan 158611 Feb 15861616
SophiaJohn George, Elector of Brandenburg6 Jun 156825 Apr 158211 Feb 158625 Sep 15917 Dec 1622Christian I
HedwigFrederick II of Denmark5 Aug 158112 Sep 160223 Jun 161126 Nov 1641Christian II
Magdalena Sibylla (1)Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia31 Dec 158619 Jul 160723 Jun 16118 Oct 165612 Feb 1659John George I
Magdalena Sibylla (2)Christian of Brandenburg-Kulmbach-Bayreuth1 Nov 161213 Nov 16388 Oct 165622 Aug 168020 Mar 1687John George II
Anna SophiaFrederick III of Denmark1 Sep 16479 Oct 166622 Aug 168012 Sep 16911 Jul 1717John George III
Eleonore Erdmuthe LuiseJohn George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach13 Apr 166217 Apr 169227 Apr 16949 Sep 1696John George IV
Christiane Eberhardine
Queen of Poland
Christian Ernest,
Margrave of Bayreuth
29 Dec 167120 Jan 169327 Apr 16944 Sep 1727Frederick Augustus I
Maria Josepha
Queen of Poland
Emperor Joseph I8 Dec 169920 Aug 17191 Feb 173317 Nov 1757Frederick Augustus II
Maria Antonia Walpurgis SymphorosaEmperor Charles VII18 July 172420 Jun 17475 Oct 176317 Dec 176323 Apr 1780Frederick Christian
Maria Amalia AugustaFrederick Michael
of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
10 May 175229 January 176920 Dec 1806
became Queen of Saxony
15 November 1828Frederick Augustus III
NameImageFatherBornMarriedBecame ElectressCeased to be ElectressDiedHusband

Electresses of Brandenburg

Ceased to
be Electress
Wittelsbach Dynasty
CunigundeCasimir III of Poland1334-51 Jan 135213561357Louis
IngeborgAlbert II, Duke of Mecklenburg134015 Feb 136017 May 13651395
CatherineEmperor Charles IV19 Aug 134219 Mar 1366137326 Apr 1395Otto
Luxemburg Dynasty
JoanAlbert I, Duke of Bavaria136229 Sep 13701373137831 Dec 1386Wenceslaus
MaryLouis I of Hungary1371Oct 1385138817 May 1395Sigismund
AgnesBolko II of Opole1360?1374138818 Jan 14111413?Jodocus
BarbaraHermann II, Count of Celje1390–13951406–140818 Jan 141130 Apr 141511 Jul 1451Sigismund
Hohenzollern Dynasty
ElizabethFrederick, Duke of Bavaria138318 Sep 140130 Apr 141520 Sep 144013 Nov 1442Frederick I
CatherineFrederick I, Elector of Saxony142111 June 144110 Feb 147023 Aug 1476Frederick II
AnneFrederick II, Elector of Saxony7 Mar 143712 Nov 145810 Feb 147011 Mar 148631 Oct 1512Albert III
MargaretWilliam III, Duke of Luxembourg144925 Aug 147611 Mar 14869 Jan 149913 Jul 1501John Cicero
ElizabethJohn of Denmark24 Jun 148510 Apr 15029 Jan 149911 Jul 153510 Jun 1555Joachim I Nestor
HedwigSigismund I of Poland15 Mar 15131 Sep 15353 Jan 15717 Feb 1573Joachim II Hector
SabinaGeorge of Ansbach12 May 152912 Feb 15483 Jan 15712 Nov 1575John George
ElizabethJoachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau15 Sep 15636 Oct 15778 Jan 15988 Nov 1607
CatherineJohn, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin10 Aug 15498 Jan 15708 Jan 159810 Oct 1602Joachim Frederick
EleanorAlbert Frederick, Duke of Prussia21 Aug 15832 Nov 16039 Apr 1607
Anne3 Jul 157630 Oct 159418 Jul 160823 Dec 161930 Aug 1625John Sigismund
Elizabeth CharlotteFrederick IV, Elector Palatine19 Nov 159724 Jul 161623 Dec 16191 Dec 164026 Apr 1660George William
Louise Henriette
Duchess of Prussia
Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange7 Dec 16277 Dec 164618 Jun 1667Frederick William I
Sophia Dorothea
Duchess of Prussia
Philip of Holstein28 Sep 163614 Jun 166829 Apr 16886 Aug 1689
Sophia Charlotte
Queen in Prussia
Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover30 Oct 16688 Oct 168429 Apr 16881 Feb 1705Frederick III (I)
Sophia Louise
Queen in Prussia
Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin6 May 168528 Nov 170825 Feb 171329 Jul 1735
Sophia Dorothea
Queen in Prussia
George I of Great Britain16 Mar 168728 Nov 170625 Feb 171331 May 174028 Jun 1757Frederick William II (I)
Elizabeth Christine
Queen of Prussia
Ferdinand Albert II of Brunswick8 Nov 171512 Jun 173331 May 174017 Aug 178613 Jan 1797Frederick IV (II)
Frederica Louise
Queen of Prussia
Ludwig IX of Hesse16 Oct 175114 Jul 176917 Aug 178616 Nov 179725 Feb 1805Frederick William III (II)
Louise Augusta Wilhelmina Amalie
Queen of Prussia
Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz10 Mar 177624 Dec 179316 Nov 179718069 Jul 1810Frederick William IV (III)
Ceased to
be Electress

