Doom metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music that typically uses slower tempos, low-tuned guitars and a much "thicker" or "heavier" sound than other heavy metal genres. Both the music and the lyrics intend to evoke a sense of despair, dread, and impending doom. The genre is strongly influenced by the early work of Black Sabbath, who formed a prototype for doom metal. During the first half of the 1980s, a number of bands from England (Pagan Altar, Witchfinder General), the United States (Pentagram, Saint Vitus, The Obsessed, Trouble, and Cirith Ungol) and Sweden (Candlemass, and later, Count Raven) defined doom metal as a distinct genre.
|Cultural origins||Early to mid 1970s, United Kingdom and United States|
The electric guitar, bass guitar and drum kit are the most common instruments used to play doom metal (although keyboards are sometimes used), but its structures are rooted in the same scales as in blues. Guitarists and bassists often downtune their instruments to very low notes and make use of large amounts of distortion, thus producing a very "thick" or "heavy" guitar tone, which is one of the defining characteristics of the genre. Along with the usual heavy metal compositional technique of guitars and bass playing the same riff in unison, this creates a loud and bass-heavy wall of sound. Another defining characteristic is the consistent focus on slow tempos, and minor tonality with much use of dissonance (especially in the form of the tritone), employing the usage of repetitive rhythms with little regard to harmonic progression and musical structure.
Traditional doom metal vocalists favour clean vocals, which are often performed with a sense of despair, desperation or pain; imitating the high-tone wails of Ozzy Osbourne (Black Sabbath), Frank Ferrara (Bang), Bobby Liebling (Pentagram), and Zeeb Parkes (Witchfinder General). So-called "epic doom" vocalists often take it a step further, singing in an operatic style. Doom metal bands influenced by other extreme metal genres often use growled or screamed vocals, as is the case of death-doom, black-doom, and funeral doom.
Lyrics in doom metal play a key role. Influenced by notable blues musicians like Robert Johnson and Son House, normally they are gloomy and pessimistic, including themes such as: suffering, depression, fear, grief, dread, death and anger. While some bands write lyrics in introspective and personal ways, others convey their themes using symbolism – which may be inspired by occult arts and literature.
Some doom metal bands use religious themes in their music. Trouble, one of the genre's pioneers, were among the first to incorporate Christian imagery. Others have incorporated occult and pagan imagery. For many bands, the use of religious themes is for aesthetic and symbolic purposes only. Examples include lyrics/imagery about the Last Judgment to invoke dread, or the use of crucifixes and cross-shaped headstones to symbolize death.
Doom metal is rooted in the music of early Black Sabbath. Black Sabbath's music is (in and of) itself stylistically rooted in blues, but with the deliberately doomy and loud guitar playing of Tony Iommi, and the then-uncommon dark and pessimistic lyrics and atmosphere, they set the standards of early heavy metal and inspired various doom metal bands. In the early 1970s both Black Sabbath and Pentagram (also as side band "Bedemon") composed and performed this heavy and dark music, which would in the 1980s begin to be known and referred to as doom metal by subsequent musicians, critics and fans.
Aside from Pentagram and Black Sabbath, other groups from the 1970s would heavily influence the genre's development. Blue Cheer is often hailed as one of the first stoner metal bands. Through the use of loud amplifiers and guitar feedback, their debut Vincebus Eruptum created a template for other artists to follow. Though lacking the pessimistic lyrical content of their contemporaries, Welsh heavy metal band Budgie would also produce heavy songs which were amongst the loudest of their day, stylistically influencing various doom metal acts. Early doom metal was also influenced by Japan's Flower Travellin' Band, particularly their albums Kirikyogen and Satori. Bang's 1971 self-titled debut is considered an important forerunner to doom metal. Other notable groups include Sir Lord Baltimore, Buffalo, Necromandus, Lucifer's Friend, Iron Claw and Leaf Hound.
During the early-mid-1980s, bands from England and the United States contributed much to the formation of doom metal as a distinct genre. In 1982, English pioneers Witchfinder General released their debut album Death Penalty. During 1984, two American pioneers also released their debuts; Saint Vitus released their eponymous album and Trouble released Psalm 9. That same year American band Cirith Ungol (formed in 1971) released their second studio album, King of the Dead—regarded by many as an early influence on doom. The following year, American band Pentagram would go on to release their debut, Relentless. The Swedish Candlemass would also prove influential with their first record Epicus Doomicus Metallicus in 1986 (and prior to that the 1984 album, Day of Retribution as Nemesis), from which the genre takes its name.
