East Asia

East Asia, alternately Northeast Asia, is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical[4] and ethno-cultural[5] terms. [6][7] North Asia borders East Asia's north, Southeast Asia the south, South Asia the southwest, and Central Asia the west. To the east is the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast is Micronesia (a Pacific Ocean island group, classified as part of Oceania).

East Asia

东亚/東亞 (in Chinese)
東アジア (in Japanese)
동아시아 (in Korean)
Дорнод Ази/ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (in Mongolian)
States[lower-alpha 1]
Major cities
  Total11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
  Rank2nd (World)
Time zone
Languages and language families
  GDP (Nominal)US$20.8 trillion
(2018 est.)[3]
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetĐông Á
Chữ Hán東亞
Korean name
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicЗүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Uyghur name
Uyghurشەرقىي ئاسىي
Russian name
RussianВосточная Азия
RomanizationVostochnaja Azija

States of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and the Chinese special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. [4][6][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] The East Asian states China, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan are all unrecognized by at least one other East Asian state. Hong Kong and Macau are officially highly autonomous but are under effective Chinese sovereignty.

East Asia has historically been the cradle of several ancient advanced civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism.[14][18][19] Major languages in East Asia include Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Major ethnic groups of East Asia include the Han (Chinese), Yamato Japanese, and Koreans. There are 17 officially-recognized indigenous (minority) ethnic groups in East Asia; 16 native to the island of Taiwan (collectively Taiwanese indigenous peoples) and one native to the major Japanese island of Hokkaido (the Ainu).

East Asians comprise around 1.7 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Tokyo, Seoul, Shanghai, Beijing, and Osaka. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed.

East Asia has some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau.[20]


China already possessed an advanced civilization nearly 1500+ years before its East Asian neighbors (c. 2000 BC) and through various Chinese dynasties has exerted cultural, economic, technological, political, and military influence across East Asia up to the present.[21][22][23][24][24][25] For many centuries, especially between the 7-14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.[26]

China became the first literate nation in East Asia and has also provided Japan, Vietnam, and Korea with many loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems (see Chinese characters).[27] From around 200 BC to 200 AD, the Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region.[28] And China has always been the most populous epicenter in East Asia as well.

China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.[29]

Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea.

Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry.

Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the temporary loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature.

As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established (Korea by 4th century AD and Japan by the 7th century AD), Korea, Japan, and Vietnam actively began to incorporate Chinese cultural and religious influences such as the Chinese language, Classical Chinese in administration, written Han characters, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism (introduced from India via China), Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies like legalism, music, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.[30] (See East Asian cultural sphere.)

The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[31][32][23][21]

The end of the 19th century to present

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry forced Japan to open up.[33][34] After the 1860s, Japan modernized rapidly with the Meiji Restoration, transforming itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.[35][13][34][35]

By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. Japan defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War, thereafter annexing Korea and Taiwan from China.[35]

In 1905 Japan also vanquished its imperial rival Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one and shocked the West.[36][33]

In prelude to WW2, Japan launched an invasion of mainland China in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It annexed Manchuria and absorbed more and more of the eastern coast, committing atrocities like Unit 731 and Nanjing Massacre along the way.

Japan's ultimate imperial dream was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, which would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia under its hegemonic control, establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.[37]

After nearly a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, the US nuked Japan twice, leading to Allied victory in WW2 and the defeat and occupation of Japan.

The US and the Soviet Union also took control of Japan's former colony, Korea and divided their own respective ideologies, resulting in the division of Korea.

During the Chinese Civil War, the Republic of China lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China and later fled to Taiwan.

In his 2009 book When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques says that Japan is currently a vassal state of the US, since Japan has no right to wage war and relies on the US military. He also refers to South Korea and Taiwan as vassals of the US.[38]

During the latter half of the twentieth century, Japan has experienced a post war economic miracle. South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan have emerged as Tiger economies. China opened up, entered the World Trade Organization, rose to the 2nd largest economy in the world (1st by PPP), and is starting to reclaim its historical status as a regional and world superpower.[8][39]

Although there were no wars in the region for decades, the stability of the region remains fragile because of North Korea's nuclear program.


