Dot (diacritic)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

·
Dot
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute˝
grave`
double grave ̏
circumflexˆ
caron, háčekˇ
breve˘
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ̡
retroflex hook  ̢
hook above, dấu hỏi ̉
horn ̛
iota subscript ͅ 
macronˉ
ogonek, nosinė˛
perispomene ͂ 
overring˚
underring˳
rough breathing
smooth breathing᾿
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe
bar◌̸
colon:
comma,
period.
hyphen˗
prime
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ҇
titlo ҃
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara
chandrabindu
nukta
virama
visarga
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten
handakuten
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
ȦȧǠǡ
Ċċ
Ç̇ç̇Ć̣ć̣
Č̣č̣
ĖėĖ́ė́
Ė̃ė̃
Ġġ
İ
i̇̀i̇́i̇̃į̇́į̇̃
j̇̃
Ŀŀ
Ȯȯ
Ȱȱ
Q̣̇q̣̇Q̣̈q̣̈
Ṡ̃ṡ̃
U̇̄u̇̄
ṿ
Żż

Overdot

Language scripts or transcription schemes that use the dot above a letter as a diacritical mark:

The overdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called anusvara.

In mathematics and physics, when using Newton's notation the dot denotes the time derivative as in . However, today this is more commonly written with a prime or using Leibniz's notation. In addition, the overdot is one way used to indicate an infinitely repeating set of numbers in decimal notation, as in , which is equal to the fraction ⅓, and or , which is equal to .

Underdot

  • In Inari Sami, an underdot denotes a half-long voiced consonant: đ̣, j̣, ḷ, ṃ, ṇ, ṇj, ŋ̣, ṛ, and ṿ. The underdot is used in dictionaries, textbooks, and linguistic publications only.
  • In IAST and National Library at Calcutta romanization, transcribing languages of India, a dot below a letter distinguishes the retroflex consonants ṭ, ḍ, ṛ, ḷ, ṇ, ṣ, while m with underdot () signifies an anusvara. Very frequently (in modern transliterations of Sanskrit) an underdot is used instead of the ring (diacritic) below the vocalic r and l.
  • In romanizations of some Afroasiatic languages, particularly Semitic Languages and Berber Languages, an underdot indicates an emphatic consonant.
  • The underdot is also used in the PDA orthography for Domari to show pharyngealization—the underdotted consonants ḍ ḥ ṣ ṭ ẓ represent the emphaticized sounds /d̪ˤ ħ sˤ t̪ˤ zˤ/.
  • In Asturian, (underdotted double ll) represents the voiced retroflex plosive or the voiceless retroflex affricate, depending on dialect, and (underdotted h) the voiceless glottal fricative.
  • In Romagnol, ẹ ọ are used to represent [e, o], e.g. Riminese dialect fradẹll, ọcc [fraˈdell, ˈotʃː] "brothers, eyes".
  • In academic notation of Old Latin, ẹ̄ (e with underdot and macron) represents the long vowel, probably //, that developed from the early Old Latin diphthong ei. This vowel usually became ī in Classical Latin.
  • In academic transcription of Vulgar Latin, used in describing the development of the Romance languages, ẹ and ọ represent the close-mid vowels /e/ and /o/, in contrast with the open-mid vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/, which are represented as e and o with ogonek (ę ǫ).
  • In O'odham language, (d with underdot) represents a voiced retroflex stop.
  • Vietnamese: The nặng tone (low, glottal) is represented with a dot below the base vowel: ạ ặ ậ ẹ ệ ị ọ ộ ợ ụ ự ỵ.
  • In Yoruba, the dot (or alternatively a small vertical line) is used below the o for an "open-o" sound, the e for an "open-e," and the s for an "sh" sound (ẹ, ọ, ṣ). The marking distinguishes these from the unmarked characters since the sound differences are meaningful.
  • In Igbo, an underdot can be used on i, o, and u to make , , and . The underdot symbolizes a reduction in the vowel height.
  • In Americanist phonetic notation, x with underdot represents a voiceless uvular fricative.
  • Underdots are used in the Rheinische Dokumenta phonetic writing system to denote a voiced s and special pronunciations of r and a.
  • In the Fiero-Rhodes orthography for Eastern Ojibwe and Odaawaa, in , , and , underdot is used to indicate labialization when either o or w following them was lost in syncope.
  • In Marshallese, underdots on consonants represent velarization, such as the velarized bilabial nasal .
  • UNGEGN romanization of Urdu includes ḍ, g̣, ḳ, ṭ, ẉ, and ỵ.[1]
  • In Mizo, represents /t͡r/.
  • The underdot is also used in the Devanagari script, where it is called nukta.

Raised Dot

  • Number digits in Enclosed Alphanumerics like 🄀 ⒈ ⒉ ⒊ ⒋ ⒌ ⒍ ⒎ ⒏ ⒐
  • In Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, in addition to the middle dot as a letter, centred dot diacritic, and dot above diacritic, there also is a two-dot diacritic in Naskapi Language representing /_w_V/ which depending on the placement on the specific Syllabic letter may resemble a colon when placed vertically, diaeresis when placed horizontally, or a combination of middle dot and dot above diacritic when placed either at an angle or enveloping a small raised letter . Additionally, in Northwestern Ojibwe, a small raised /wi/ as /w/, the middle dot is raised farther up as either or ; there also is a raised dot Final , which represents /w/ in some Swampy Cree and /y/ in some Northwestern Ojibwe.

Encoding

In Unicode, the dot is encoded at:

  • U+0307 ̇ COMBINING DOT ABOVE (HTML ̇)

and at:

  • U+0323 ̣ COMBINING DOT BELOW (HTML ̣)
  • U+0358 ͘ COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT (HTML ͘)
  • U+1DF8 COMBINING DOT ABOVE LEFT (HTML ᷸)

There is also:

  • U+02D9 ˙ DOT ABOVE (HTML ˙)
  • U+18DF CANADIAN SYLLABICS FINAL RAISED DOT

Pre-composed characters:

See also

References

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