Economy of Europe

The economy of Europe comprises more than 744 million people in 50 different countries. Formation of the European Union (EU) and in 1999, the introduction of a unified currency – the euro brings participating European countries closer through the convenience of a shared currency and has led to a stronger European cash flow. The difference in wealth across Europe can be seen roughly in former Cold War divide, with some countries breaching the divide (Greece, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and the Czech Republic). Whilst most European states have a GDP per capita higher than the world's average and are very highly developed (Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Andorra, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom), some European economies, despite their position over the world's average in the Human Development Index, are poorer.

Economy of Europe
Population744 million (2018)
GDP$22.9 trillion (Nominal; 2018)[1]
$26.7 trillion (PPP; 2017)[1]
GDP growth
2.4% (2017)[1]
GDP per capita
$27,330 (2017; 3rd)[2]
3.17 million (2011)[3]
Unemployment10.0% (Nov 2009)
Top 10% income

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Throughout this article "Europe" and derivatives of the word are taken to include selected states whose territory is only partly in Europe – such as Turkey (depending on a definition – whole country or just Thrace), Azerbaijan (Caucasus), and the Russian Federation (its European part to Ural Mountains) – and states that are geographically in Asia, bordering Europe and culturally adherent to the continent – such as Armenia, Georgia, and Cyprus.

Europe in 2018 had a nominal GDP of $23 trillion[4] (1/4 of the world). Europe's largest national economies with GDP (nominal) of more than $1 trillion are:

Other large european economies are that of Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland, Sweden, Belgium, Norway, Austria, Ireland and Denmark. European Union (about $19 trillion GDP) generates about 4/5 of Europe's GDP.

The EU as a whole is the second wealthiest and second largest economy in the world, below the US by more than $1 trillion.

Of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500 in 2010), 184 have their headquarters in Europe. 161 are located in the EU, 15 in Switzerland, 6 in Russia, 1 in Turkey, 1 in Norway.[5]

As noted in 2010 by the Spanish sociologist Manuel Castells, the average standard of living in Western Europe is very high: "The bulk of the population in Western Europe still enjoys the highest living standards in the world, and in the world's history."[6]

Economic development

Pre–1945: Industrial growth

Prior to World War II, Europe's major financial and industrial states were the United Kingdom, France and Germany. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain, had spread rapidly across Europe, and before long the entire continent was at a high level of industry. World War I had briefly led to the industries of some European states stalling, but in the run-up to World War II Europe had recovered well, and was competing with the ever-increasing economic might of the United States of America.

However, World War II caused the destruction of most of Europe's industrial centres, and much of the continent's infrastructure was laid to waste.

1945–1992: The Cold War era

Following World War II, European governments were in tatters. Many non-Socialist European governments moved to link their economies, laying the foundation for what would become the European Union. This meant a huge increase in shared infrastructure and cross-border trade. Whilst these European states rapidly improved their economies, by the 1980s, the economy of the COMECON was struggling, mainly due to the massive cost of the Cold War. The GDP and the living standards of Central and Eastern European states were lower than in other parts of Europe.

The European Community grew from 6 original members following World War II, to 12 in this period.

Average living standards in Europe rose significantly during the post-war period, as characterised by these findings:[7]

Per capita private consumption (PPSs) in 1980

  • Luxembourg: 5495
  • France: 5395
  • Germany, Federal Republic: 5319
  • Belgium: 5143
  • Denmark: 4802
  • Netherlands: 4792
  • United Kingdom: 4343
  • Italy: 4288
  • Ireland: 3029

Per capita personal disposable income (PPSs) in 1980

  • Belgium: 6202
  • France: 6044
  • Germany, Federal Republic: 5661
  • Netherlands: 5490
  • Italy: 5378
  • Denmark: 4878
  • United Kingdom (UK): 4698

Rise of the European Union

When the 'Eastern Bloc' dissolved around 1992, these states struggled to adapt to free-market systems. There was, however, a huge variation in degrees of success, with Central European states such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia and Poland adapting reasonably quickly, whilst states that used to form the USSR such as Russia, Belarus and Ukraine struggled to reform their crumbling infrastructures.

