Ray Edward Cochran (//; October 3, 1938 – April 17, 1960) was a mid-20th century American rock and roll musician. Cochran's songs, such as "Twenty Flight Rock", "Summertime Blues", "C'mon Everybody" and "Somethin' Else", captured teenage frustration and desire in the mid-1950s and early 1960s. He experimented with multitrack recording, distortion techniques, and overdubbing even on his earliest singles. He played the guitar, piano, bass, and drums. His image as a sharply dressed and good-looking young man with a rebellious attitude epitomized the stance of the 1950s rocker, and in death he achieved iconic status.
Cochran in 1957
|Birth name||Ray Edward Cochran|
|Born||October 3, 1938|
Albert Lea, Minnesota, U.S.
|Died||April 17, 1960 21) (aged|
Bath, Somerset, England
Cochran was involved with music from an early age, playing in the school band and teaching himself to play blues guitar. In 1954, he formed a duet with the guitarist Hank Cochran (no relation), and when they split the following year, Eddie began a songwriting career with Jerry Capehart. His first success came when he performed the song "Twenty Flight Rock" in the film The Girl Can't Help It, starring Jayne Mansfield. Soon afterwards, he signed a recording contract with Liberty Records.
Cochran died at age 21 after a road accident, while travelling in a taxi in Chippenham, Wiltshire, during his British tour in April 1960, having just performed at Bristol's Hippodrome theatre. Though his best-known songs were released during his lifetime, more of his songs were released posthumously. In 1987, Cochran was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. His songs have been recorded by a wide variety of recording artists.
Cochran was born October 3, 1938, in Albert Lea, Minnesota, to Alice and Frank R. Cochran. His parents were from Oklahoma, and he always said in interviews that his parents had some roots in Oklahoma. He took music lessons in school but quit the band to play drums. Also, rather than taking piano lessons, he began learning guitar, playing country and other music he heard on the radio.
Early career and Cochran Brothers (1952–1955)
Cochran's family moved to Bell Gardens, California, in 1952. As his guitar playing improved, he formed a band with two friends from his junior high school. He dropped out of Bell Gardens High School in his first year to become a professional musician. During a show featuring many performers at an American Legion hall, he met Hank Cochran, a songwriter. Although they were not related, they recorded as the Cochran Brothers and began performing together. They recorded a few singles for Ekko Records that were fairly successful and helped to establish them as a performing act. Eddie Cochran also worked as a session musician and began writing songs, making a demo with Jerry Capehart, his future manager.
First success as solo artist (1956–1957)
In July 1956, Eddie Cochran's first "solo artist" single was released by Crest Records. It featured "Skinny Jim", now regarded as a rock-and-roll and rockabilly classic. In the spring of 1956, Boris Petroff asked Cochran if he would appear in the musical comedy film The Girl Can't Help It. Cochran agreed and performed the song "Twenty Flight Rock" in the movie. In 1957 Cochran starred in his second film, Untamed Youth, and he had yet another hit, "Sittin' in the Balcony", one of the few songs he recorded that was written by other songwriters (in this case John D. Loudermilk). "Twenty Flight Rock" was written by AMI staff writer Ned Fairchild (a pen name—her real name is Nelda Fairchild). Fairchild, who was not a rock and roll performer, merely provided the initial form of the song; the co-writing credit reflects Cochran's major changes and contributions to the final product.
In the Summer of 1957 Liberty Records issued Cochran's only studio album released during his lifetime, Singin' to My Baby. The album included "Sittin' in the Balcony". There were only a few rockers on this album, and Liberty seemed to want to move Cochran away from Rock and Roll.
International breakthrough (1958–1959)
In 1958, Cochran seemed to find his stride in the famous teenage anthem "Summertime Blues" (co-written with Jerry Capehart). With this song, Cochran was established as one of the most important influences on rock and roll in the 1950s, both lyrically and musically. The song, released by Liberty recording no. 55144, charted at number 8 in 1958. Cochran's brief career included a few more hits, such as "C'mon, Everybody", "Somethin' Else", "Teenage Heaven", and his posthumous UK number one hit "Three Steps to Heaven". He remained popular in the US and UK through the late 1950s and early 1960s, and more of his records were posthumous hits, such as "My Way", "Weekend", and "Nervous Breakdown".
