Duke of Silesia

The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four or five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, who was to be High Duke of all Poland. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies.

At the beginning of the 14th century, fourteen independent Duchies existed in Silesia: Brzeg, Wrocław, Świdnica, Jawor, Ziębice, Głogów, Ścinawa, Żagan and Oleśnica in Lower Silesia; Koźle, Cieszyn, Bytom, Niemodlin, Opole, Strzelce, Racibórz and Opava in Upper Silesia and the eclessiatical duchy of Nysa. Between 1327 and 1329 most dukes accepted the overlordship of Bohemian king John of Bohemia, who acquired the right of succession for all of these duchies. In the coming centuries all branches of the Silesian Piasts died out, and with the death of George William, Duke of Liegnitz the dynasty ceased to exist.

Duchy of Silesia

The Duchy of Silesia, one of the hereditary provinces of Poland, Silesia, was granted to Bolesław III's eldest son, Władysław II the Exile, and was subsequently divided among his sons Bolesław I the Tall (Wrocław/Lower Silesia), Mieszko I Tanglefoot (Racibórz/Upper Silesia) and Konrad Spindleshanks (Głogów). After Konrad's death Głogów was again united with the Duchy of Wrocław/Lower Silesia.

Dukes of Silesia

Piast Dynasty

RulerBornReignDeathRuling PartNotes
Władysław the Exile11051138–114630 May 1159Silesiaalso monarch of Poland
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław the Curly11251146–11635 January 1173Silesiabrother of Wladyslaw II
also Duke of Masovia and monarch of Poland

Partitions of Silesia

In 1173 Bolesław returned and he agreed to let Mieszko and Bolesław rule in their own Duchies, separated from the Duchy of Silesia. This led to the creation of the Duchy of Racibórz for Mieszko I and the Duchy of Opole for Jarosław, beginning the fragmentation of the Duchy of Silesia. The territories controlled by Mieszko I and Jarosław roughly corresponded to what is known as Upper Silesia, while the territories remaining with Bolesław I roughly corresponded to Lower Silesia.

Lower Silesia

Duchy of Lower Silesia was a direct continuation of the Duchy of Silesia, but without the territories roughly corresponding to Upper Silesia; hence it was composed of the territories roughly corresponding to Lower Silesia. Some sources refer to it as the Duchy of Silesia; some as Duchy of Lower Silesia; others yet as the Duchy of Wrocław (Breslau). Wrocław was the capital of the Duchy of Silesia, yet this early (1172–1248) Duchy of Silesia should not be confused with the smaller Duchy of Wrocław that was created with further fragmentation in 1248. The Duchy went through various border changes in the coming years, sometimes losing and sometimes gaining territory. In 1248 Lower Silesia was divided when Bolesław II had to cede the Duchy of Wrocław to his younger brother Henry III.

Upper Silesia

Upper Silesia was divided into the Duchies of Cieszyn, and Opole-Racibórz. In 1340 the Duchy of Racibórz was united with Opava, a Bohemian fief.

Partition table

       Below follows a simplified table of Silesia's partitions:

Duchy of Silesia
(1138-1163)
Lower Silesia
(1163-1241)
Opole-Racibórz
(1st creation)
(1163-1282)
             
Wrocław
(1241-1335)
      
Żagań
(1st creation)
(1274-1304)
Głogów
(1st creation)
(1274-1331)
Świdnica-Jawor
(divided into Świdnica and Jawor 1312-1346)
(1274-1392)
      
Legnica
(1st creation)
(1241-1413)
       Cieszyn
(1281-1653)
Opole
(1282-1521)
Bytom
(1282-1357)
Racibórz
(1282-1336)
      
Żagań
(2nd creation)
(1309-1318)
      
       Oleśnica
(1312-1492)
       Ziębice
(1312-1442)
       Oświęcim
(1315-1457)
      
             
Żagań
(3rd creation)
(1321-1504)
Annexed by Bohemia
Annexed by Bohemia
Annexed by Bohemia
(recovered in 1521)
Part of Jawor
(1337-1346)
       Brzeg
(1st creation)
(1342-1392)
(divided (1358–68) in two halves, one of them was part of Świdnica-Jawor)
Annexed by Bohemia
(Żagań recovered Half 1 1349; Świdnica-Jawor Half 2 1360)
       Lubin
(1st creation)
(1348-1446)
             
       Shared rule by Oleśnica and Cieszyn
(1357-1459)

Part of Oleśnica
(1459-1498)

(recovered for Opole 1498)
       Part of reunified Świdnica-Jawor
(1360-1368)
       Annexed by Bohemia
(Half 2 recovered 1384)
       Głogów
(Half 1, 2nd creation)
(1378-1403)
Part of Cieszyn
(1384-1404)
Annexed by Bohemia       
       Oława
(1st creation)
(1400-1431)
Brzeg
(2nd creation)
(1400-1443)
      
Głogów
(Half 2, 2nd creation)
(1404-1406)
Part of Cieszyn
(1406-1442)
       Głogów
(Half 1, 3rd creation)
(1412-1480)
Part of Brzeg
(1413-1443)
      
       Oława
(2nd creation)
(1441-1454)
Głogów
(Half 2, 3rd creation)
(1442-1460)
Annexed by Bohemia
Legnica
(2nd creation)
(1443-1449)
Part of Lubin
(1443-1450)
       Zator
(1445-1513)
Part of Głogów
(Half 1)

(1446-1482)
Annexed by Bohemia
      
Annexed by Bohemia Legnica
(3rd creation)
(1454-1596)
Part of Legnica
(1454-1482)
(reunited with Legnica 1482)
      
Part of Cieszyn
(1460-1477)
Głogów
(Half 2, 4th creation)
(1477-1480)
Głogów
(reunited)
(1480-1488)'
             