Many developed European countries were quick to develop economic ties with fellow European states, where democracy was reintroduced. After the Revolutions of 1989, states in Central Europe and the Baltic states dealt with change, former Yugoslavian republics descended into war and Russia, Ukraine and Belarus are still struggling with their old systems.

Europe's largest economy, Germany, struggled upon unification in 1991 with former communist German Democratic Republic, or East Germany, influenced by the Soviet Union. The GDR had much of its industrial infrastructure removed during the Cold War, and for many years unified Germany struggled to build infrastructure in the former East Germany up to the level of former West Germany.

Peace did not come to Yugoslavia for a decade, and by 2003, there were still many NATO and EU peacekeeping troops present in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Kosovo[a] . War severely hampered economic growth, with only Slovenia making any real progress in the 1990s.

The European economy was affected by the September 11 Attacks in the United States in 2001, with Germany, Switzerland, France, and the United Kingdom being the worst hit. But, in 2002/2003, the economy began to recover from the attacks in US.

The economy of Europe was by this time dominated by the EU, a huge economic and political organization with then 15 of Europe's states as full members. EU membership was seen as something to aspire to, and the EU gave significant support and aid to those Central and Eastern European states willing to work towards achieving economies that met the entry criteria. During this time, 12 of the 15 members of the EU became part of the Eurozone, a currency union launched in 1999, whereby each member uses a shared currency, the euro, which replaced their former national currencies. Three states chose to remain outside the Eurozone and continue with their own currencies, namely Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

2004–2007: EU expansion

In early 2004, 10 mostly former communist states joined the EU in its biggest ever expansion, enlarging the union to 25 members, with another eight making associated trade agreements. The acceding countries are bound to join the Eurozone and adopt the common currency euro in the future. The process includes the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, of which some of these countries are already part.

Most European economies are in very good shape, and the continental economy reflects this. Conflict and unrest in some of the former Yugoslavia states and in the Caucasus states are hampering economic growth in those states, however.

In response to the massive EU growth, in 2005 the Russian-dominated Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) created a rival trade bloc to the EU, open to any previous USSR state, (including both the European and Asian states).[8] 12 of the 15 signed up, with the three Baltic states deciding to align themselves with the EU. Despite this, the three Caucasus states have said in the past they would one day consider applying for EU membership, particularly Georgia.[9] This is also true of Ukraine since the Orange Revolution.

2008–present: Eurozone expansion and European debt crisis

Slovenia became the first formerly communist nation to adopt the EU currency, the euro, in 2007, followed by Malta and Cyprus in 2008, and Slovakia in 2009. In 2011, Estonia became the first republic from the former Soviet Union to adopt the euro, followed by Latvia in 2014, and Lithuania in 2015. Recently, Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union, which had entered on the 1st day of July 2013.

In 2008, the Global Financial Crisis, triggered by the housing bubble in the United States, caused a significant decline in the GDP of the majority of the European economies, which was a precedent to a far broader and more problematic Eurozone debt crisis, which threatened the collapse of economies in the south, particularly Greece, Italy recently affected by the ongoing political crisis, Portugal and Spain. Having also been hit hard, Ireland exited the crisis in mid-2013. Meanwhile, increased bailouts of the International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank alleviated somehow the situation in the debt-stricken nations, with Central and East European economies led by Germany escaping the worst of the 2010s debt crisis.

By the mid 2010s, 2014–2015, Ireland was recovering at a steady pace having graduated from the bail out programme successfully. The Eurozone as a whole had become more stable, however problems in Greece and slow recovery in Italy and in Iberia (Spain and Portugal) continue in keeping growth in the Euro area to a minimum. Germany continues to lead Europe in stability and growth, while both the UK and Ireland are seeing strong growth of 3–4%. Unemployment in Ireland reducing at the fastest levels in Europe, expected to reach 8% by 2016, down from double that in 2011. The Czech Republic and Germany have constantly the lowest unemployment rate in the EU.[10] Growth outlook in general remains optimistic for Europe in the future. With positive growth expected across the Euro area. Although uncertainty still surrounds Greece and debt payments in the Greek state, at present things appear stable.

