Earl of Shrewsbury
Earl of Shrewsbury (//) is a hereditary title of nobility created twice in the Peerage of England. The second earldom dates to 1442. The holder of the Earldom of Shrewsbury also holds the title of Earl of Waterford (1446) in the Peerage of Ireland and Earl Talbot (1784) in the Peerage of Great Britain. Shrewsbury and Waterford are the oldest earldoms in their peerages held by someone with no higher title (the oldest earldoms in each peerage being held by the Duke of Norfolk and Duke of Leinster respectively), and as such the Earl of Shrewsbury is sometimes described as the premier earl of England and Ireland.
|Earldom of Shrewsbury|
Earldom of Waterford,
Earldom of Talbot
|Monarch||William I (first creation) |
Henry VI (second creation)
|Peerage||Peerage of England|
|Motto||Prest d'Accomplir ("Ready to accomplish")|
First creation, 1074
The first creation occurred in 1074 for Roger de Montgomerie, one of William the Conqueror's principal counselors. He was one of the Marcher Lords, with the Earl of Hereford and the Earl of Chester, a bulwark against the Welsh; he was granted great powers, and his territory, which extended from Shropshire (of which Shrewsbury is the county town) into Mid-Wales (the county of Montgomeryshire being named after him), was outside the ordinary administration; he was also granted lands across England.
These earls were sometimes styled Earl of Shropshire (Conte(s/m) Salop).
Second creation, 1442
The title was created for a second time in 1442 when John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, an English general in the Hundred Years' War, was made Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England. He was also made hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland and, in 1446, Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland (thus, the two titles have always descended together). John Talbot, the first Earl, was succeeded by his son John, the second Earl, who had already succeeded as seventh Baron Furnivall on his mother's death in 1433. Lord Shrewsbury served as both Lord Chancellor of Ireland and Lord High Treasurer of England. He was killed at the Battle of Northampton in 1460 during the Wars of the Roses.
His grandson, the fourth Earl, was Lord Steward of the Household between 1509 and 1538. His son, the fifth Earl, was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1533, five years before he succeeded his father. On his death the titles passed to his son, the sixth Earl. Lord Shrewsbury was entrusted with the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots, and also served as Earl Marshal from 1572 to 1590. He married as his second wife the famous Bess of Hardwick.
Shrewsbury was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Gertrude Manners, the seventh Earl. He represented Derbyshire in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire. He had no sons and on his death in 1616 the baronies of Talbot, Strange of Blackmere and Furnivall fell into abeyance between his three daughters. He was succeeded in the earldoms by his younger brother, the eighth Earl. He was Member of Parliament for Northumberland. He did not have a male heir either and was succeeded by his distant relative, the ninth Earl. He was the great-great-grandson of Sir Gilbert Talbot (died 1518), third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury. The family bought Barlow Woodseats Hall in 1593 as part of the estate.
He was succeeded by his nephew, George, the tenth Earl and Lord of Grafton. He was the son of John Talbot of Grafton. On his death the titles passed to his son, the eleventh Earl. He was killed in a duel with George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. His son, the twelfth Earl, was a prominent statesman. He was one of the Immortal Seven who in 1688 invited William of Orange to invade England and depose his father-in-law James II and later served under William and Mary as Secretary of State for the Southern Department and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. In 1694 he was created Marquess of Alton and Duke of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England. The Duke was childless and on his death in 1718 the marquessate and dukedom became extinct.
He was succeeded in his other titles by his first cousin, the thirteenth Earl. He was the son of the Hon. Gilbert Talbot, second son of the tenth Earl. Lord Shrewsbury was in the Holy Orders of the Church of Rome. On his death the titles passed to his nephew George, the fourteenth Earl (who was the son of the Hon. George Talbot). He was childless and was succeeded by his nephew Charles, the fifteenth Earl (who was the son of Charles Talbot). He began in 1812 the creation of the extensive gardens at Alveton Lodge, Staffordshire (later renamed Alton Towers) which estate had been in the family since the 15th century. When he died the titles were inherited by his nephew John, the sixteenth Earl who was the son of the Hon. John Joseph Talbot. When in 1831 the principal home of the family at Heythrop, Oxfordshire was destroyed by fire he moved the family seat to Alton Towers. The sixteenth Earl was also a noted patron of A W N Pugin. He was succeeded by Bertram, his second cousin once removed, the seventeenth Earl who was the great-grandson of the Hon. George Talbot, younger son of the aforementioned Gilbert Talbot (died 1711), second son of the tenth Earl.