Another aspect of Cochran's short but brilliant career is his work as backup musician and producer. In 1959 he played lead for Skeets McDonald at Columbia's studios for "You Oughta See Grandma Rock" and "Heart Breaking Mama". In a session for Gene Vincent in March 1958 he contributed his trademark bass voice, as heard on "Summertime Blues". The recordings were issued on the album A Gene Vincent Record Date.
In early 1959, two of Cochran's friends, Buddy Holly and Ritchie Valens, along with the Big Bopper, were killed in a plane crash while on tour. Cochran's friends and family later said that he was badly shaken by their deaths, and he developed a morbid premonition that he also would die young. It was shortly after their deaths that he recorded a song (written by disc jockey Tommy Dee) in tribute to them, "Three Stars". He was anxious to give up life on the road and spend his time in the studio making music, thereby reducing the chance of suffering a similar fatal accident while touring. Financial responsibilities, however, required that he continue to perform live, and that led to his acceptance of an offer to tour the United Kingdom in 1960.
On Saturday, April 16, 1960, at about 11:50 p.m., while on tour in the United Kingdom Cochran was involved in a traffic accident in a taxi travelling through Chippenham in the county of Wiltshire, on the A4. The taxi driver lost control of the vehicle due to excessive speed and crashed into a lamppost on Rowden Hill (a plaque today marks the site of the car crash). No other vehicle was involved in the incident. At the moment of impact Cochran, who was seated in the centre of the back seat, threw himself over his fiancée (songwriter Sharon Sheeley) to shield her and he was thrown out of the car when a rear passenger door opened in the collision's force. He was taken to St Martin's Hospital, in Bath. He had suffered severe head injuries, and died at 4:10 p.m. the following day, Easter Sunday, 1960, at the age of 21.
Sharon Sheeley, tour manager Pat Thompkins, and the singer Gene Vincent who were also in the taxi survived the crash, Vincent sustaining lasting injuries to an already permanently damaged leg that would shorten his career and affect him for the rest of his life. The taxi driver, Mr. G. Martin, was convicted of dangerous driving, fined £50 (and in default of payment six months imprisonment), and disqualified from driving for 15 years. His driving licence was reinstated in 1969.
The car and other items from the crash were impounded at the local police station until a coroner's inquest could be held. David Harman, a police cadet at the station, who would later become known as Dave Dee of the band Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich, is said to have played on Cochran's Gretsch guitar whilst it was held at the station.
A memorial stone commemorating Cochran's death was placed in the grounds of St Martin's Hospital, in Bath. The stone was restored in 2010 on the 50th anniversary of his death and can be found in the old chapel grounds at the hospital. A memorial plaque was also placed next to the sundial at the back of the old chapel. In 2018 it was reported that the plaque would be replaced by a statue.
Posthumous releases and honors
A posthumous album, My Way, was released in 1964. Cochran was a prolific performer, and the British label Rockstar Records has released more of his music posthumously than was released during his life. The company is still looking for unpublished songs. One of his posthumous releases was "Three Stars", a tribute to J. P. Richardson, better known as the Big Bopper, and Cochran's friends Buddy Holly and Ritchie Valens, who had all died in a plane crash just one year earlier. Written just hours after the tragedy by disc jockey Tommy Dee, it was recorded by Cochran two days later (Dee recorded his own version several weeks later). His voice broke during the spoken lyrics about Valens and Holly.
In 1987, Cochran was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. His pioneering contribution to the genre of rockabilly has also been recognized by the Rockabilly Hall of Fame. Several of his songs have been re-released since his death, such as "C'mon Everybody", which was a number 14 hit in 1988 in the UK. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 84 on its 2003 list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time. Cochran's life is chronicled in several publications, including Don't Forget Me: The Eddie Cochran Story, by Julie Mundy and Darrel Higham (ISBN 0-8230-7931-7), and Three Steps to Heaven, by Bobby Cochran (ISBN 0-634-03252-6). The Very Best of Eddie Cochran was released by EMI Records on June 2, 2008. On September 27, 2010, the mayor of Bell Gardens, California, declared October 3, 2010, to be "Eddie Cochran Day" to celebrate the famous musician who began his career when living in that city.