European businesses have been in decline against worldwide ones since the crisis. Of the 50 most valuable global firms, only seven were European as of 2015, compared to 17 in 2006. Out of 24 economic sectors, Europe only leads in one - food, which is led by Nestlé from Switzerland. Companies like HSBC, Vodafone, Total and BNP Paribas have all also sled in their respective industries against American and Asian competitors. In addition, former technologic heavyweights like Nokia, Ericsson and Alcatel have also declined against evolving American companies in the Silicon Valley.[11]

Regional variation

European countries with a long history of trade, a free market system, and a high level of development in the previous century are generally in the north and west of the continent. They tend to be wealthier and more stable than countries congregated in the European East and South, even though the gap is converging, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, due to higher growth rates.

The poorest states are those that just emerged from communism, fascist dictatorships and civil wars, namely those of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, excluding Slovenia. Former Western Bloc itself presents some living standards and development differences, with the greatest contrast seen between Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland) and Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece.

Below is a map of European countries by gross national income per capita.[12] High income in blue ($12,616 or more, as defined by the World Bank), upper middle income in green ($4,086 – $12,615) and lower middle income ($1,036 – $4,085) in yellow.

Top 10 cities by GDP

Rank City State GDP in $ID B Population M (LUZ) GDP per capita $ID K Eurozone
1 London  United Kingdom $732 11.9 $61.5 N
2 Paris  France $669 11.5 $62.4 Y
3 Moscow  Russia $520 11.5 $45.2 N
4 Madrid  Spain $230 5.80 $39.7 Y
5 Barcelona  Spain $177 4.97 $35.6 Y
6 Rome  Italy $144 4.34 $41.6 Y
7 Milan  Italy $136 3.2 $44.2 Y
8 Vienna  Austria $122 2.18 $56.0 Y
9 Lisbon  Portugal $98 2.44 $40.2 Y
10 Athens  Greece $96 4.01 $23.9 Y

European Union

The European Union has the largest economy in the world. Trade within the Union accounts for more than one-third of the world total.

The European Union or EU is a supranational union of 28 European states, the most recent acceding member being Croatia, which became full member on 1 July 2013. It has many functions, the most important being the establishment and maintenance of a common single market, consisting of a customs union, a single currency (adopted by 18 of the 28 member states[13]), a Common Agricultural Policy and a Common Fisheries Policy. The European Union also undertakes various initiatives to co-ordinate activities of the member states.

The union has evolved over time from a primarily economic union to an increasingly political one. This trend is highlighted by the increasing number of policy areas that fall within EU competence: political power has tended to shift upwards from the Member States to the EU.

European Free Trade Association

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on 3 May 1960 as an alternative for European states that did not wish to join the European Union, creating a trade bloc with fewer central powers.

The EFTA member states as of 1992 were Austria, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. In 2014 only four countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, remained members of EFTA, as the other members have gradually left to join the EU.

European Economic Area

The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on 1 January 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). It was designed to enable EFTA countries to participate in the European Single Market without having to join the EU.

In a referendum, Switzerland (ever keen on neutrality) chose not to participate in the EEA (although it is linked to the European Union by bilateral agreements similar in content to the EEA agreement), so the current members are the EU states plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.

A Joint Committee consisting of the non EU members plus the European Commission (representing the EU) has the function of extending relevant EU Law to the non EU members.

Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a confederation consisting of 9 of the 15 states of the former Soviet Union, (the exceptions being the three Baltic states, Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine (Turkmenistan and Ukraine are participating states in the CIS)). Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is more than a purely symbolic organization and possesses co-ordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking and security. The most significant issue for the CIS is the establishment of a full-fledged free trade zone / economic union between the member states, to be launched in 2005. It has also promoted co-operation on democratization and cross-border crime prevention.

Central European Free Trade Agreement

The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade bloc of: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) on behalf of Kosovo.