Bertram died unmarried at an early age in 1856. By his will he left his estates to Lord Edmund Howard (by Royal Licence from 1876-1922: Talbot), son of the Duke of Norfolk, a will contested by three distant relatives and after a long and expensive legal case the House of Lords ruled in 1860 in favour of Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 3rd Earl Talbot, who thus became the eighteenth Earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford. He was a descendant of the aforementioned the Hon. Sir Gilbert Talbot (died 1518), third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury (see the Earl Talbot for earlier history of this branch). He also held the titles of Baron Talbot, of Hensol in the County of Glamorgan, and Viscount of Ingestre, of Ingestre Hall in the County of Stafford. Lord Shrewsbury was an admiral in the Royal Navy and also served in the second Conservative administration of the Earl of Derby as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms (chief whip in the House of Lords) from 1858 to 1859.
His eldest son, the nineteenth Earl, also served as Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms, an office he held from 1874 to 1877 under Benjamin Disraeli. He was succeeded by his son, the twentieth Earl. He caused a scandal in Victorian England by eloping with a married woman, Ellen Miller-Mundy. They were later married. On his death the titles passed to his grandson, the twenty-first Earl. He was the son of Charles John Alton Chetwynd-Talbot, Viscount Ingestre. As of 2017 the peerages are held by the twenty-first Earl's eldest son, the twenty-second Earl, who succeeded in 1980. He is one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, and sits on the Conservative benches. He is also hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland and as the holder of this office is allowed to bear a white staff at the Coronation of the British Monarch.
Lord Shrewsbury is the senior earl on the Roll in the Peerage of England (the more senior earldom of Arundel being held by the Duke of Norfolk). The earldom of Waterford is sometimes called the "Premier Earldom of Ireland on the Roll", as the oldest Irish earldom, that of Kildare, has been a subsidiary title of the Duke of Leinster for centuries and the Earl held the oldest Irish earldom held by anyone ranked as an Earl. If the Viscount Mountgarret proves his presumed claim to the 1328 earldom of Ormonde, the Earls of Shrewsbury would lose this distinction, but they derive higher precedence from their English earldom in any event. Despite holding three differently named earldoms Lord Shrewsbury is always styled simply "The Earl of Shrewsbury".
The seat of the Earls of Shrewsbury was once Alton Towers until it was sold in 1924 by the infant 21st Earl's Trustees. The family seat is still in Staffordshire, near Ashbourne and Uttoxeter.
The family crypt is the Shrewsbury Chapel in Sheffield Cathedral. In 2013, it was discovered that the majority of the Shrewsbury coffins had gone missing from the burial chamber. The current Earl has been appointed High Steward of Sheffield Cathedral. The other family crypt – that of the Chetwynd-Talbot Earls of Shrewsbury – is at the Church of St Mary The Virgin, Ingestre, Stafford.
Three other members of the Talbot family may also be mentioned. The Hon. John Talbot, son of the first Earl of Shrewsbury by his second wife Margaret Beauchamp, was created Viscount Lisle in 1451. Admiral the Hon. Walter Carpenter (who assumed the surname of Carpenter in lieu of his patronymic Chetwynd-Talbot), second son of the eighteenth Earl, was a naval commander and Member of Parliament. Major-General the Hon. Sir Reginald Talbot, third son of the eighteenth Earl, was a soldier, politician and colonial governor.
