Ecozones of Canada
The ecozones of Canada consist of fifteen terrestrial and five marine ecozones in Canada. These are further subdivided into 53 ecoprovinces, 194 ecoregions, and 1021 ecodistricts. An ecozone is a large sub-continental geographical division with distinct representative biotic and abiotic features in the ecological unit.
The Canadian marine ecozones adjoin to each other, except for the Pacific ecozone which is adjacent to international marine ecozones and terrestrial Canadian ecozones. The largest is the Arctic Archipelago, which actually extends to subarctic regions.
Exclusive Economic Zone
|Percentage of total area (for EEZ)||Percentage of marine area (for EEZ)|
|Arctic Basin Marine||24,997||704,849||4.8||12.7|
|Arctic Archipelago Marine||2,051,393||2,178,998||14.8||39.3|
|Northwest Atlantic Marine||536,895||1,205,981||8.2||21.8|
The largest Canadian ecozone is the Boreal Shield, an expanse of diverse ecoregions situated on the Canadian Shield.
|Ecozone||Area (1000 km²)||Percentage of total area||Percentage of land area||Percentage protected|
|Mixed Wood Plains||176||0.8||1.3||1.8|
The terrestrial ecozones are divided into 53 ecoprovinces. These are major geographical units with a characteristic macro climate, whose constituent physiographic forms, faunal and floral realms, hydrological systems and soils are inter-related. An ecoprovince is fully contained within only one ecozone. These subdivisions were defined in accordance with environmental provisions which established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation in 1994, under the North American Free Trade Agreement between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. These were needed to address ecological issues common to, or overlapping the borders of, the three countries. They are also useful for national and regional planning.
An ecoregion further divides an ecoprovince, though no ecoregion extends beyond one ecoprovince. These geographical units exhibit regional ecological characteristics distinct from neighbouring ecoregions, though there are typically gradual gradations between them. There are 194 ecoregions.
An ecodistrict is a portion of one ecoregion having a unique collection of landforms, fauna, flora, soils, geological composition, and water features. Originally, 1031 ecodistricts were defined, but ten were later removed, leaving 1021 current districts.
- "Ecological Framework: Abstract". Atlas of Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- I. B. Marshall and P. H. Schut (1999). "A NATIONAL ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR CANADA, Overview". Environment Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- Wiken, Ed. "Casting the bottom line on the blue planet". Natural Resources Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
- "Percent of ecozones that are protected in Canada, 2013". Protected Areas Data Tables. Environment Canada. 3 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- "Human Activity and the Environment: Annual Statistics". Statistics Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on November 4, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
From the broadest to the smallest, the hierarchical classification consists of seven levels of generalization: ecozones, ecoprovinces, ecoregions, ecodistricts, ecosections, ecosites and ecoelements.
- Ecozones of Canada
- Map of Canada's Terrestrial Ecozones
- Map of Canada's Terrestrial Ecozones from the Atlas of Canada
- Canada's Ecozones from the Canadian Biodiversity Project at McGill University's Redpath Museum
- Ecological Land Classification Statistics Canada's ELC Description
- Ecological Land Classification Statistics Canada's ELC Structure
- Terrestrial Ecozones and Ecoprovinces Map from Statistics Canada
- Ecozones introduction Canadian Council on Ecological Areas, 2014 Update
- Ecozone map Canadian Council on Ecological Areas, 2014 Update
- Ecozones Digital files Canadian Council on Ecological Areas, 2014 Update