China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam are commonly seen as the core encompassed by the East Asian cultural sphere (as opposed to neighboring nations also within East Asia).[5][40][41][42] Sometimes Mongolia is added to this core as well.[43][44][45][46][47]

CJKV share a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China.[48][49][49][50][51] Other usages cite geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China.[51][52][53][6][54][55] Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence, though some classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country.[6][56] Mongolia is geographically north of China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture currently have less of an impact in Mongolia's historically nomadic society (however Mongolia was controlled by China during the Han, Tang, and Qing dynasties). Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.[6][56]

Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia.[57] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal.[58] The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".[59]

The UNSD division of East Asia is "to obtain greater homogeneity in population, demographic circumstances and accuracy of demographic statistics",[62] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.[4][63]

Alternative definitions

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[68][69][70]


Customs territory GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017)[71]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2017)[71]
billions of USD (2017)[71]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2017)[71]
 China 12,014.610 8,643.107 23,159.107 16,660.269
 Hong Kong[72] 341.659 46,109.124 454.912 61,393.316
 Macau[73] 49.802 77,451.287 71.778 111,629.024
 Japan 4,872.135 38,439.517 5,428.813 42,831.523
 Mongolia 11.135 3,639.894 39.704 12,978.557
 North Korea N/A N/A N/A N/A
 South Korea 1,538.030 29,891.255 2,029.032 39,433.779
 Taiwan[lower-alpha 4] 579.302 24,576.665 1,185.480 50,293.541

Territorial and regional data


FlagCommon NameOfficial NameISO 3166 Country Codes[74]
ExonymEndonymExonymEndonymISO Short NameAlpha-2 CodeAlpha-3 CodeNumeric
China中国People's Republic of China中华人民共和国ChinaCNCHN156
Hong Kong香港Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區Hong KongHKHKG344
Macau澳門Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People's Republic of China
Japan日本State of Japan日本国JapanJPJPN392
MongoliaМонгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
MongoliaМонгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
North Korea조선Democratic People's Republic of Korea조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of)KPPRK408
South Korea한국Republic of Korea대한민국 (大韓民國)Korea (the Republic of)KRKOR410
Taiwan[75]臺灣 / 台灣Republic of China中華民國Taiwan (Province of China)[76]TWTWN158


State/Territory Area km2 Population[1][2]
Population density
per km2
HDI[77] Capital/Administrative Center
 China 9,640,011[lower-alpha 5] 1,427,647,786[lower-alpha 6] 138 0.752 Beijing
 Hong Kong 1,104 7,371,730 6,390 0.933 Hong Kong
 Macau 30 631,636 18,662 0.909 Macao
 Japan 377,930 127,202,192 337 0.909 Tokyo
 Mongolia 1,564,100 3,170,216 2 0.741 Ulaanbaatar
 North Korea 120,538 25,549,604 198 0.733 Pyongyang[78]
 South Korea 100,210 51,171,706 500 0.903 Seoul
 Taiwan 36,188 23,726,460 639 0.907 Taipei[79]

