Douglas Rushkoff

Douglas Mark Rushkoff (born February 18, 1961) is an American media theorist, writer, columnist, lecturer, graphic novelist, and documentarian. He is best known for his association with the early cyberpunk culture, and his advocacy of open source solutions to social problems.

Douglas Rushkoff
Born (1961-02-18) February 18, 1961
New York City, U.S.
OccupationMedia theorist, writer, columnist, lecturer, graphic novelist, documentarian
Alma materPrinceton University (BA)
California Institute of the Arts (MA)
Utrecht University (PhD)
SubjectAmerican media
SpouseBarbara Kligman

Rushkoff is most frequently regarded as a media theorist and is known for coining terms and concepts including viral media (or media virus), digital native, and social currency. He has written ten books on media, technology and culture. He wrote the first syndicated column on cyberculture for The New York Times Syndicate, as well as regular columns for The Guardian of London,[1] Arthur,[2] Discover,[3] and the online magazines Daily Beast,[4] and meeting industry magazine One+.[5]

Rushkoff is currently Professor of Media Theory and Digital Economics at the City University of New York, Queens College. He has previously lectured at The New School University in Manhattan[6] and the ITP at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he created the Narrative Lab.[7] He also has taught online for the MaybeLogic Academy.[8]



Rushkoff was born in New York City, New York, and is the son of Sheila, a psychiatric social worker, and Marvin Rushkoff, a hospital administrator.[9] He graduated from Princeton University in 1983.[10] He moved to Los Angeles and completed a Master of Fine Arts in Directing from the California Institute of the Arts. Later he took up a post-graduate fellowship from the American Film Institute.[11] He was a PhD candidate at Utrecht University's New Media Program, writing a dissertation on new media literacies,[12] which was approved in June, 2012.[13]

Rushkoff emerged in the early 1990s as an active member of the cyberpunk movement, developing friendships and collaborations with people including Timothy Leary, RU Sirius, Paul Krassner, Robert Anton Wilson, Ralph Abraham, Terence McKenna, Genesis P-Orridge, Ralph Metzner, Grant Morrison, Mark Pesce, Erik Davis, and other writers, artists and philosophers interested in the intersection of technology, society and culture.[14][15][16]

Cyberia, his first book on cyberculture, was inspired by the San Francisco rave scene of the early 1990s. The initially planned publication was scrapped, however; in Rushkoff's words, "in 1992 Bantam canceled the book because they thought by 1993 the internet would be over."[17] It was eventually published in 1994.

As his books became more accepted, and his concepts of the "media virus"[18] and "social contagion" became mainstream ideas, Rushkoff was invited to deliver commentaries on National Public Radio's All Things Considered,[19] and to make documentaries for the PBS series Frontline.[20]

In 2002, Rushkoff was awarded the Marshall McLuhan Award by the Media Ecology Association for his book Coercion, and became a member and sat on the board of directors of that organization.[21] This allied him with the "media ecologists", a continuation of what is known as the Toronto School of media theorists including Marshall McLuhan, Walter Ong, and Neil Postman.

Rushkoff was invited to participate as a consultant ranging to the United Nations Commission on World Culture and the US Department of State.

Simultaneously, Rushkoff continued to develop his relationship with counterculture figures, collaborating with Genesis P-Orridge as a keyboardist for Psychic TV, and credited with composing music for the album Hell is Invisible Heaven is Her/e.[22] Rushkoff taught classes in media theory and in media subversion for New York University's Interactive Telecommunications Program,[23] participated in activist pranks with the Yes Men[24] and eToy,[25] contributed to numerous books and documentaries on psychedelics, and spoke or appeared at many events sponsored by counterculture publisher Disinformation.[26]


References to media ecologist and Toronto School of Communication founder Marshall McLuhan appear throughout Rushkoff's work as a focus on media over content, the effects of media on popular culture and the level at which people participate when consuming media.[27]

Rushkoff worked with both Robert Anton Wilson[28] and Timothy Leary on developing philosophical systems to explain consciousness, its interaction with technology, and social evolution of the human species, and references both consistently in his work. Leary, along with John Barlow and Terence McKenna characterized the mid-1990s as techno-utopian, and saw the rapid acceleration of culture, emerging media and the unchecked advancement of technology as completely positive.[29] Rushkoff's own unbridled enthusiasm for cyberculture was tempered by the dotcom boom, when the non-profit character of the Internet was rapidly overtaken by corporations and venture capital. Rushkoff often cites two events in particular – the day Netscape became a public company in 1995,[30] and the day AOL bought Time Warner in 2000[1] – as pivotal moments in his understanding of the forces at work in the evolution of new media.