Some doom metal bands were also influenced by the underground gothic rock and post-punk scene of the 1980s, showing similarities with the dark themes addressed through lyrics and the music atmosphere, both music styles deal with. A doom metal band like Mindrot was often described as a cross-over between death metal and gothic rock.
Like other extreme metal genres, doom metal also has regionally based scenes, with their own particular characteristics:
Finnish doom metal
In one of the greatest doom metal outputs, Finnish groups focus more on the depressive mood of the genre, evoking an intense grieving feeling. The bands play with very slow tempos and melodic tones, creating an atmosphere of darkness and melancholia. This scene was kick-started by the band Rigor Mortis (which, due to an older US band with the same name, changed their name to Spiritus Mortis), which originated in 1987. Notable bands include Reverend Bizarre, Minotauri, Dolorian, Shape of Despair, Thergothon, Skepticism, and Unholy.
Louisiana doom metal
Regarded as sludge metal's birthplace, this scene originated in New Orleans in the late 1980s. The bands of this scene employ some punk influences, like harsh vocals, guitar distortion and downtuned sound. This scene was pioneered by Exhorder, who was the first band to combine doom metal with a punk-influenced metal sound. In the 90s, several sludge and stoner metal bands arose in the state, mainly influenced by bands like Black Sabbath and Melvins, also mixing their sound with genres like hardcore punk and Southern rock. Notable bands include Eyehategod, Down Exhorder, Crowbar, and Acid Bath
Washington D.C. doom metal
This scene formed in the early 1970s and was kickstarted by Pentagram and The Obsessed. Various doom/stoner bands, mostly from Washington, D.C. and its metropolitan area on Maryland and Virginia (thus also being labelled "Maryland doom sound"), formed in this region being heavily influenced by early hard rock and heavy metal bands, like UFO, Blue Cheer, Black Sabbath, Uriah Heep and Sir Lord Baltimore. This scene is also known as "Hellhound sound" for being closely related to the late Hellhound Records, who signed with many important bands of the scene like Saint Vitus, Internal Void, Iron Man, Revelation, Wretched and Unorthodox. Other notable bands include Evoken, Spirit Caravan, Earthride, and The Hidden Hand.
Pacific Northwest doom metal
The Pacific Northwest region – primarily Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia – has been host to a growing scene of doom, sludge, and stoner metal since the 1990s. It is influenced by the geographical origin of grunge music and a sound pioneered in part by Washington band The Melvins. Common visual themes include the region's cold, rainy, forested climate, and many bands utilize psychedelic imagery influenced by bands like Sleep, Karp and Harkonen. Musical styles often share crossover features with atmospheric/ambient black metal, drone metal, and post-metal as seen in Oregon's YOB, Agalloch, Witch Mountain, and Red Fang; Washington's Earth, and Sunn O))); and Vancouver's Anciients, Astrakhan, and Aaron Turner project Sumac, among various others.
Palm Desert Scene
Palm Desert, California, hosts a thriving desert rock and stoner metal scene, drawing heavy influences from psychedelia, blues and hardcore punk, often featuring distinctive repetitive drum beats, a propensity for free-form jamming, and "trance-like" or "sludgy" grooves. Because of their integration, the term "stoner rock" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "desert rock". Notable bands include Kyuss, Queens of the Stone Age, Dali's Llama, Slo Burn, and Brant Bjork.
Black-doom, also known as blackened doom, is a style that combines the slowness and thicker, bassier sound of doom metal with the shrieking vocals and heavily distorted guitar sound of black metal. Black-doom bands maintain the Satanic ideology associated with black metal, while melding it with moodier themes more related to doom metal, like depression, nihilism, and nature. They also use the slower pace of doom metal in order to emphasize the harsh atmosphere present in black metal. Examples of black-doom bands include Barathrum, Forgotten Tomb, Woods of Ypres, Deinonychus, Shining, Nortt, Bethlehem, early Katatonia, Tiamat, Dolorian, October Tide, and In the Woods....