Annexed by Poland        Brzeg
(3rd creation)
(1488-1503)
Annexed by Bohemia
      
      
Annexed by Saxony
       Brzeg
(4th creation)
(1505-1521)
Annexed by Poland
Lubin
(2nd creation)
(1521-1550)
Part of Legnica
(1521-1547)
Opole-Racibórz
(2nd creation)
(1521-1532)
Annexed by Brandenburg-Ansbach
Brzeg
(5th creation)
(1547-1664)
      
       Oława
(3rd creation)
(1586-1595)
      
      
       Oława
(4th creation)
(1602-1605)
      
Legnica
(4th creation)
(1612-1672)
      
Annexed by the Holy Roman Empire
      
Annexed by the Holy Roman Empire Oława
(5th creation)
(1672-1680)
Annexed by the Holy Roman Empire

Dukes of Lower and Upper Silesia

A quick reminder avoiding confusion:

Lower SilesiaUpper Silesia
Duchy of Wrocław
Duchy of Legnica
Duchy of Głogów
Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor
Duchy of Wrocław
Duchy of Oleśnica
Duchy of Opole-Racibórz (divided after 1282)
Duchy of Cieszyn
Duchy of Bytom

Duchy of Oświęcim
Duchy of Zator

Piast Dynasty

(Note: Here the numbering of the dukes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Silesia, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers, who here are numbered in one single counting, according to the year of succession.)

RulerBornReignDeathRuling partConsortNotes
Boleslaus I the Tall11271163–12018 December 1201Lower SilesiaZvenislava of Kiev
1142
two children

Christina
1157
seven children
Mieszko I Tanglefoot11301163-12116 May 1211Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)Ludmila
between 1170 and 1178
five children
First Duke of Opole-Raciborz, emerged from Silesia with the Duchy of Lower Silesia.
Henry I the Bearded11651201–123819 March 1238Lower SilesiaHedwig of Andechs
1188
seven children
also monarch of Poland.
Casimir I1179/801211-123013 May 1230Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)Viola
between 1212 and 1220
four children
Henry I, Duke of Lower Silesia (regent)11651230–123819 March 1238Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)Hedwig of Andechs
1188
seven children
also monarch of Poland and duke of Lower Silesia.
Henry II, Duke of Lower Silesia (regent)11961238–12399 April 1241Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)Anna of Bohemia
1216
ten children
also monarch of Poland and duke of Lower Silesia.
Mieszko II the Fat12201239-124622 October 1246Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)Judith of Masovia
c.1239-1240
no children
Henry II the Pious11961238–12419 April 1241Lower SilesiaAnna of Bohemia
1216
ten children
also monarch of Poland.
Henry III the White1227 or 12301241–12663 December 1266WrocławJudith of Masovia
2 June 1252
two children

Helena of Saxony
before 1266
no children
Son of Henry II the Pious
Boleslaus II the Baldc. 1220/51241–127826–31 December 1278LegnicaHedwig of Anhalt
1242
seven children

Euphemia of Pomerelia
1261
(annulled 1277)
no children

Sophia of Dyhrn
(morganatic)
1277
no children
Brother of Henry III the White. He gained Legnica in the partition of 1248.
Ladislaus I12251246-128227 August or 13 September 1282Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)Euphemia of Greater Poland
1251
five children
In 1282 Opole-Raciborz was divided in various duchies, to the four sons of Władysław.
Conrad I1228/311251-12746 August 1274GłogówSalome of Greater Poland
1249
six children

Sophie of Landsberg
1271
no children
First duke of Głogów. Brother of Henry III the White and Boleslaw II the Bald.
Henry IV the Just1257/12581266–129023 June 1290WrocławConstance of Opole
March 1280
no children

Matilda of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
c.1288
no children
also monarch of Poland.
Henry V the Fat 1248 1273–1278 22 February 1296 Świdnica-Jawor Elisabeth of Greater Poland
1277
eight children
Son of Boleslaus II, was made first Duke of Świdnica-Jawor in his father's lifetime. After Boleslaus II's death, he gave this duchy to his brother Boleslaus III to inherit Legnica. In 1290 after the death of the childless Henry IV, he also inherited Wrocław.
1278–1290Legnica
1290–1296Wrocław and Legnica
Henry VI1251/601274-13043 December 1309Głogów Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
March 1291
nine children
Son of Conrad I. United Głogów and Żagań under his rule, but split them again at his death.
Premislaus I
(Przemko)
1252/651274-128426 February 1289ŻagańUnmarriedŻagań emerged in 1274 from Głogów.
Boleslaus III the Strict
(Bolko)
1252/61278–13019 November 1301Świdnica-JaworBeatrice of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
4 October 1284
Berlin
ten children
jointly with Bernard I.
Bernard I the Lightsome1253/71278–128625 April 1286Świdnica-JaworUnmarriedjointly with Bolko I.
Premislaus II12 June 12681282-13067 May 1306RacibórzAnna of Masovia
between 1289 and 1290
three children
Sons of Ladislaus I, ruled jointly until 1290, when Mieszko founded his own duchy, Cieszyn.
Mieszko III 1252/6 1282-1290 27 June 1315| Racibórz Unknown
between 1275 and 1280
three children
1290-1315Cieszyn
Boleslaus IV
(Bolko)
before 21 October 12581282-131314 May 1313OpoleGrimislava?
before 1286

Agnes
c.1280
three children
Sons of Ladislaus I, ruled jointly. In 1284, they divided the land: Boleslaus retained Opole and Casimir received Bytom, as its first duke.
Casimir II 1253/7 1282-1284 10 March 1312 Opole Helena
between 1275 and 1278
six children
1284-1312Bytom
Conrad II the Hunchback1252/651284-130411 October 1304ŻagańUnmarriedBrother of Przemko. Also Duke of Głogów.
Boleslaus III, Duke of Świdnica-Jawor (regent)1252/61296–13019 November 1301Wrocław and LegnicaBeatrice of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
4 October 1284
Berlin
ten children
Regents in name of Bolesław III the Generous, eldest child of Henry the Fat.
Heinrich, Bishop of Würben (regent)Before 13011301-130223 September 1319Wrocław and LegnicaUnmarried
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia (regent)27 September 12711302-130521 June 1305Wrocław and LegnicaJudith of Habsburg
January 1285
ten children

Elizabeth Richeza of Poland
26 May 1303
Prague
one child
Boleslaus V the Generous23 September 12911305–131121 April 1352Wrocław and LegnicaMargaret of Bohemia
1318
three children

Katharina of Croatia
1326
no children
Also duke of Legnica, Brzeg and Opava
Herman, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel (regent)12751301–13051 February 1308Świdnica-JaworAnna of Austria
1295
three children
Regent in name of Bolko the Strict's sons: Henry and Bernard.
Henry VII1292/6 1301–1337before 15 May 1346Świdnica-Jawor (1301-1312)

Jawor (1312-1337)
Agnes of Bohemia
1316
no children
Ruled together until 1312, then divided the land between them.
Bernard II12911301–13266 May 1326Świdnica-Jawor

Świdnica (1312-1326)
Kunigunde of Poland
1310
five children
Henry VI1251/601304-13093 December 1309Głogów and ŻagańMatilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
March 1291
nine children
Son of Conrad I. United Głogów abd Żagań under his rule, but split them again at his death.
Leszek12921306-13361336RacibórzAgnes of Głogów-Żagań
1332
no children
Son of Przemysław I. After his death in 1336, Raciborz was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1306-1521)
Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg12761309-131826 April 1318GłogówHenry VI
March 1291
nine children
Widow of Henry III.
Henry VIII the Faithful 1292 1309-1318 22 January 1342 Żagań Matilda of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
5 January 1310
four children
Sons of Henry VI, inherited, together, Żagań. In 1312, Conrad and Boleslaus created their own duchy with its capital in Oleśnica, becoming the first dukes of Oleśnica. The death of Boleslaus left Conrad as sole ruler of his duchy. Henry and Premislaus continued the joint rule. They reunited again, and as their father did, the two duchies of the paternal inheritance after the death of their mother. In 1321 the two brothers made new partitions. From 1321, Henry ruled Żagań and Premislaus ruled Głogów. After the childless death of Premislaus, his duchy was briefly annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
1318-1321Głogów and Żagań
1321-1342Żagań
Premislaus III
(Przemko)
1305 1318-1321 11 January 1331 Żagań Constance of Świdnica
1326
no children
1318-1321Głogów and Żagań
1321-1331Głogów
Conrad III 1294 1309-1312 22 December 1366 Żagań Elisabeth of Wroclaw
10 January 1322
no children

Euphemia of Bytom
2 March 1333
two children
1312-1366Oleśnica
Boleslaus VI 1295 1309-1312 before 23 April 1321 Żagań Unmarried
1312-1321Oleśnica
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1331-1337)
Ladislaus II6 June 12961311–1312after 13 January 1352LegnicaAnna of Masovia
1325
(annulled 1329)
no children
Ruled alone over Legnica for a year, before being expelled by his brother and excluded from government.
Henry IX the Good18 March 12941311–133524 November 1335WrocławAnna of Austria
1310
three children
Brother of Boleslaw III. In 1327 Henry VI signed a contract of inheritance with King John of Bohemia and upon his death the Duchy of Wrocław fell to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Siemowit12921312-1316after 1 July 1342BytomUnmarriedSon of Casimir. Deposed in 1316.
Boleslaus V the Generous 23 September 12911312-1342 21 April 1352Legnica and Brzeg Margaret of Bohemia
1318
three children

Katharina of Croatia
1326
no children
Created in 1312 the Duchy of Brzeg, which ruled until his death. Abdicated of Legnica for his son in 1342.
1342-1352Brzeg
Boleslaus VII
(Bolko)
before 13001313-135621 June 1356OpoleElisabeth of Świdnica
6 May 1326
seven children
Sons of Boleslaus IV, ruled jointly.
Albertafter 13001313-132325 September 1373OpoleAgnes of Magdeburg
1347
one child
Casimir III1280/901315-135829 September 1358CieszynEuphemia of Czersk-Warsaw
1321
nine children
Ladislaus III1275/801315-132415 May 1324OświęcimEuphrosyne of Masovia
c.1304
two children
First Duke of Oświęcim, which emerged from Cieszyn.
Ladislaus IV1277/831316-13528 September 1352BytomBeatrice of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
21 September 1308
two children

Ludgarda of Mecklenburg
6 October 1328
six children
Brother of Siemowit. Ruled jointly with his brother George until 1327.
George I13001316-13271327BytomUnmarriedRuled jointly with his brother Ladislaus.
Boleslaus VIII
(Bolko)
1 February 13001322-134111 June 1341ZiębiceBonne of Savoy-Vaud
21 November 1321
two children
First duke of Ziębice. Son of Boleslaus III.
Euphrosyne of Masovia (regent)12921324-13251328/9OświęcimLadislaus III
c.1304
two children
Regent in name of her son.
John I the Scholastic1308/101325-137229 September 1372OświęcimUnknown
one child

Salome Reuss von Plauen
after 12 July 1359
three children
Boleslaus IX the Small
(Bolko)
13121326–134628 July 1368ŚwidnicaAgnes of Austria
1 June 1338
no children
Son of Bernard II.
Henry X13161334–134328 June 1345ŚwidnicaKatharina of Hungary
1 June 1338
one child
Son of Bernard II. Jointly with Bolko II.
Henry VII1292/61337-1346before 15 May 1346Jawor and GłogówAgnes of Bohemia
1316
no children
In 1337 Głogów re-emerges from Bohemia, and is annexed again in 1346.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1346-1349/60)
In 1349 Henry V of Iron (son of Henry the Fatithful) recovered half of the inheritance of his uncle Przemko in Głogów from Bohemia; the other half was given to Przemko's widow, Constance, in 1360.
Nicholas I the Small13271341-135823 April 1358ZiębiceAgnes Krusina zu Lichtemburka
23 October 1343
six children
Wenceslaus I13181342–13642 June 1364LegnicaAnna of Cieszyn
c.1338
five children
Sons of Boleslaus IV, ruled jointly until 1346, when Louis created his own duchy, Lubin.
Louis I the Fair 1321 1342–1346 6–23 December 1398 Legnica Agnes of Głogów-Żagań
1341
six children
1348-1398Lubin
Henry XI of Iron 1319 1342-1349 after 8 April 1369 Żagań Anna of Płock
6 September 1337
five children
Son of Henry VIII. In 1349 Half 1 of Głogów reemerges from Bohemia to be annexed by Żagań line of the Piasts.
1349-1369Żagań and Głogów (Half 1)
Boleslaus IX the Small
(Bolko)
13121346–136128 July 1368Świdnica-JaworAgnes of Austria
1 June 1338
no children
Son of Bernard II. In 1346 inherits Jawor from his uncle Henry I and reunites it with Swidnica. In 1361 his sister offered him her half in Głogów.
Katharina of Croatia?1352-1358before 5 March 1358BrzegBoleslaus IV
1326
no children
Widow of Boleslaus IV the Generous. After her death the duchy was divided between Louis the Fair (her stepson) and Bolko the Small.
Boleslaus X13301352-13554 October 1355Bytom 14 February 1347
three children
Son of Ladilsaus IV.
Margareta of Sternberg?1355-1357after 5 June 1365BytomWidow of Boleslaus X. In 1357, the duchy was divided in two parts, being one annexed by the Duchy of Oleśnica, and the other annexed by the Duchy of Cieszyn.
Definitive annexation to the duchies of Oleśnica and Cieszyn
Ladislaus V13321356-139618 May 1401OpoleElisabeth of Wallachia
c.1355
three children

Euphemia of Masovia
1369
two children
Sons of Boleslaus VI, ruled jointly.
Henry XIIbefore 18 August 13381356-1365before 23 October 1365OpoleUnmarried
Boleslaus XI
(Bolko)
13371356-137021 October 1382OpoleAnna of Oświęcim
c.1355
five children
Premislaus IV Noszak1332/61358-138423 May 1410CieszynElisabeth of Bytom
1360
three children
Also Duke of Głogów.
Louis I the Fair13211358–1368

1368-1398
6–23 December 1398Brzeg (Half 1)Agnes of Głogów-Żagań
1341
six children
Stepson of Katharina; also duke of Legnica. In 1368 reunites all Brzeg.
Henry XIII the Courageous 1343/5 1361-1368

1368-1398
11 July 1399 Brzeg Brzeg (Half 1, and then, All) Helena of Orlamunde
1369
one child

Margaret of Masovia
July 1379
one child
Duke of Brzeg jointly with his father Louis I, inherited Lubin from him.
1398-1399Brzeg and Lubin
Boleslaus XII
(Bolko)
13481358-141013 June 1410ZiębiceEuphemia of Bytom
1369
eight children
Sons of Nicholas I, ruled jointly.
Henry XIV13501358-1366after 8 August 1366ZiębiceUnmarried
Constance of Świdnica13131360-136121 November 1363Głogów (Half 2)Przemko II
1326
no children
In 1360 Half 2 of Głogów reemerges from Bohemia to be given to Constance, widow of Przemko II. She renounces the title in favour of her brother Bolko II.
Boleslaus IX the Small
(Bolko)
1312 1358-1361 28 July 1368 Brzeg (Half 2) Agnes of Austria
1 June 1338
no children
Bought half of Brzeg in 1358. Brother of Constance, widow duchess of Głogów, inherited part of the duchy from her. After his death in 1368, the half of Głogów returned the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the half of Brzeg to Louis the Fair.
1361–1368Świdnica-Jawor, Brzeg (Half 2) and Głogów (Half 2)
Annexation of Half 2 to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1368-1384)
Rupert I27 March 13471364–1409before 12 January 1409LegnicaHedwig of Zagan
10 February 1372
two children
Sons of Wenceslaus I, ruled jointly.
Wenceslaus II13481364–141330 December 1419LegnicaUnmarried
Boleslaus XIII13491364–13943/4 March 1394LegnicaUnmarried
Henry XV13551364–139812 December 1398LegnicaUnmarried
Conrad IV the Gray13401366-140310 June 1403OleśnicaAgnes of Cieszyn
23 February 1354
one child
Son of Conrad III.
Agnes of Austria13221368–13922 February 1392Świdnica-JaworBoleslaus VII
1 June 1338
no children
Widow of Boleslaus VII the Small. Succeeded her husband according with his will. After her death the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Henry XVI the Older before 13451369-1378 5 December 1393Żagań and Głogów (Half 1) Hedwig of Legnica
10 February 1372
no children
Sons of Henry XI, ruled jointly until 1378. In that year, they made partitions: Henry XVI retained Żagań and Henry XVII the half of Głogów. Henry XVIII received a few towns, but he eventually succeeded his heirless brother Henry XVII in 1395.
1378-1393Żagań
Henry XVII Rumpold 13501369-1378 24 December 1395Żagań and Głogów (Half 1) Unmarried
1378-1395Głogów (Half 1)
Henry XVIII the Sparrow 13571369-1378 14 March 1397Żagań and Głogów (Half 1) Katharina of Opole
1382
five children
1395-1397Głogów (Half 1)
John II1344/511372-137619 February 1376OświęcimHedwig of Brieg
1366
three children
Son of John I.
John III13661376-140519 August 1405OświęcimHedwig of Lithuania
1394
no children
Son of John II. Left no descendants. The duchy went to a son of Premislaus IV.
Premislaus IV Noszak 1332/61384-1404 23 May 1410Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2) Elisabeth of Bytom
1360
three children
The 2nd half of the duchy of Głogów re-emerges from Bohemia. Abdicated of Głogów for his son, Premislaus, in 1404, but recovered it in 1406.
1404-1406Cieszyn
Hedwig of Legnica13511393-14031 August 1409ŻagańHenry XVI
10 February 1372
no children
Widow of Henry XVI.
Boleslaus XIV
(Bolko)
1363/71396-14376 May 1437OpoleMargaret of Gorizia
1398
five children
Sons of Boleslaus XI, ruled jointly
Bishop Jan Kropidło1360/41396-14213 March 1421OpoleUnmarried
Bernard III1374/81396-14002/4 April 1455OpoleHedwig of Melsztyna
two children
Boleslaus XV the Hussite
(Bolko)
c.14001422-142429 May 1460OpoleElisabeth Granowski
c.1418
one child
Ruled jointly with his father Boleslaus XIII.
John IV 1385 1397-1403 12 April 1439 Głogów (Half 1) Scholastika of Saxe-Wittenberg
c.1405
ten children
Sons of Henry XVI, ruled jointly in the half of Głogów, inherited from their uncle Henry XVIII. In 1403 inherited Żagań from their mother Hedwig. In 1412 divided the land between them. After the partition, John ruled alone in Żagań, and the other brothers continued the joint rule in Głogów. With the abdication of Wenceslaus and the death of Henry XX, Henry XIX became sole ruler from 1423. In 1446 he inherited Lubin.
1403-1412Żagań and Głogów (Half 1)
1412-1439Żagań
Henry XIX the Older 1387 1397-1403 11 November 1467 Głogów (Half 1) Hedwig of Oleśnica
c.1432
six children
1403-1412Żagań and Głogów (Half 1)
1412-1446Głogów (Half 1)
Henry XX Rumpold 1390 1397-1403 18 January 1423 Głogów (Half 1) Unmarried
1403-1412Żagań and Głogów (Half 1)
1412-1423Głogów (Half 1)
Wenceslaus III 1391 1397-1403 before 4 February 1431 Głogów (Half 1) Unmarried
1403-1412Żagań and Głogów (Half 1)
1412-1417Głogów (Half 1)
Henry XXI 13691399-1400 10 July 1420Lubin and Brzeg Anna of Cieszyn
20 September 1396
six children
Reunited for a brief period the regional duchy of Lubin and Brzeg under his rule. In 1400 divided the inherited land with his brother Louis, who received Brzeg. However Henry also retained a part of this duchy, called Oława.
1400-1420Lubin and Oława
Louis II 1380/5 1400–1413 30 May 1436 Brzeg Hedwig Zapólya
before 14 August 1409
no children

Elisabeth of Brandenburg
9 April 1418
Konstanz
no children
Received Brzeg, and reunited it with Legnica in 1413. However, died without descendants. His lands were inherited by his widow.
1413–1436Legnica and Brzeg
Conrad V the Old13591403-141228 December 1412OleśnicaJudith (?)
c.1380
seven children
Son of Conrad IV.
Premislaus V 1362 1404-1405 1 January 1406 Głogów (Half 2) Unknown
one child
Received, in his father's lifetime, the duchy of Głogów. In the next year also inherited Oświęcim from John III. Preceded his father in death, but left descendants to rule in Oświęcim, while Głogów returned to his father.
1405-1406Oświęcim and Głogów (Half 2)
Premislaus IV Noszak1332/61406-141023 May 1410Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2)Elisabeth of Bytom
1360
three children
Recovered control over Głogów.
Casimir IV13961406-14347 April 1434OświęcimAnna of Zagan
before 28 May 1417
three children

Margareta of Racibórz
1433
no children
Son of Premislaus V.
Boleslaus XVI13631410-14316 May 1431Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2)Margareta of Opava-Raciborz
1 January 1406
no children

Euphemia of Masovia
20 November 1412
five children
John V13581410-142827 August 1428ZiębiceElizabeth Lackfi
19 March 1408
one child
Sons of Boleslaus XII, ruled jointly. From 1420 ruled alone. After his death the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia, and later mortgaged it to Půta III of Častolovice during 1429-1435.
Henry XXII13961410-142011 March 1420ZiębiceUnmarried
Conrad VI the Older13841412-14169 August 1447OleśnicaUnmarried Sons of Conrad V, ruled jointly.
Conrad VII Kantner13851412-143910 September 1439OleśnicaMargaret (?)
9 October 1411
five children
Conrad VIII the Dean13911416-14273 September 1427OleśnicaUnmarried
Conrad IX the Whiteafter 13961416-142714 February 1452OleśnicaKatharina (?)
2 February 1437
no children

Dorothea of Warsaw?
7 March 1450
no children
Conrad X the Youngerafter 13971416-14275 September 1444OleśnicaUnmarried
Rupert II1396/14021420-143124 August 1431Legnica-LubinUnmarriedRegional duke in Legnica. Jointly with his brother Louis.
Wenceslaus IV14001420-142314 January/28 May 1423OławaUnmarriedSon of Henry XXI. After his death his duchy reunited with Lubin.
Louis III before 1405 1423-1431 before 18 June 1441 Oława Margareta of Opole
c.1423
two children
Son of Henry XXI, inherited Oława from his childless brother. After his death his lands were divided between his sons and his widow.
1431-1441Lubin and Oława
Euphemia of Masovia (regent)1395/7 1431-1442before 17 September 1447Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2)Bolesław I
20 November 1412
five children
Regent in name of her children. AFter they reached majority they divided the land.
Ladislaus VI14201442-146014 February 1460 Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2)Margareta of Celje
December 1444
no children
After the partition following the end of the regency of their mother, Ladislaus retained Głogów and Wenceslaus and Premislaus Cieszyn. Boleslaus received only a few towns in Cieszyn (Bielsko and Frysztat).
Wenceslaus V1413/8 1442-14681474CieszynElisabeth of Brandenburg
17 February 1439
(annulled 1445)
no children
Premislaus VI1422/51442-146018 March 1477CieszynAnna of Warsaw
c.1465
one child
Boleslaus XVII1425/81442-14524 October 1452CieszynAnna of Bielsk
28 January 1448
three children
Wenceslaus VI 1418 1434-1445 c.28 July 1368 Oświęcim Maria Kopczowski
c.1450
seven children
Sons of Casimir IV, ruled jointly. In 1445 Wenceslaus ceated for himself the duchy of Zator. Premislaus abdicated from power, and John became sole ruler over Oświęcim, which was annexed to the Kingdom of Poland in 1457.
1445-1468Zator
Premislaus VII14251434-1445December 1484OświęcimMargareta of Opole
23 February 1463
one child
John VI1426/301434-1457c.21 February 1497OświęcimKatharina
30 December 1465
no children

Barbara of Karniów
c.1475
one child
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Poland
Euphemia13851435-144217 November 1447ZiębiceFrederick III of Oettingen
1397
nine children
Daughter of Boleslaus XII. In 1435 she bought the Duchy to the Emperor and Častolovice's heiresses. In 1442 it was sold to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Elisabeth of Brandenburg 29 September 14031436–1443 31 October 1449Legnica and Brzeg Louis II
9 April 1418
Konstanz
no children

Wenceslaus I, Duke of Cieszyn
17 February 1439
(annulled 1445)
no children
Widow of Louis II. In 1443 is forced to give Brzeg to John I and Henry X of Lubin. After her death in 1449, Legnica-Legnica was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
1443–1449Legnica
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1449-1454)
John VII1410/31437-14395 September 1439OpoleUnmarried Sons of Boleslaus XIII, ruled jointly. After John's death in 1439, Nicholas ruled alone. In 1450 he bought Brzeg.
Nicholas II14241437-14503 July 1476OpoleMagdalena of Brieg
February 1442
ten children
Conrad IX the Whiteafter 13961439-145014 February 1452OleśnicaKatharina (?)
2 February 1437
no children

Dorothea of Warsaw?
7 March 1450
no children
Ruled alone after the death of his brother Conrad VII.
Balthasar14151439-1461

1468-1472
15 July 1472ŻagańAgnes
before 1460
one child

Barbara of Cieszyn
11 September 1469
no children
Sons of John IV, ruled jointly. Wenceslaus and John abdicated in 1449, and Balthasar ruled alone, but John came in 1461 and dethroned Balthasar. However the latter dethroned the usurper and ruled again. John put aside his brother in 1472 and ruled once again, but, in that year his duchy was annexed to Saxony
Rudolph14181439-145418 September 1454ŻagańUnmarried
Wenceslaus VII14341439-144929 April 1488ŻagańUnmarried
John VIII the Mad16 April 14351439-1449

1461-1468

1472
22 September 1504ŻagańKatharina of Opava
c.1462
five children
Definitive annexation to the Duchy of Saxony
Margareta of Opole1412/41441-145415 January 1454Brzeg-OławaLouis III
c.1423
two children
Widow of Louis III.
John IX 1425 1441-1443 after 21 November 1453 Lubin Hedwig of Brzeg
February 1445
one child
Sons of Louis III, ruled jointly. In 1443 they inherit Brzeg from Elisabeth of Brandenburg. In 1446, due to the difficult financial situation, Lubin was sold to the Duchy of Głogów. In 1450 Brzeg is sold to Opole.
1443-1446Lubin and Brzeg
1446-1450Brzeg
Henry XXIII 1426 1441-1443 before 28 May 1452 Lubin Unmarried
1443-1446Lubin and Brzeg
1446-1450Brzeg
Henry XIX the Older13871446-146711 November 1467Głogów (Half 1) and LubinHedwig of Oleśnica
c.1432
six children
Bought Lubin.
Conrad XI the Black14151450-147114 August 1471OleśnicaMargareta of Rawa
1453
one child
Sons of Conrad VII, ruled jointly. Conrad XII abdicated in 1452.
Conrad XII the White14201450-145221 September 1492OleśnicaDorothea Reynkenberg
before 1492
(morganatic)
no children
Nicholas II14241450-14763 July 1476Opole and BrzegMagdalena of Brieg
February 1442
ten children
Duke of Opole, bought Brzeg in 1450.
Frederick I3 May 14461454–14819 May 1488Legnica-Legnica and Brzeg-OławaLudmila of Poděbrady
5 September 1474
three children
Legnica became independent from Bohemia in 1454. In the same year inherited Brzeg-Olawa from his mother Margareta of Opole.
Margareta of Celje14111460-148022 July 1480Głogów (Half 2)Herman I of Montfort-Pfannberg-Bregenz
15 March 1430
four children

Ladislaus VI
December 1444
no children
Widow of Wladysław I. Ruled jointly with her brother-in-law, Premislaus VI.
Premislaus VI1422/51460-147718 March 1477Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2)Anna of Warsaw
c.1465
one child
Retained co-rulings in Cieszyn and Głogów. From 1468 ruled over all Cieszyn.
Henry XXIV14351467-147622 February 1476Głogów (Half 1) and Legnica-LubinBarbara of Brandenburg
11 October 1472
Berlin
no children
Son of Henry XIX.
Casimir V14501468-14908 January/7 July 1490ZatorMargaret of Karniów
c. 12 August 1482
one child
Sons of Wenceslaus VI, ruled jointly. In 1490 John became sole ruler. In 1513 the Duchy is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
Wenceslaus VIII1450/551468-1487beforev5 October 1487ZatorUnmarried
Ladislaus VII14551468-148228 May or 21 September 1494ZatorAnna
before 1488
one child
John Xbefore 14551468-151317 September 1513ZatorUnmarried
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Poland
Margareta of Rawa14411471-14751 September 1485OleśnicaConrad XI
1453
one child
Widow of Conrad IX.
Barbara14651475-147830 November 1479OleśnicaUnmarriedDaughter of Conrad XI. Deposed in 1478 and died in the next year.
John VIII the Mad 16 April 14351476/1480-1482 22 September 1504Głogów (Halves 1 and 2) and Legnica-Lubin Katharina of Opava
c.1462
five children
In 1480 John II reunites both parts of Głogów. In 1482 lost Lubin for Legnica. In 1488 Głogów is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
1482-1488Głogów
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Poland
John XI the Good 14601476-1481 27 March 1532Opole and Brzeg Unmarried Sons of Nicholas II, ruled jointly. In 1481 they sold Brzeg to Frederick I of Legnica. From 1497 John ruled alone. In 1521 purchased Racibórz from Bohemia, and restored the Duchy of Opole-Racibórz. However, as he left no descendants the duchy reverted to the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
1481-1521Opole
1521-1532Opole-Racibórz
Nicholas III 14621476-1481 27 June 1497Opole and Brzeg Unmarried
1481-1497Opole
Definitive annexation to the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Casimir VI14491477-152813 December 1528CieszynJohanna of Opava
6 October 1328
six children
Ruled with his son Wenceslaus IX.
Wenceslaus IX1488/961518-152417 November 1524CieszynAnna of Brandenburg-Ansbach
1 December 1518
three children
Ruled with his father Casimir VI.
Conrad XII the White14201478-149221 September 1492OleśnicaDorothea Reynkenberg
before 1492
(morganatic)
no children
Expelled his niece and ruled alone. In 1492 Oleśnica was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Frederick I3 May 14461481/2-14889 May 1488Legnica (with Lubin) and Brzeg (with Oława) 5 September 1474
three children
In 1481 Frederick I of Legnica purchased Brzeg from Opole, and recovered Lubin in 1482, from John the Mad.
Ludmila of Poděbrady16 October 14461488-150320 January 1503BrzegWidow of Frederick I. Received Brzeg as her dower.
Ludmila of Poděbrady (regent)16 October 14461488-149820 January 1503LegnicaWidow of Frederick I, regent on behalf of her sons.
John XII14771488–14956 March 1495LegnicaUnmariedjointly with his brothers, Frederick II and George I. He didn't reach adulthood.
Frederick II the Great 12 February 1480 1488–1503 17 September 1547 Legnica Elisabeth of Poland-Lithuania
21 November 1515
one child

Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach
14 November 1519
three children
Sons of Frederick I, ruled jointly. In 1503 inherited Brzeg from their mother. In 1505 divided the land.
1503–1505Legnica and Brzeg
1505–1521Legnica
George II 1481/3 1488-1503 30 May 1521 Legnica 9 June 1516
no children
1503-1505Legnica and Brzeg
1505-1521Lubin and Brzeg
Anna of Pomerania14921521-155025 April 1550LubinInherited Lubin from her husband. As she didn't have children, the land passed, at her death, permanently to Legnica.
Frederick II the Great12 February 14801521-154717 September 1547Legnica and BrzegElisabeth of Poland-Lithuania
21 November 1515
one child

Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach
14 November 1519
three children
Inherited Brzeg from his brother.
Anna of Brandenburg-Ansbach (regent)5 May 14871528-15397 February 1539CieszynWenceslaus IX
1 December 1518
three children
Regents in name of Wenceslaus X.
John III of Pernstein (regent)14 November 14871528-15458 September 1548CieszynAnna of Postupic
1507
four children

Hedvika of Šelmberk
1528
four children

Magdalena of Ormozd
1544
no children
Wenceslaus X AdamDecember 15241545-15794 November 1579CieszynMaria of Pernstein
8 February 1540
three children

Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg
25 November 1567
Cieszyn
six children
Frederick CasimirDecember 1541/January 15421560-15714 May 1571CieszynKatharina of Legnica
28 December 1563
Legnica
one child
Son of Wenceslaus, co-ruled with him from 1560 but preceded his father in death.
Frederick III22 February 15201547–155915 December 1570Legnica (Legnica and Lubin)Katharina of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
3 March 1538
Legnica
six children
Absorbed Lubin again in 1550.
George III the Pious18 July 15231547-15867 May 1586BrzegBarbara of Brandenburg
15 February 1545
Berlin
seven children
Jointly with his brother Frederick II.
Henry XXV23 February 15391559–15813 March 1588LegnicaSophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach
11 November 1560
Legnica
six children
Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg (regent)15501579-15941594CieszynWenceslaus III Adam
25 November 1567
Cieszyn
six children

Emmerich III Forgach
1586
no children
Regent in name of her son, Adam.
Adam Wenceslaus12 December 15741594-161713 July 1617CieszynElisabeth of Courland
17 September 1595
five children
Frederick IV20 April 15521581–159627 March 1596LegnicaMaria Sidonia of Cieszyn
20 January 1587
no children

Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
23 November 1589
no children

Anna of Württemberg
24 October 1594
no children
Barbara of Brandenburg10 August 15271586-15952 January 1595Brzeg-BrzegGeorge III
15 February 1545
Berlin
seven children
Widow of George II.
John George17 June 1552 1586-15926 July 1592Brzeg-OławaAnna of Württemberg
16 September 1582
Brzeg
no children
Co-rulers.
Joachim Frederick29 September 155025 March 1602Brzeg-OławaAnna Maria of Anhalt
19 May 1577
Brzeg
six children
Anna of Württemberg17 June 15521592-15946 July 1592Brzeg-OławaJohn George
16 September 1582
Brzeg
no children

Frederick IV
24 October 1594
no children
She married twice, so in 1594 she was stripped from her duchy.
Joachim Frederick 29 September 1550 1594-1595 25 March 1602 Oława 19 May 1577
Brzeg
six children
He reunited all Legnica and Brzeg from 1596.
1595–1596Brzeg (with Oława)
1596–1602Legnica and Brzeg
Anna Maria of Anhalt29 September 15501602-160525 March 1602OławaReceived Olawa after her husband's death.
Anna Maria of Anhalt (regent)13 June 15611602-160514 November 1605Legnica and Brzeg Regents in name of Joachim Frederick's sons. In 1605 with the death of Anna Maria Olawa was absorbed again by Brzeg. The regency was taken by the sister of Joachim Frederick, Elisabeth Magdalena, and her husband, who ruled until the brothers came of age, in 1609.
Elisabeth Magdalena of Brzeg (regent)17 November 1562 1602-16091 February 1630Legnica and Brzeg (Brzeg and Oława)Charles II of Poděbrady
30 September 1585
Brzeg
eight children
Charles II of Poděbrady (regent)15 April 154528 January 1617Legnica and Brzeg (Brzeg and Oława)Catherine Berka of Duba
17 September 1570
Moravská Třebová
two children

Elisabeth Magdalena of Brzeg
30 September 1585
Brzeg
eight children
George Rudolf 12 January 15951609–1612 14 January 1653Legnica and Brzeg Sophia Elisabeth of Anhalt-Dessau
4 November 1614
Dessau
no children

Elisabeth Magdalena of Munsterberg
5 December 1624
no children
Sons of Joachim Frederick, ruled jointly until 1612. In that year they made partitions. George Rudolf received Legnica and John Christian Brzeg. George left no descendants, and was succeeded by his nephews.
1612–1653Legnica
John Christian 28 August 15911609–1612 25 December 1639Legnica and Brzeg Dorothea Sibylle of Brandenburg
12 December 1610
Berlin
thirteen children

Anna Hedwig Sitzsch
(morganatic)
13 September 1626
Brzeg
seven children
1612–1633Brzeg
Charles of Austria, Bishop of Wroclaw (regent)7 August 15901617-162428 December 1624CieszynUnmarriedRegent in name of Frederick William, Adam's son.
Frederick William9 November 16011624-162519 August 1625CieszynUnmarried
Elizabeth Lucretia1 June 15991625-165319 May 1653CieszynGundakar, Prince of Liechtenstein
23 April 1618
no children
After her death, Cieszyn was annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.
Definitive annexation to the Holy Roman Empire
George IV4 September 16111633–16644 July 1664BrzegSophia Katharina of Munsterberg
23 February 1638
Bernstadt
one child

Elisabeth Marie Charlotte of Palatinate-Simmern-Kaiserslautern
19 October 1660
Brzeg
no children
Inherited alone Brzeg, from his father. Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother Christian.
Louis IV19 April 16161653–166324 November 1653LegnicaAnna Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
8 May 1649
Brzeg
one child
Sons of John Christian, ruled jointly in Legnica.
Christian9 April 1618 1653–1654

1663-1664
28 February 1672LegnicaLouise of Anhalt-Dessau
24 November 1648
Dessau
four children
George IV4 September 16114 July 1664LegnicaSophia Katharina of Munsterberg
23 February 1638
Bernstadt
one child

Elisabeth Marie Charlotte of Palatinate-Simmern-Kaiserslautern
19 October 1660
Brzeg
no children
Christian9 April 16181664-167228 February 1672Legnica and BrzegLouise of Anhalt-Dessau
24 November 1648
Dessau
four children
Inherited his brothers' possessions, ruling in both Legnica and Brzeg. Left for his widow Oława, and the remaining lands were inherited by his son.
George William29 September 16601672–167521 November 1675Legnica and BrzegUnmarriedLast male representative of the House of Piast. Died without descendants.
Definitive annexation to the Holy Roman Empire
Louise of Anhalt-Dessau10 February 16311672-168025 April 1680OławaChristian
24 November 1648
Dessau
four children
Regional duchess in Brzeg, widow of Christian. After her death the Duchy was annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.
Definitive annexation to the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical Duchy of Nysa

Established in 1290 by High Duke Henry IV Probus, held by the Bishops of Wrocław

Major part annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after the First Silesian War in 1742.

Prussian part secularised in 1810.

  • 1823–1832 Emanuel von Schimonsky
  • 1835–1840 Leopold von Sedlnitzky
  • 1843–1844 Joseph Knauer
  • 1845–1850 Melchior von Diepenbrock

Theocracy abolished in 1850.

See also

List of Polish rulers
Piast dynasty
Dukes of Masovia
Dukes of Greater Poland
Dukes of Little Poland
Dukes of Cuiavia
Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca

References

  • Neue deutsche Biographie, Berlin 2001, Bd.: 20, p. 403-407
  • Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Leipzig 1905–1909, Bd.: 17, p. 845-847

Sites

http://www.tacitus.nu/historical-atlas/regents/poland/silesia.htm


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