Rushkoff spent several years exploring Judaism as a primer for media literacy, going so far as to publish a book inviting Jews to restore the religion to its "open source" roots.[31] He founded a movement for progressive Judaism called Reboot, but subsequently left when he felt its funders had become more concerned with marketing and publicity of Judaism than its actual improvement and evolution.[27] Disillusioned by the failure of the open source model to challenge entrenched and institutional hierarchies from religion to finance, he became a colleague of Mark Crispin Miller and Naomi Klein, appearing with them at Smith College[32] as well as in numerous documentaries decrying the corporatization of public space and consciousness.[33] He has dedicated himself most recently to the issues of media literacy,[34] participatory government, and the development of local and complementary currencies.[35] He wrote a book and film called Life Inc.,[36] which traces the development of corporatism and centralized currency from the Renaissance to today, and hosts a radio show called MediaSquat on WFMU, concerned with reclaiming commerce and culture from corporate domination.[37]

Awards and appointments

Douglas Rushkoff has served on the Board of Directors of the Media Ecology Association,[38] The Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics,[39] and is a founding member of Technorealism,[40] as well as of the Advisory Board of The National Association for Media Literacy Education,[34][41] and HyperWords[42]

He is the winner of the first Neil Postman Award for Career Achievement in Public Intellectual Activity, given by the Media Ecology Association, in 2004.[43]



Douglas Rushkoff's philosophy developed from a techno-utopian view of new media to a more nuanced critique of cyberculture discourse and the impact of media on society. Viewing everything except for intention as media, he frequently explores the themes of how to make media interactive, how to help people (especially children) effectively analyze and question the media they consume, as well as how to cultivate intention and agency. He has theorized on such media as religion, culture, politics, and money.[44]

Technology and cyberculture

Up to the late-1990s, Douglas Rushkoff's philosophy towards technology could be characterized as media-deterministic. Cyberculture and new media were supposed to promote democracy and allow people to transcend the ordinary.[45]

In Cyberia, Rushkoff states the essence of mid-1990s culture as being the fusion of rave psychedelia, chaos theory and early computer networks. The promise of the resulting "counter culture" was that media would change from being passive to active, that we would embrace the social over content, and that empowers the masses to create and react.[46]

This idea also comes up in the concept of the media virus, which Rushkoff details in the 1994 publication of Media Virus: Hidden Agendas in Popular Culture. This significant work adopts organic metaphors to show that media, like viruses, are mobile, easily duplicated and presented as non-threatening.[47] Technologies can make our interaction with media an empowering experience if we learn to decode the capabilities offered to us by our media. Unfortunately, people often stay one step behind our media capabilities. Ideally, emerging media and technologies have the potential to enlighten, to aid grassroots movements, to offer an alternative to the traditional "top-down" media, to connect diverse groups and to promote the sharing of information.[48]

Rushkoff does not limit his writings to the effect of technology on adults, and in Playing the Future turns his attention to the generation of people growing up who understand the language of media like natives, guarded against coercion.[49] These "screenagers", a term originated by Rushkoff,[50] have the chance to mediate the changing landscape more effectively than digital immigrants.

With Coercion (1999), Rushkoff realistically examines the potential benefits and dangers inherent in cyberculture and analyzes market strategies that work to make people act on instinct (and buy!) rather than reflect rationally. The book wants readers to learn to "read" the media they consume and interpret what is really being communicated.


In Nothing Sacred: The Truth About Judaism, Rushkoff explores the medium of religion and intellectually deconstructs the Bible and the ways that religion fails to provide true connectivity and transformative experiences.[51]


Most recently, Douglas Rushkoff has turned his critical lens to the medium of currency. One of the most important concepts that he creates and develops is the notion of social currency, or the degree to which certain content and media can facilitate and/or promote relationships and interactions between members of a community. Rushkoff mentions jokes, scandals, blogs, ambiance, i.e. anything that would engender "water cooler" talk, as social currency.