Earls of Shrewsbury, First Creation (1074)
Earls of Shrewsbury, Second Creation (1442)
- John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of Waterford, 7th Baron Talbot, 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere (1387–1453)
- John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl of Waterford, 8th Baron Talbot, 11th Baron Strange of Blackmere, 7th Baron Furnivall (1413–1460)
- John Talbot, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl of Waterford, 9th Baron Talbot, 12th Baron Strange of Blackmere, 8th Baron Furnivall (1448–1473)
- George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, 4th Earl of Waterford, 10th Baron Talbot, 13th Baron Strange of Blackmere, 9th Baron Furnivall (1468–1538)
- Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury, 5th Earl of Waterford, 11th Baron Talbot, 14th Baron Strange of Blackmere, 10th Baron Furnivall (1500–1560)
- George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, 6th Earl of Waterford, 12th Baron Talbot, 15th Baron Strange of Blackmere, 11th Baron Furnivall (1528–1590)
- Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, 7th Earl of Waterford, 13th Baron Talbot, 16th Baron Strange of Blackmere, 12th Baron Furnivall (1552–1616)
- Edward Talbot, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury, 8th Earl of Waterford (1561–1617)
- George Talbot, 9th Earl of Shrewsbury, 9th Earl of Waterford (1567–1630)
- John Talbot, 10th Earl of Shrewsbury, 10th Earl of Waterford (1601–1654)
- Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury, 11th Earl of Waterford (1623–1667)
- Charles Talbot, 12th Earl of Shrewsbury, 12th Earl of Waterford (1660–1718) (created Duke of Shrewsbury in 1694)
Dukes of Shrewsbury (1694)
Earls of Shrewsbury, Second Creation (1442; Reverted)
- Gilbert Talbot, 13th Earl of Shrewsbury, 13th Earl of Waterford (1673–1743)
- George Talbot, 14th Earl of Shrewsbury, 14th Earl of Waterford (1719–1787)
- Charles Talbot, 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, 15th Earl of Waterford (1753–1827)
- John Talbot, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury, 16th Earl of Waterford (1791–1852)
- Bertram Arthur Talbot, 17th Earl of Shrewsbury, 17th Earl of Waterford (1832–1856)
- Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 18th Earl of Shrewsbury, 18th Earl of Waterford, 3rd Earl Talbot (1803–1868)
- Charles John Chetwynd-Talbot, 19th Earl of Shrewsbury, 19th Earl of Waterford, 4th Earl Talbot (1830–1877)
- Charles Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury, 20th Earl of Waterford, 5th Earl Talbot (1860–1921)
- Charles John Alton Chetwynd-Talbot, Viscount of Ingestre (1882–1915)
- John George Charles Henry Alton Alexander Chetwynd-Talbot, 21st Earl of Shrewsbury, 21st Earl of Waterford, 6th Earl Talbot (1914–1980)
- Charles Henry John Benedict Crofton Chetwynd Chetwynd-Talbot, 22nd Earl of Shrewsbury, 22nd Earl of Waterford, 7th Earl Talbot (born 1952)
The heir apparent is the present holder's son James Richard Charles John Chetwynd-Talbot, Viscount of Ingestre (born 1978).
The heir apparent's heir apparent is his son George Henry Charles John Alton Chetwynd-Talbot (born 2013).
Properties owned by the Earls of Shrewsbury (second creation)
- Alveston Hall hunting lodge (see Alton Towers below).
- Alton Castle, owned by the Earls since the 15th-century; rebuilt in the Gothic-revival style by the 16th Earl; sold to the Sisters of Mercy in 1919.
- Alton Towers, built on the site of Alveston Hall in 1811–14 as the family seat; sold in 1924.
- Barlow Woodseats Hall, bought in 1593; sold in the mid-1600s.
- Grafton Manor, seat of John Talbot of Grafton's son George before inheriting the title; sold in 1934.
- Heythrop Park, developed as the family seat in 1700–1705; burnt down in 1831 and sold in 1870.
- Ingestre Hall, inherited by marriage to the Chetwynd family in 1748; sold to Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council.
- Shrewsbury Place or Shrewsbury House, Isleworth bought by kinsman Sir John Talbot, 1678, passed to the Protestant Duke of Shrewsbury (died 1718), and to the Roman Catholic George Talbot (died 1733), often known in his lifetime as Earl of Shrewsbury. His widow continued to live at Isleworth until her death in 1752, and it was as her chaplain that the first recorded priest ministered in Isleworth. The house was a catholic boys school by 1770 and demolished by 1810.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Earls of Shrewsbury.|
- That is, not //. --Debrett's Correct Form, 2002 edition
- "Earl". Debrett's.
- "Duke - Debrett's". Debrett's. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
- Fielder, Nancy (13 June 2013). "15 bodies missing in Sheffield crypt mystery". The Sheffield Star. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.1015, E. of Shrewsbury & Waterford
- http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/TALBOT.htm#Gilbert TALBOT (1° B. Talbot)
- Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th.ed. vol. 11, p.691, Heraldry
- Alton Towers Heritage: The 16th Earl and Castle Hill
- 'Heston and Isleworth: Roman catholicism', in A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 3, ed. Susan Reynolds (London, 1962), pp. 129-131. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/middx/vol3/pp129-131 [accessed 15 October 2017].
- Secondary sources
- Mosley, Charles (1999). Peerage and Baronetage. 2 vols (106th ed.).
- Mosley, Charles (2003). Peerage and Baronetage. 2 vols (107th ed.).
- Cokayne, George E.; Vicary Gibbs, Peter; Doubleday, Harry; de Walden, Lord Howard (1958). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Great Britain and Ireland, extant, abeyant, dormant and extinct. XIV vols.