Electresses Palatine (junior line)

Ceased to
be Electress
Line of Simmern
CharlotteWilliam V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel20 Nov 162722 Feb 165014 Apr 165726 Mar 1686Charles I Louis
Wilhelmina ErnestineFrederick III of Denmark20 Jun 165020 Sep 167128 Aug 168026 May 168522 Apr 1706Charles II
Line of Neuburg
Elizabeth Amalia MagdalenaGeorge II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt20 Mar 16353 Sep 165326 May 16852 Sep 16904 Aug 1709Philip William
Anna Maria LuisaCosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany11 Aug 16675 Jun 16918 Jun 171618 Feb 1743John William
Line of Sulzbach
Elizabeth Maria AugustaJoseph Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Palatinate-Sulzbach17 Jan 172117 Jan 174231 Dec 174230 Dec 1777
became Electress of Bavaria
17 Aug 1794Charles IV Theodore
Ceased to
be Electress

Electresses of Hanover, Württemberg and Hesse

Ceased to
be Electress
SophiaFrederick V, Elector Palatine14 Oct 163030 Sep 1658169223 Jan 16988 Jun 1714Ernest Augustus
Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline
Queen of Great Britain
John Frederick, Margrave of Ansbach1 Mar 168322 Aug 170511 Jun 172720 Nov 1737George II
Sophia Charlotte
Queen of Great Britain
Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz19 May 17448 Sep 176112 Oct 1814
became Queen of Hanover
17 Nov 1818George III
Charlotte Augusta MatildaGeorge III of the United Kingdom29 Sep 176618 May 179725 February 18031 Jan 1806
became Queen of Württemberg
5 Oct 1828Frederick I
Wilhelmina CarolineFrederick V of Denmark10 July 17471 Sep 1764180314 Jan 1820William I
Augusta Christina FredericaFrederick William II of Prussia1 May 178013 Feb 179727 Feb 182119 Feb 1841William II

Morganatic spouses of Electors

Clara Tott??147129 Apr 1520Frederick I, Elector Palatine
Maria Susanna Loysa, RaugravineChristoph Martin von Degenfeld28 Nov 16346 Jan 165818 Mar 1677Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
Elizabeth Höllander von Bernau?165911 Dec 16798 Mar 1702
Violante Maria Theresa, Countess of Thurn and TaxisCount Philipp-Wilhelm of Thurn and Taxis1 Apr 168317292 Nov 1734Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine
Louise Caroline, Countess of HochbergLudwig Heinrich Philipp Geyer von Geyersberg26 May 176824 Nov 178723 Jun 1820Charles Frederick of Baden
Emilie Ortlöpp, Countess of ReichenbachJohann Christian Ortlöpp13 May 17918 July 184112 Feb 1843William II, Elector of Hesse
Caroline of Berlepsch, Baroness of BergenHermann Ludwig von Berlepsch182028 Aug 18431877
Gertrude, Princess of HanauJohann Gottfried Falkenstein180526 June 18311882Frederick William, Elector of Hesse


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