In his book, Life, Inc. and his dissertation "Monopoly Moneys," Rushkoff takes a look at physical currency and the history of corporatism. Beginning with an overview of how money has been gradually centralized throughout time, and pondering the reasons and consequences of such a fact, he goes on to demonstrate how our society has become defined by and controlled by corporate culture.

Social media

Rushkoff has long been skeptical of social media.[52] On February 25, 2013, he announced in a CNN op-ed that he was leaving Facebook, citing concerns about the company's use of his personal data.[53]

401K Plans

In 2016, Douglas Rushkoff penned an article critical of 401(k) plans, in which he refers to the stock market as a "pyramid scheme" and states "In the 401(k) game, the patsy is anyone who follows the advice of the human resources department and surrenders a portion of his or her paycheck to the retirement planning industry, all under the pretense of personal responsibility." Rushkoff does not suggest any alternatives to 401K plans for retirement savings.[54]




  • 2019. Team Human ISBN 978-0-393-65169-0
  • 2016. Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus ISBN 978-1617230172
  • 2013. Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now ISBN 978-1591844761
  • 2010. Program or be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age Paperback ISBN 978-1-935928-15-7 Ebook ISBN 978-1-935928-16-4
  • 2009. Life, Inc.: How the World Became A Corporation and How To Take It Back ISBN 978-1-4000-6689-6
  • 2009. Foreword: The Opportunity for Renaissance, pp. 273–281, in Be The Media, David Mathison, editor
  • 2005. Get Back in the Box: Innovation from the Inside Out ISBN 978-0-06-075869-1
  • 2003. Open Source Democracy A Demos Essay
  • 2003. Nothing Sacred: The Truth About Judaism ISBN 978-1-4000-5139-7
  • 1999. Coercion: Why We Listen to What "They" Say ISBN 978-1-57322-829-9
  • 1996. Playing the Future: What We Can Learn From Digital Kids ISBN 978-1-57322-764-3 (Published in the UK in 1997 as "Children of Chaos: Surviving the End of the World as We Know it" ISBN 0-00-654879-2)
  • 1995. Media Virus: Hidden Agendas in Popular Culture ISBN 978-0-345-39774-4
  • 1994. The GenX Reader (Editor, contributor) ISBN 978-0345390462
  • 1994. Cyberia: Life in the Trenches of Cyberspace ISBN 978-1-903083-24-6

Book chapters

  • Douglas Rushkoff (2019). "Chapter 8: Survival of the richest". In Extinction Rebellion (ed.). This Is Not a Drill: An Extinction Rebellion Handbook. Penguin Books. pp. 58–64. ISBN 9780141991443.

Fiction works

  • 2002. Exit Strategy (aka Bull) ISBN 978-1-887128-90-2
  • 1997. Ecstasy Club ISBN 978-1-57322-702-5

Graphic novels

  • 2016. Aleister and Adolf ISBN 978-1-50670-104-2
  • 2012. A.D.D. – Adolescent Demo Division ISBN 978-1-78116-019-0
  • 2005-2008. Testament ISBN 978-1-4012-1063-2
  • 2004. Club Zero-G ISBN 978-0-9729529-3-4


  • 2014. Generation Like. PBS Frontline.
  • 2009–2010. Digital Nation, Life on the Virtual Frontier. Web site and documentary, PBS Frontline.
  • 2009. Life Inc. The Movie
  • 2004. The Persuaders. This Frontline documentary examines the psychological techniques behind popular marketing and advertising trends, determines how these methods influence how we view ourselves and desires, and postulates on the future implications of these persuasive approaches at work.
  • 2001. Merchants of Cool, a groundbreaking, award-winning Frontline documentary which explores the people, marketing techniques and ideologies behind popular culture for teenagers. This video attempts to answer whether or not teen popular culture is reflective of its population or manufactured by big business and related groups.


  • The Media Squat (creator and host): freeform, bottom-up, open source WFMU radio which examines similarly open source, bottom-up solutions to some of the problems engendered by our relentlessly top-down society.
  • Team Human Podcast (creator and host): a weekly interview show focused on themes of inspecting and subverting technologies effect on human behaviour. The format of the show is typically started with a monologue from Rushkoff and then an interview with a guest.


  1. Rushkoff, Douglas (2002-07-25). "Signs of the times | Technology". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  2. "Crowdsourcing The Bank Recovery By Douglas Rushkoff | Arthur Magazine – We Found The Others". 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  3. "Science and Technology News, Science Articles". Discover Magazine. 2007-01-21. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  4. "Douglas Rushkoff". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  5. "Publications - Meeting Professionals International".
  6. "Media Studies :: Academics :: All Courses". Archived from the original on 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  7. "ITP Research 2005 » Narrative Lab". Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  8. "Maybe Logic Academy :: instructors". Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  9. "Rushkoff, Douglas 1961– - Dictionary definition of Rushkoff, Douglas 1961– - FREE online dictionary".
  10. "Princeton Alumni Weekly: Search & Archives". 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  11. The devil's candy: The bonfire of ... – Google Books. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  12. "". 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  13. "Dissertation approved". Twitter. 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
  14. "Open Source Reality: Douglas Rushkoff Examines the Effects of Open Source | EDUCAUSE". 2008-07-01. Archived from the original on 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  15. Michael Foord (1905-10-14). "Douglas Rushkoff – Cyberia". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  16. "An Open Letter from the friend's of Dr. Timothy Leary". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  17. "Frontline: digital nation: interviews: douglas rushkoff". PBS. 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  18. "Mediamatic Review: J. Marshall – Media Virus – D. Rushkoff". 1996-10-01. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  19. "National Public Radio". Retrieved 2012-05-03.
  20. "Frontline: merchants of cool: interviews: douglas rushkoff". PBS. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  21. "Past MEA Award Recipients". 2001-02-26. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  22. "Douglas Rushkoff Discography and Music at CD Universe". 2009-03-08. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  23. "Core77 / industrial design magazine + resource / Design.EDU". 2005-01-08. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  24. "Book". The Yes Men. Archived from the original on 2009-03-08. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  25. Jill Priluck (2009-01-04). "Etoy: 'This Means War'". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  26. "disinformation | douglas rushkoff". Archived from the original on 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  27. "Digital Minds Blog: Media Resistance – An Interview with Douglas Rushkoff". 2008-03-26. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  28. "Robert Anton Wilson – Maybe Logic: Robert Anton Wilson, Valerie Corral, Paul Krassner, Tom Robbins, Douglas Rushkoff, R.U. Sirius, Douglass Smith, Lance Bauscher, Cody McClintock, Robert Dofflemyer, Katherine Covell: Movies & TV". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  29. "The Thing That I Call Doug". EDGE. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  30. "Mindjack Magazine: Coercion by Douglas Rushkoff". 1999-10-01. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  31. "A Conversation with Douglas Rushkoff". Zeek. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  32. "Smith College: The Community Responds to Tragedy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  33. "frontline: the persuaders". PBS. 2004-11-09. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  34. "National Advisory Council – NAMLE – National Association for Media Literacy Education – Advancing Media Literacy Education in America". NAMLE. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  35. Newitz, Annalee (2008-09-11). "DIY Currencies – Dual Perspectives". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  36. rushkoff (2009-05-11). "Life Inc: The Movie". Boing Boing. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  37. "WFMU's Beware of the Blog: New Podcast: The Media Squat with Douglas Rushkoff". 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  38. "Organization of the Media Ecology Association". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  39. "Who is the CCLE?". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  40. "Technorealism FAQ". 1998-03-12. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  41. "About Meetup". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  42. "The Hyperwords Company". Archived from the original on 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  43. "Past MEA Award Recipients". 2001-02-26. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  44. "Team Human vs. Team AI". strategy+business. February 2, 2019.
  45. "Archives: 1998-1999". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  46. "Cyberia Summary – Douglas Rushkoff – Magill Book Reviews". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  47. Boyd, Andrew. "Truth is a Virus ." Culture Jamming 101 . 2002. Retrieved on May 3, 2009.
  48. "Barbrook". Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  49. "Douglas Rushkoff : Children Of Chaos (Playing The Future) : Lost In Translation". 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  50. "Screenager". World Wide Words. 1998-01-10. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  51. "Douglas Rushkoff Interview // wishtank magazine". Archived from the original on 2008-05-26. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  52. "You are Facebook's product, not its customer // Wired". 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
  53. "Why I'm quitting Facebook // CNN". 2013-02-25. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
  54. "Why You Might Want To Rethink Making Those 401(k) Contributions". 4 April 2016.
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