Style and influence
Cochran was one of the first rock-and-roll artists to write his own songs and overdub tracks. He is also credited with being one of the first to use an unwound third string in order to "bend" notes up a whole tone—an innovation (imparted to UK guitarist Joe Brown, who secured much session work as a result) that has since become an essential part of the standard rock guitar vocabulary. Artists such as Joan Jett and the Blackhearts, the Rolling Stones, Bruce Springsteen, Van Halen, Tom Petty, Rod Stewart, T. Rex, Cliff Richard, the Who, Stray Cats, the Beach Boys, the Beatles, Led Zeppelin, the White Stripes, the Sex Pistols, Sid Vicious, Rush, Simple Minds, George Thorogood, Guitar Wolf, Paul McCartney, Alan Jackson, the Move, David Bowie, Jimi Hendrix, Johnny Hallyday and U2 have covered his songs.
It was because Paul McCartney knew the chords and words to "Twenty Flight Rock" that he became a member of the Beatles. John Lennon was so impressed that he invited McCartney to play with his band, the Quarrymen. Jimi Hendrix performed "Summertime Blues" early in his career, and Pete Townshend of the Who was heavily influenced by Cochran's guitar style ("Summertime Blues" was a staple of live performances by the Who for most of their career, until the death of bassist and vocalist John Entwistle in 2002, and is featured on their album Live at Leeds). San Francisco Sound band Blue Cheer's version of "Summertime Blues" was their only hit and signature song, and has been described as the first heavy metal song.
The glam-rock artist Marc Bolan had his main Gibson Les Paul guitar refinished in a transparent orange to resemble the Gretsch 6120 played by Cochran, who was his music hero. He was also an influence on the guitar player Brian Setzer, of Stray Cats, who plays a 6120 almost like that of Cochran, whom he portrayed in the film La Bamba.
|1956||The Girl Can't Help It||Himself||20th Century Fox|
|1957||Untamed Youth||Bong||Warner Bros.|
|1959||Go, Johnny, Go||Himself||Hal Roach Studios|
- Singin' to My Baby, Liberty LRP-3061 (mid-1957)
- Eddie Cochran, Liberty LRP-3172 (April 1960), reissued as 12 of His Biggest Hits and later The Eddie Cochran Memorial Album
- Never to Be Forgotten, Liberty LRP-3220 (January 1962)
- Summertime Blues, Sunset SUS-5123 (August 1966)
- Legendary Masters Series, United Artists UAS 9959 (January 1972)
- The Very Best of Eddie Cochran (1975)
- Great Hits (1983)
- On the Air (1987)
- The Best of Eddie Cochran (1987)
- Greatest Hits, Curb Records (1990)
- Singin' to My Baby and Never to Be Forgotten, EMI Records (1993)
- Singin' to My Baby (1957)
- The Eddie Cochran Memorial Album (September 1960)
- Cherished Memories (December 1962)
- My Way (September 1964)
- The Legendary Eddie Cochran (June 1971)
- The Many Sides of Eddie Cochran (1974)
- The Eddie Cochran Singles Album (August 1979)
- 20th Anniversary Album (March 1980)
- The Best of Eddie Cochran, Liberty-EMI U.K. (1985) (the mono 16-track LP/cassette is from the Rock 'N' Roll Masters series)
- The Very Best of Eddie Cochran (June 2008)
- Eddie Cochran Story (July 6, 2009)
|Year||Titles (A-side, B-side)
Both sides from same album except where indicated
|Peak chart positions||US Album|
|1954||"Two Blue Singin' Stars"
b/w "Mr. Fiddle"
Both tracks by the Cochran Brothers
|"Your Tomorrow Never Comes"
b/w "Guilty Conscience"
Both tracks by the Cochran Brothers
|1955||"Walkin' Stick Boogie"
Both tracks by Jerry Capeheart Featuring the Cochran Brothers
|"Tired and Sleepy"
b/w "Fool's Paradise"
Both sides by the Cochran Brothers
b/w "Half Loved"
|1957||"Sittin' in the Balcony"
b/w "Dark Lonely Street" (non-album track)
|18||23||Singin' to My Baby|