Ethnic groups

Ethnicity Native name Population Language(s) Writing system(s) Major states/territories* Physical appearance
Han/Chinese 漢族 or 汉族 1,260,000,000[80] Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc. Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters
Yamato/Japanese 大和民族 125,117,000[81] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana
Joseon/Korean 조선족 (朝鮮族)
한민족 (韓民族)
79,432,225 Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja)
Bai 白族 1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters, Latin script
Hui 回族 10,586,087 Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc. Simplified Han characters[lower-alpha 7]
Mongols 蒙古族/Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh 18,000,000 Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc. Simplified Han characters, Latin script
Uyghurs 维吾尔族/ئۇيغۇر 15,000,000+[82] Uighur Arabic alphabet, Cyrillic script [lower-alpha 8]
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ 10,422,873 Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc. Simplified Han characters, Mongol script
Hmong/Miao 苗族/Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb 9,426,007 Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters
Tibetans 藏族/བོད་པ་ 6,500,000 Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script
Yi 彝族/ꆈꌠ 8,714,393 Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters
Tujia 土家族 8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia Simplified Han characters
Kam 侗族/Gaeml 2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script
Tu 土族/Monguor 289,565 Tu, Northwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ 131,992 Daur, Northeastern Mandarin Mongol script, Simplified Han characters
Taiwanese Aborigines 阿美族/Pangcah, etc. 533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc. Latin script, Traditional Han characters
Ryukyuan 琉球民族(沖縄人) 1,900,000 Japanese
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana ()
Ainu アイヌ 200,000 Japanese
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana
  • Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.



The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[84] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.[85][24][86][87][88][89][90][91][51] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order.[92][93] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[32][93] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[89][87][93][85]


Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Ethnic groups States/territories
Chinese religion none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc. Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc. Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000[94][95] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods) ( )
Taoism 道教 Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism ~20,000,000[95] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia ( )
East Asian Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教 Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God ~300,000,000 Han, Korean, Yamato ( )
Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God ~10,000,000 Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols
Shamanism[lower-alpha 9] 萨满教 or Бөө мөргөл N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen
Shintoism 神道 Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheism N/A Yamato
Sindo/Muism 신도 or 무교 Sindo sects N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Korean
Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰 N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Ryukyuan ()


Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Lunar New Year 春節 or 春节 Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks Worship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Manchus etc. ( )
Korean New Year 설날 or Seollal Korean Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Ancestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb Sweeping N/A Tteokguk Korean
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan – 2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.
New Year 元旦 Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A ( )
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节 Upper Yuan Festival (上元节) Chinese Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb – 6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han ( ) *
Daeboreum 대보름 or 정월 대보름 Great Full Moon Korean Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb – 6 Mar Greeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom) Bonfires (daljip taeugi) Ogok-bap, namul, nuts Korean
Qingming Festival / Hanshi Festival 清明節 or 清明节 / 寒食節 or 寒食节 Tomb Sweeping Day / Cold Food Festival Solar 15th day since March equinox / Day 105 after Winter solstice 4–6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money(Only Qingming Festival) Cold Food Han, Korean, Mongols ( )
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 or 단오 Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal) Chinese / Korean Month 5 Day 5 Driving poisons & plague away. (China - Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / (Korea - Washing hair with iris water, ssireum) Worship various Gods Zongzi / Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs) Han, Korean, Yamato ( ) *
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 or 백중 Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer Han, Korean, Yamato ( ) *
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节 中秋祭 Chinese Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han ( ) *
Chuseok 추석 or 한가위 Hangawi Korean Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon view N/A Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup) Korean
Double Ninth Festival 重陽節 or 重阳节 Double Positive Festival Chinese Month 9 Day 09 Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus. Worship various Gods Han, Korean, Yamato ( ) *
Lower Yuan Festival 下元節 or 下元节 N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer Ciba Han ( )
Dongzhi Festival 冬至 or 동지 N/A Gregorian Between Dec 21 and Dec 23 Between Dec 21 and Dec 23 Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spirits N/A Tangyuan, Patjuk Han, Korean ( )
Small New Year 小年 Jizao (祭灶) Chinese Month 12 Day 23 Cleaning Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols ( )
International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A ( )
International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of women N/A N/A N/A All

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.