Currency and central banks

The most common currency within Europe is the Euro (€), the currency of the European Union. To join, each new EU member must meet certain criteria, when these are met their own currencies will be replaced by the euro. Becoming a member of the EU involves a pledge to work towards Eurozone membership, (except in the cases of the United Kingdom and Denmark who have opt-outs). Currently, 19 of the 28 EU member states use the euro. Each EU member's central bank is part of the European System of Central Banks, and in addition, those that use the euro are part of the European Union's central bank, the European Central Bank.

There are some non-EU members who have elected to use the euro as their national currency like Kosovo and Montenegro, either with or without specific agreements with the EU to do so, (those with agreements with the EU may mint their own euro coins). The French overseas territories and departments of Mayotte and Réunion in the Indian Ocean, Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean and French Guiana in South America all use the euro, among many other islands in the Pacific, Caribbean and indeed around the globe that are ruled directly by European countries.

Some countries while maintaining their own national currency have pegged its value to the euro. In some of these countries, there is a fixed exchange rate between the national currency and the euro and in this case the currency is actually a submultiple of the euro. In other countries, the national currency's value fluctuates within a band (generally 15%) around a set rate. Currencies pegged to the euro include the currencies of Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cape Verde. Denmark has a foreign exchange band tied to the euro.

The CIS is also planning to introduce a single currency among its members.

Below is a list of the central banks and currencies of Europe, with exchange rates between each currency and both the euro and US dollars as of 1 May 2010.

CountryCurrencyValue in EuroValue in USDCentral Bank
 Albania Lek 0.007 0.009 Bank of Albania
 Andorra Euro 1.33 (none de jure)/ECB de facto
 Armenia Dram 0.002 0.003 Central Bank of Armenia
 Austria Euro 1.33 Oesterreichische Nationalbank/ECB
 Azerbaijan Manat 0.94 1.25 Central Bank of Azerbaijan
 Belarus Belarusian ruble 0.0003 0.0003 National Bank of the Republic of Belarus
 Belgium Euro 1.33 National Bank of Belgium/ECB
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Konvertibilna marka 0.51 0.68 Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Bulgaria Lev 0.51 0.68 Bulgarian National Bank
 Croatia Kuna 0.14 0.18 Croatian National Bank
 Cyprus Euro 1.33 Central Bank of Cyprus/ECB
 Czech Republic Koruna 0.04 0.05 Czech National Bank
 Denmark Danish krone 0.1 0.2 Danmarks Nationalbank
 Estonia Euro 1.33 Bank of Estonia/ECB
 Finland Euro 1.33 Bank of Finland/ECB
 France Euro 1.33 Banque de France/ECB
 Georgia Lari 0.4 0.5 National Bank of Georgia
 Germany Euro 1.33 Deutsche Bundesbank/ECB
 Greece Euro 1.33 Bank of Greece/ECB
 Hungary Forint 0.004 0.005 Hungarian National Bank
 Iceland Króna 0.01 0.02 Central Bank of Iceland
 Ireland Euro 1.33 Central Bank of Ireland/ECB
 Italy Euro 1.33 Banca d'Italia/ECB
 Kazakhstan Tenge 0.002 0.002 National Bank of Kazakhstan
 Latvia Euro 1.33 National Bank of Latvia/ECB
 Liechtenstein Swiss franc 0.7 0.9 (none de jure)/Swiss National Bank de facto
 Lithuania Euro 1.33 Bank of Lithuania
 Luxembourg Euro 1.33 Central Bank of Luxembourg/ECB
 North Macedonia Denar 0.02 0.02 National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia
 Malta Euro 1.33 Central Bank of Malta/ECB
 Moldova Moldovan leu 0.06 0.08 National Bank of Moldova
 Monaco Euro 1.33 (none de jure)/ECB de facto
 Montenegro Euro 1.33 Central Bank of Montenegro de jure/ECB de facto
 Netherlands Euro 1.33 De Nederlandsche Bank/ECB
 Norway Norwegian krone 0.1 0.2 Norges Bank
 Poland Złoty 0.26 0.35 Narodowy Bank Polski
 Portugal Euro 1.33 Banco de Portugal/ECB
 Romania Romanian leu 0.29 0.35 National Bank of Romania
 Russia Russian ruble 0.014 0.016 Central Bank of the Russian Federation
 San Marino Euro 1.33 Central Bank of San Marino de jure/ECB de facto
 Serbia Dinar 0.01 0.02 National Bank of Serbia
 Slovakia Euro 1.33 National Bank of Slovakia/ECB
 Slovenia Euro 1.33 Bank of Slovenia/ECB
 Spain Euro 1.33 Bank of Spain/ECB
 Sweden Swedish krona 0.1 0.2 Sveriges Riksbank
  Switzerland Swiss franc 0.7 0.9 Swiss National Bank
 Turkey Lira 0.5 0.7 Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
 Ukraine Hryvnia 0.2 0.2 National Bank of Ukraine
 United Kingdom Pound sterling 1.37 1.55 Bank of England
  Vatican City Euro 1.33 (none de jure)/ ECB de facto

Table as of 21 November 2010.

Stock exchanges

As of May 1, 2010, five (5) European cities are ranking among the 10 largest financial centers in the world: London (1st), Paris (5th), Frankfurt (6th), Zurich (7th) and Geneva (8th).

There are many stock exchanges within Europe.

Economic sectors

Agriculture and fishing

Europe's agricultural sector is in general highly developed. The process of improving Central Europe's agriculture is ongoing and is helped by the accession of Central European states to the EU. The agricultural sector in Europe is helped by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which provides farmers with a minimal price for their products and subsidizes their exports, which increases competitiveness for their products. This policy is highly controversial as it hampers free trade worldwide (protectionism sparks protectionism from other countries and trade blocs: the concept of trade wars) and is violating the concept of fair trade.

This means because of the protectionist nature of the CAP, agricultural products from developing countries are rendered incompetitive in both Europe (an important export market for developing countries) and on their home markets (as European agricultural products are dumped on developing countries' markets with help from European agricultural subsidies). This controversy surrounds every system of agricultural subsidies (the United States' policy of subsidizing farmers is also controversial). The CAP is also controversial because 40% of the EU's budget is spent on it, and because of the overproduction caused by it.

The Common Fisheries Policy is surrounded by an extensive system of rules (mainly consisting of quotas) to protect the environment from overfishing. Despite these rules, the cod is becoming increasingly rare in the North Sea resulting in drastic shortages in countries such as Canada and the United Kingdom. Strict fishing rules are the main reason for Norway and Iceland to stay out of the European Union (and out of the Common Fisheries Policy). Price guarantees and subsidizations of fishermen are implemented in the same way as agricultural subsidies are. Bluefin tuna is also a problem. Global stocks of the species are overfished with extinction in the wild a possibility in the near future. This also has the negative effect of threatening their traditional, natural predators.


Europe has a thriving manufacturing sector, with a large part of the world's industrial production taking place in Europe. Most of the continent's industries are concentrated in the 'Blue Banana' (covering Southern England, the Benelux, western Germany, eastern France, Switzerland, and northern Italy). However, because of the higher wage level and hence production costs, Europe is suffering from deindustrialization and offshoring in the labour-intensive manufacturing sectors. This means that manufacturing has become less important and that jobs are moved to regions with cheaper labour costs (mainly China and Central and Eastern Europe).

Central Europe (Berlin, Saxony, the Czech Republic and Little Poland) was largely industrialised by 1850 [14] but Eastern Europe (European Russia) begun industrialisation between 1890–1900 and intensified it during the communist regime (as the USSR), but it suffered from contraction in the 1990s when the inefficient heavy-industry-based manufacturing sector was crippled after the collapse of communism and the introduction of the market economy.

In the 21st century the manufacturing sector in Central and Eastern Europe picked up because of the accession of ten formerly Communist European states to the EU and their resulting accession to the European Common Market. This caused firms within the European Union to move jobs from their manufacturing sector to Central European countries such as Poland (see above), which sparked both Central and Eastern European industrial growth and employment.

According to Fortune Global 500, 195 of the top 500 companies are headquartered in Europe.[15] The main products in European industry are automobiles, bicycles, rail, machinery, marine, aerospace equipment, food, chemical and pharmaceutical goods, software and electronics.

