Earl of Arran
Earl of Arran is a title in both the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland. The two titles refer to different places: the Isle of Arran in Scotland, and the Aran Islands in Ireland. The Scottish earldom is a subsidiary title of the Duke of Hamilton, whereas the Irish earldom is a separate title held by the Gore family.
Feudal Earldom of Arran
The feudal Earldom of Arran supposedly had its caput at Lochranza Castle. The arms of the feudal Earl of Arran are: Argent, a lymphad with the sails furled proper flagged gules. These are quartered today with the arms of Hamilton (Gules, three cinquefoils ermine) by the Duke of Hamilton. In a similar fashion the arms of the feudal Earldom of Orkney are quartered by the present Earl of Caithness, the arms of the feudal Barony (or Earldom) of Lorne are now quartered by the Duke of Argyll, and the arms of the feudal Lord of the Isles are quartered with Clan Stewart by the Duke of Rothesay, all in the form of Lymphads.
In 1997 Willi Ernst Sturzenegger, a Swiss millionaire and owner of the ruined Lochranza Castle, petitioned the Lord Lyon King of Arms to be recognised officially "in the name, style and dignity of Willi Ernst Sturzenegger of Arran, Earl of Arran in the territorial baronage of Scotland", and for a Grant of Arms with additaments appropriate to him as "Earl of Arran in the territorial baronage of Scotland", on the basis that he had been "infeft" (i.e. enfeoffed) in 1995 in "ALL and WHOLE the Lands and Earldom of Arran in the County of Bute including inter alia the Castle of Lochranza the caput thereof …". In 2006 he further petitioned the Lord Lyon King of Arms for official recognition "in the name, style and dignity of Willi Ernst Sturzenegger of Arran, Feudal Earl of Arran" with appropriate heraldic additaments. This was denied by the Lord Lyon in his 2009 ruling.
The title was first created in the Peerage of Scotland in 1467 for Thomas Boyd, who was later attainted for treason. The next creation was in 1503 for James Hamilton, 2nd Lord Hamilton. His grandson was declared insane in 1562 and the title passed to the king's favourite Captain James Stewart in 1581. In 1609, the second Marquess of Hamilton inherited the earldom. In 1643, the third Marquess was made Duke of Hamilton and received a second grant of the earldom of Arran. At the death of the second Duke, the 1503 earldom became dormant (i.e., it was unclaimed), while the 1643 earldom descended along with the dukedom, with which it is still united. For more information on these creations, see the Duke of Hamilton.
Earls of Arran, first creation (1467)
- Thomas Boyd, 1st Earl of Arran (died c. 1472) (forfeit 1469)
Earls of Arran, second and third creations (1503, 1643)
- see Duke of Hamilton
The first Irish creation came in 1662 when Lord Richard Butler, younger son of The 1st Duke of Ormond, was created Baron Butler of Cloughgrenan, Viscount Tullough and Earl of Arran. However, the titles became extinct on his death in 1686 as he left no heirs. The next creation came in 1693 for his nephew Charles Butler (who was also created Baron Butler of Cloughgrenan and Viscount Tullough). These titles became extinct on his death in 1758.
The final creation in the Peerage of Ireland came in 1762, when Sir Arthur Gore, 3rd Baronet, was created Earl of Arran, of the Aran Islands in the County of Galway. He had previously represented Donegal Borough in the Irish House of Commons and had already been created Viscount Sudley, of Castle Gore in the County of Mayo, in 1758, and Baron Saunders, of Deeps in the County of Wexford, in 1758, in the Peerage of Ireland. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He sat as a member of the Irish Parliament for Donegal Borough and was one of the original sixteen Knights of the Order of St Patrick. Lord Arran had sixteen children, and one of his daughters was Cecilia Underwood, Duchess of Inverness.
He was succeeded by his eldest son, the third Earl. He represented Baltimore and County Donegal in the British House of Commons. He was childless and was succeeded by his nephew, the fourth Earl. He was the son of Colonel the Hon. William John Gore. Lord Arran was a diplomat. His son, the fifth Earl, was also in the Diplomatic Service. In 1884 he was created Baron Sudley, of Castle Gore in the County of Mayo, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. This peerage gave the earls an automatic seat in the House of Lords.