East Asian Youth Games

Formerly the East Asian Games, it is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

It is one of five Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the Central Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), the South Asian Games and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements

Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins Signing date Starting time Current status
China–South Korea FTA Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012 Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj - Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A N/A N/A Officially proposed
China-HK CEPA Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003 - Enforced
China-Macau CEPA Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah - Oct 18, 2003 - Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015 N/A N/A Negotiating
ECFA Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010 Aug 17, 2010 Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA) Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011 Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA) Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011 N/A N/A Suspended

Military alliances

Name Abbr. Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO ( )
General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty - ( )
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan - ( )
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea - ( )
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980) TRA (SAMDT) ( )
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO) - ( ) [96]

Cities and towns

See also


  1. A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. The population on the Taiwan Island and the Penghu Islands is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but the political status is dispute.
  2. The area figure is based on the combined areas of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan as listed at List of countries and dependencies by area.
  3. The population figure is the combined populations of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan as listed at the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[1][2].
  4. listed as "Taiwan Province of China" by the IMF
  5. Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
  6. A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan Province of China."
  7. The Hui people also use the Arabic alphabet in the religious field.
  8. The Khotons also in .
  9. almost Manchu, Mongolian


  1. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  2. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  3. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
  4. "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.
  5. Columbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere" Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
  6. Prescott, Anne (2015). East Asia in the World: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 978-0765643223.
  7. Miller, David Y. (2007). Modern East Asia: An Introductory History. Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiv. ISBN 978-0765618221.
  8. Kort, Michael (2005). The Handbook Of East Asia. Lerner Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0761326724.
  9. "Country Profiles: East Asia". Children and Armed Conflict Unit at the University of Essex.
  10. "East Asia". Springer Netherlands. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. "East Asia". Dictionary.com.
  12. Seybolt, Peter J. "China, Korea and Japan: Forgiveness and Mourning". Center for Asian Studies. Center for Asian Studies.
  13. Asian History Module Learning. Rex Bookstore Inc. 2002. p. 186. ISBN 978-9712331244.
  14. Salkind, Neil J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Sage Publications. p. 56. ISBN 978-1412916882.
  15. Holcombe, Charles (2010). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0521731645.
  16. Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (2012). Towards a Sustainable Asia: The Cultural Perspectives. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-3642166686.
  17. Minahan, James B. (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. xx–xxvi. ISBN 978-1610690171.
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Further reading

  • Church, Peter. A short history of South-East Asia (John Wiley & Sons, 2017).
  • Clyde, Paul H., and Burton F. Beers. The Far East: A History of Western Impacts and Eastern Responses, 1830-1975 (1975) online 3rd edition 1958
  • Crofts, Alfred, and Percy Buchanan. A history of the Far East (1958).
  • Dennett, Tyler. Americans in Eastern Asia (1922) online free
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, and Anne Walthall. East Asia: A cultural, social, and political history (Cengage Learning, 2013).
  • Flynn, Matthew J. China Contested: Western Powers in East Asia (2006), for secondary schools
  • Green, Michael J. By more than providence: grand strategy and American power in the Asia Pacific since 1783 (2017) a major scholarly survey excerpt
  • Hall, D.G.E. History of South East Asia (Macmillan International Higher Education, 1981).
  • Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia (2d ed. Cambridge UP, 2017). excerpt
  • Jensen, Richard, Jon Davidann, and Yoneyuki Sugita, eds. Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century (Praeger, 2003), 304 pp online review
  • Keay, John. Empire's End: A History of the Far East from High Colonialism to Hong Kong (1997).
  • Mackerras, Colin. Eastern Asia: an introductory history (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992).
  • Macnair, Harley F. & Donald Lach. Modern Far Eastern International Relations. (2nd ed 1955) 1950 edition online free, 780pp; focus on 1900-1950.
  • Murphey, Rhoads. East Asia: A New History (1996)
  • Miller, David Y. Modern East Asia: An Introductory History (Routledge, 2007)
  • Paine, S. C. M. The Wars for Asia, 1911-1949 (2014) excerpt
  • Ricklefs, Merle C. A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present (Macmillan, 1981).
  • Steiger, G. Nye. A history of the Far East (1936).
  • Vinacke, Harold M. A History of the Far East in Modem Times (1950).
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