Investing and banking

Europe has a well-developed financial sector. Many European cities are financial centres with London being the largest.[16][17][18] The European financial sector is helped by the introduction of the euro as common currency. This has made it easier for European households and firms to invest in companies and deposit money on banks in other European countries. Exchange rate fluctuations are now non-existent in the Eurozone. The financial sector in Central and Eastern Europe is helped by economic growth in the region, European Regional Development Fund and the commitment of Central and Eastern European governments to achieve high standards.

European banks are amongst the largest and most profitable in the world (Barclays, BNP Paribas, Crédit Agricole, Société Générale, Royal Bank of Scotland, Deutsche Bank, UBS, HSBC, Grupo Santander, BBVA, HBOS, UniCredit).[19]


Transport in Europe provides for the movement needs of over 700 million people[20] and associated freight. The political geography of Europe divides the continent into over 50 sovereign states and territories. This fragmentation, along with increased movement of people since the industrial revolution, has led to a high level of cooperation between European countries in developing and maintaining transport networks. Supranational and intergovernmental organisations such as the European Union (EU), Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe have led to the development of international standards and agreements that allow people and freight to cross the borders of Europe, largely with unique levels of freedom and ease.

Rail transport

Rail networks in Western and Central Europe are often well maintained and well developed, whilst Eastern, Northern and Southern Europe often have less coverage and/or infrastructure problems. Electrified railway networks operate at a plethora of different voltages AC and DC varying from 750 to 25,000 volts, and signalling systems vary from country to country, hindering cross-border traffic. EU rail subsidies amounted to €73 billion in 2005.[22]

Air transport

Despite an extensive road and rail network, most long distance travel within Europe is by air. A large tourism industry also attracts many visitors to Europe, most of whom arrive into one of Europe's many large international airports. London is the second busiest airport in the world by number of international passengers, only trailing Dubai.[23] The advent of low cost carriers in recent years has led to a large increase in air travel within Europe. Air transportation is now often the cheapest way of travelling between cities. This increase in air travel has led to problems of airspace overcrowding and environmental concerns. The Single European Sky is one initiative aimed at solving these problems.[24]

Global trade relations

The bulk of the EU's external trade is done with China, Mercosur and the United States,[25] Japan, Russia and non-member European states.

EU members are represented by a single official at the WTO.

The EU is involved in a few minor trade disputes. It had a long running dispute with the USA of allegedly unfair subsidies the US government gives to several companies, such as Boeing. The EU has a long running ban prohibiting arms trade with the Chinese. The EU issued a brief accusing Microsoft of predatory and monopolistic practices.

See also




a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 14 later withdrew their recognition.


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  4. . Last accessed April 2019.
  5. "Global 500 2010: Countries – Australia". Fortune. Retrieved 8 July 2010. Number of companies data taken from the "Pick a country" box.
  6. Castells, Manuel (26 January 2010). End of Millennium. ISBN 9781444323443.
  7. Responses to poverty: lessons from Europe by Robert Walker, Roger Lawson, and Peter Townsend
  8. Nuriyev, Elkhan (2015). "Russia, the EU and the South Caucasus: Forging an Efficient Over-Arching Cooperative Regional Security Scheme". Connections. 14 (2): 51–64. doi:10.11610/Connections.14.2.04. ISSN 1812-1098. JSTOR 26326397.
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  12. GNI (nominal) per capita 2012, World Development Indicators database , World Bank, revised 12 Aug 2013, Atlas method
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  18. "The Bank of England's approach to the authorisation and supervision of international banks, insurers and central counterparties". Bank of England. Retrieved 2 March 2018. The UK’s financial sector also brings substantial benefits to EU households and firms, allowing them to access a broad range of services efficiently and reliably. UK-located banks underwrite around half of the debt and equity issued by EU companies. UK-located banks are counterparty to over half of the over-the-counter (OTC) interest rate derivatives traded by EU companies and banks. As many as 30 million EEA policyholders are insured through a UK-based insurer. Central counterparties (CCPs) located in the United Kingdom provide services to EU clients in a range of markets. UK-located asset managers account for 37% of all assets managed in Europe.
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