His son, the sixth Earl, was a soldier and also served as Lord Lieutenant of County Donegal. At his death in December 1958, he was succeeded by his elder son, the seventh earl, who died only nine days after his father and was succeeded by his younger brother, the eighth earl. In 1967, the eighth earl was a sponsor of the private bill which decriminalised homosexuality in Britain. As of 2016 the titles are held by his son, the ninth Earl, who succeeded his father in 1983. Lord Arran is a Conservative politician and one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999. He is also in remainder to the Gore Baronetcy of Magherabegg (see below).
The Baronetcy, of Newtown in the County of Mayo, was created in the Baronetage of Ireland in 1662 for Major Arthur Gore, who represented County Mayo in the Irish House of Commons. He was the second son of Sir Paul Gore, 1st Baronet, of Magherabegg. He was succeeded by his grandson, the second Baron. He sat as Member of the Irish Parliament for Donegal Borough and County Mayo. On his death the title passed to his son, the aforementioned third Baronet, who was later elevated to the peerage.
Several other members of the Gore family have also gained distinction. An elder son of the Hon. Charles Alexander Gore (1811-1897), the youngest brother of the fourth earl, Spencer William Gore (1850-1906) was a noted cricketer and tennis player who won the first Wimbledon tournament in 1877. His younger brother was the distinguished Anglican theologian the Rt. Rev. Charles Gore (1853-1932), Bishop of Oxford. Spencer William was also a founding partner of the surveying firm Smiths Gore. His younger son, the noted Post-Impressionist artist Spencer Frederick Gore (1878-1914), was the first president of the Camden Town Group and the father of painter Frederick Gore.
John Gore, 1st Baron Annaly, and Henry Gore, 1st Baron Annaly, were the sons of George Gore, second son of Sir Arthur Gore, 1st Baronet. The latter's third son William Gore was the ancestor of the Barons Harlech (the present holder of this title is also in remainder to the baronetcy of Newtown). Sir John Gore, brother of Sir Paul Gore, 1st Baronet, of Magherabegg, was Lord Mayor of London in 1624 and is the ancestor of the branch of the family which later inherited through marriage the earldom of Temple of Stowe. Also, Sir Booth Gore, 1st Baronet, of Artarman, was a descendant of Sir Francis Gore, fourth son of Sir Paul Gore, 1st Baronet, of Magherabegg.
Earls of Arran, first creation (1662)
- Richard Butler, 1st Earl of Arran (1639–1686)
Earls of Arran, second creation (1693)
- Charles Butler, 1st Earl of Arran (1671–1758)
Gore Baronets, of Newtown (1662)
Earls of Arran, third creation (1762)
- Arthur Gore, 1st Earl of Arran (1703–1773)
- Arthur Saunders Gore, 2nd Earl of Arran (1734–1809)
- Arthur Saunders Gore, 3rd Earl of Arran (1761–1837)
- Philip Yorke Gore, 4th Earl of Arran (1801–1884)
- Arthur Saunders Gore, 5th Earl of Arran (1839–1901)
- Arthur Jocelyn Charles Gore, 6th Earl of Arran (1868–1958)
- Arthur Paul John James Charles Gore, 7th Earl of Arran (1903–1958)
- Arthur Strange Kattendyke David Archibald Gore, 8th Earl of Arran (1910–1983)
- Arthur Desmond Colquhoun Gore, 9th Earl of Arran (born 1938)
The heir presumptive is the present holder's third cousin once removed William Henry Gore (born 1950). The heir presumptive's heir apparent is his only son Charles David Gore (born 1985). However, they are not in remainder to the barony of Sudley.
- These are quartered today with the arms of Hamilton by the Duke of Hamilton (Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.528)
- See 2009 written report of Lord Lyon King of Arms
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.528
- See 2009 written report of Lord Lyon King of Arms
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.528
- "Spencer William Gore - ThePeerage". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990,
- Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages