East European Plain
The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the North/Central European Plain, and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward. It includes the westernmost Volhynian-Podolian Upland, the Central Russian Upland, and on the eastern border, encompasses the Volga Upland. The plain includes also a series of major river basins such as the Dnepr Basin, the Oka-Don Lowland, and the Volga Basin. Along the southernmost point of the East European Plain are the Caucasus and Crimean mountain ranges. Together with the North European Plain (covering much of north-western France, Netherlands, Germany to north-eastern Poland), and covering the Baltics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Moldova, south-eastern Romania, and its most southern expansion - the Danubian Plain in Northern Bulgaria, (including Ludogorie and Southern Dobruja), it constitutes the majority of the Great European Plain (European Plain), the greatest mountain-free part of the European landscape.
The East European Plain covers all or most of the Baltic states, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, and the European portion of Russia. The plain spans approximately 4,000,000 km2 (2,000,000 sq mi) and averages about 170 m (560 ft) in elevation. The highest point of the plain, located in the Valdai Hills, is 346.9 metres (1,138.1 ft).
- West: Baltic Sea, Oder and Lusatian Neisse, Sudetenland, Carpathians (Outer Western Carpathians, Outer Eastern Carpathians, Southern Carpathians, Serbian Carpathians).
- South: Balkan Mountains, Black Sea, Crimean Mountains, Caucasus, The Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov, Ustyurt Plateau.
- East: Ural Mountains and Turan Depression.
- North: White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Scandinavian Mountains.
- Danubian Plain (Bulgaria) (southern portion of the Lower Danubian Plane)
- Kazakhstan (European part)
- Romania / Moldova
- Russia (European part)
Other major landforms
The following major landform features are within the East European Plain (listed generally from north to south).
- European Plain at the Encyclopædia Britannica "Extending from eastern Poland through the entire European Russia to the Ural Mountaina, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica.
- Vladimir Klimenko; Olga Solomina, Moscow (2009). "Introduction: Climate of the East European Plain". The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview. Springer. p. 71. ISBN 9048131677. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
From introductory Notes to article: V. Klimenko, Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Moscow, Russia; & O. Solomina, Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
- Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Earle, Janet L., eds. (1979). Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Basement Tectonics. Basement Tectonics Committee. p. 379.
- John F. Hoffecker (2002). Desolate Landscapes: Ice-Age Settlement in Eastern Europe. Rutgers University Press. pp. 15–21. ISBN 0813529921. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Marshall Cavendish (2010). World and Its Peoples. Volume 8 of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. p. 1014. ISBN 0761478965. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Bolesław Augustowski Wielkie regiony naturalne Europy w: Antoni Wrzosek (red.) Geografia Powszechna. Tom III. Europa (bez ZSRR), Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa 1965