|"Mean When I'm Mad"
b/w "One Kiss"
|"Drive In Show"
b/w "Am I Blue" (non-album track)
|"Twenty Flight Rock"
b/w "Cradle Baby" (from Singin' to My Baby)
|—||—||Never to Be Forgotten|
|1958||"Jeannie Jeannie Jeannie"
b/w "Pocketful of Hearts"
b/w "Pretty Girl"
b/w "Love Again" (from Never to Be Forgotten)
b/w "Don't Ever Let Me Go" (non-album track)
b/w "I Remember" (non-album track)
b/w "Boll Weevil Song" (from Never to Be Forgotten)
|"Hallelujah I Love Her So"
b/w "Little Angel" (from Never to Be Forgotten)
|1960||"Three Steps to Heaven"
b/w "Cut Across Shorty"
|"Lonely"||—||41||Never to Be Forgotten|
b/w "Lonely" (US); "Cherished Memories" (UK)
The following songs also made the following chart entries in the UK:
- 1961: "Jeannie Jeannie Jeannie" - #31
- 1963: "My Way" - #23
- 1966: "Summertime Blues" - #55; #34 (1968); #53 (1975)
- 1988: "C'mon Everybody" - #14
- 1988: "Somethin' Else" - #100
- "Eddie Cochran Biography". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- Cochran, Bobby; Van Hecke, Susan (2003). Three Steps to Heaven: The Eddie Cochran Story. Hal Leonard. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
- "allmusic ((( Eddie Cochran > Biography )))". www.allmusic.com. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- Three Steps to Heaven. books.google.com. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- "Eddie Cochran". Gretsch Guitars. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Eddie Cochran". www.rockabillyhall.com.
- "THE EDDIE COCHRAN STORY ON PAUL VIDAL's BIG V JAMBOREE". www.bigvjamboree.com.
- Eddie Cochran's Sessions Archived August 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, eddiecochran.info; retrieved May 26, 2013.
- Stanton, Scott The Tombstone Tourist: Musicians. Simon and Schuster. 2003. p. 52. ISBN 0743463307. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- "Certified Copy of an Entry of Death: Edward Ray Cochran". County Borough of Bath. July 2, 1960. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Cochran, Bobby; Van Hecke, Susan (2003). Three Steps to Heaven: The Eddie Cochran Story. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard. p. 203. ISBN 0-634-03252-6
- Kimmet, Ian (October 9, 2001). "Seance with a Gretsch G 6120".
- Eddie Cochran Memorial Plaque at St. Martin's Hospital in Bath. Flickr. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- "Remembering Eddie Cochran". Bath Chronicle. April 19, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2012. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- "Cochran fans plan statue in death town". BBC News. August 26, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
- "Eddie Cochran". Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
- Axver, Matthias Muehlbradt, Andre. "U2 C'mon Everybody - U2 on tour". U2gigs.com. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- George-Warren, Holly; Romanowski, PAtricia, eds. (2001). The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0743292016. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- Bacon, Tony. 50 Years of the Gibson Les Paul. Backbeat Books. p. 71. ISBN 0-87930-711-0.
- CD liner notes: Eddie Cochran, Singin' to My Baby and Never to Be Forgotten, 1993 EMI Records.
- Cochran, Bobby; Van Hecke, Susan (2003). Three Steps to Heaven: The Eddie Cochran Story. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-03252-6.
- Mundy, Julie; Higham, Darrel (2000). Don't Forget Me: The Eddie Cochran Story. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 0-8230-7931-7.
- Sheeley, Sharon (2010). Summertime Blues. Ravenhawk Books. ISBN 978-1-893660-18-2.
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