Depressive suicidal black metal
Pioneered by black-doom bands like Opthalamia, Katatonia, Bethlehem, Forgotten Tomb, and Shining, depressive suicidal black metal, also known as suicidal black metal, depressive black metal or DSBM, is a style that melds the second wave-style of black metal with doom metal, with lyrics revolving around themes such as depression, self-harm, misanthrophy, suicide, and death. DSBM bands draw the lo-fi recording and highly distorted guitars of black metal, while employing the usage of acoustic instruments and non-distorted electric guitar's timbres present in doom metal, interchanging the slower, doom-like, sections with faster tremolo picking. Vocals are usually high-pitched like in black metal, but lacking of energy, simulating feelings like hopelessness, desperation, and plea. The presence of one-man bands is more proeminent in this genre compared to others. Examples of bands include Xasthur, Leviathan, Strid, Silencer, Make a Change… Kill Yourself, and I Shalt Become.
Blackened death-doom is a genre that combines the slow tempos and monolithic drumming of doom metal, the complex and loud riffage of death metal and the shrieking vocals of black metal. Examples of blackened death-doom bands include Morast, Faustcoven, The Ruins of Beverast, Bolzer, Necros Christos, Harvest Gulgaltha, Dragged Into Sunlight, Hands of Thieves, and Soulburn.
Death-doom is a style that combines the slow tempos and pessimistic atmosphere of doom metal with the deep growling vocals and double-kick drumming of death metal. Influenced mostly by the early work of Hellhammer and Celtic Frost, the style emerged during the late 1980s and gained a certain amount of popularity during the 1990s. Death-doom was also pioneered by bands such as Winter, Disembowelment, Paradise Lost, Autopsy, Anathema, and My Dying Bride.
Funeral doom is a genre that crosses death-doom with funeral dirge music. It is played at a very slow tempo, and places an emphasis on evoking a sense of emptiness and despair. Typically, electric guitars are heavily distorted and dark ambient aspects such as keyboards or synthesizers are often used to create a "dreamlike" atmosphere. Vocals consist of mournful chants or growls and are often in the background. Funeral doom was pioneered by Mournful Congregation, Esoteric, Evoken, Funeral, Thergothon, and Skepticism.
Drone metal (also known as drone doom) is a style of doom metal that is largely defined by drones; notes or chords that are sustained and repeated throughout a piece of music. Typically, the electric guitar is performed with large amounts of reverb and feedback while lacking the presence of drums and vocals. Songs are often very long and lack beat or rhythm in the traditional sense. Drone metal is generally influenced by drone music, noise music, and minimalist music. The style emerged in the early 1990s and was pioneered by Earth, Boris, and Sunn O))).
Epic doom has a heavy classical influence. One of the main characteristics are the vocals; vocalists typically employ clean, operatic and choral singing, accompanied by keyboarding and drumming performed in a bombastic fashion in order to evoke an "epic" sensation. Lyrics and imagery are typically inspired by fantasy or mythology. Examples of prominent epic doom bands include Candlemass, Solitude Aeturnus, Solstice, While Heaven Wept, and Doomsword.
Gothic-doom, also known as doom-gothic, is a style that combines more traditional elements of doom metal with gothic rock. Gothic-doom bands usually play at slow and mid-tempos and employ the usage of instruments that are more related to classical music, alongside traditional doom metal instruments, in order to create darker and meditative atmospheres. Doom-gothic lyrics combines the dramatic and romantic elements of gothic rock with the sorrowness and melancholy present in doom metal, while being more introspective and focused on personal experiences such as love, grief, irreparable loss, loss of faith, etc. Unlike in gothic metal and death-doom, gothic-doom bands prefer the use of cleaner vocals instead of employing death growls, although some of them employ harsher vocals occasionally, and avoid the usage of death metal-like riffage. Bands labelled as gothic-doom include Weeping Silence, The Foreshadowing, Grave Lines, Artrosis, Ava Inferi, Draconian, and Type O Negative.
Sludge metal (also known as sludge doom or sludgecore) is a style that combines doom metal and hardcore punk, and sometimes Southern rock. Many sludge bands compose slow and heavy songs that contain brief hardcore passages. However, some bands emphasise fast tempos throughout their music. The string instruments are heavily distorted and are often played with large amounts of feedback to produce an abrasive, sludgy sound. Drumming is often performed in typical doom metal fashion, but drummers may employ hardcore d-beat or double-kick drumming during faster passages. Vocals are usually shouted or screamed, and lyrics often focus on suffering, drug abuse, politics and anger towards society. The style was pioneered in the early late 1980s by the Melvins, and in the 1990s by bands such as Eyehategod, Crowbar, Buzzov*en, Acid Bath, and Grief.
Stoner metal or stoner doom describes doom metal that incorporates psychedelic rock and acid rock elements. Stoner metal is often heavily distorted, groove-laden bass-heavy sound, making much use of guitar effects such as fuzz, phaser, or flanger. Stoner bands typically play in slow-to-mid tempo, employing the usage of melodic vocals and "retro" production. It was pioneered in the early–mid-1990s by bands such as Kyuss, Sleep, Acid King, Electric Wizard, Orange Goblin, and Sons of Otis.
Influenced by 70s and 80s heavy metal, traditional doom metal bands more commonly use higher guitar tunings, and do not play as slow as many other doom bands. Traditional doom bands typically play slow to mid-tempo songs with a thick and heavy sound with the electric bass following the melody line, and sometimes employ the usage of keyboards, although assuming a secondary role on traditional doom metal songs. Vocals are usually clean with the occasional growl or scream. The lyrics in traditional doom usually are eerie and dark like other doom metal divisions. Some bands who play traditional doom metal are Orodruin, Reverend Bizarre, Witchcraft, Saint Vitus, and Count Raven.
Notes and references
- Nolan Stolz, Experiencing Black Sabbath: A Listener's Companion (Prince George's County: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017), ISBN 978-1442256910
- Matthew P. Unger, Sound, Symbol, Sociality: The Aesthetic Experience of Extreme Metal Music (London: Palgrave, 2015), ISBN 978-1137478344
- Wiederhorn, Jon (2 February 2017). "Doom Metal: A Brief Timeline". Bandcamp daily. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (4 August 2016). "A Brief History of Post-Metal". Bandcamp. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 31.
- "Doom metal". AllMusic. Retrieved 2016-01-17.
- Piper, Jonathan (2013). Locating experiential richness in doom metal (PhD). UC San Diego Electronic Theses and Dissertations. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- Irwin, William (September 2012). Black Sabbath and Philosophy: Mastering Reality. John Wiley & Sons.
- "Music News, Videos, Photos, Artists, Playlists and More". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
- "Budgie". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "Review: Flower Travellin Band – Satori". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- "Bang". Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "U.S. '70s Proto-Metal Power Trio Bang Returns". Blabbermouth.net. January 6, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
- "Sir Lord Baltimore". Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "Heavy Planet Stoner Rock Blog: Album Of The Day-Buffalo-Volcanic Rock (1973)". Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Christe (2003), pg. 345, "Beginning with the overlooked Lucifer's Friend and Necromandus in the early 1970s, doom crawled through the 1980s with Trouble, Witchfinder General, the Obsessed, Candlemass, Pentagram, and Saint Vitus, then into the 1990s with Cathedral, Sleep, and Burning Witch."
- ^ Sleazegrinder (March 2007). "The Lost Pioneers of Heavy Metal". Classic Rock.
- Kaufman, Spencer. "Northwest Terror Fest 2019 lineup: Pig Destroyer, Wolfbrigade, Cirith Ungol, and more to crush Seattle". Consequence of Sound. Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
- Lackey Shaffer, Nancy D. "OUT WITH A BANG | Robert Garven and Jarvis Leatherby talk Frost and Fire IV before the metalfest takes its final bow". Ventura County Reporter. Ventura County Reporter. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
- Beauty in the Darkness. Nuclear Blast. 1996. p. 14. Matrix number: BOD NB 0166-2.
- DerRozzengarten. "Swallow The Sun interview (10/2005)". Metal Storm. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Vladimir Kozlov. "Russian doom, Finnish-style". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- DerRozzengarten. "SPIRITUS MORTIS". MusicMight. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Spiritus Mortis interview". Fémforgács. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Best Finnish Heavy Metal Bands". About.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "The Second Ring of Power – CD&DVD edition coming in October". Peaceville Records's Official site. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Fensterstock, Alison. "Axe to Grind: Heavy Metal in New Orleans". BestofNewOrleans.com. Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2010-05-19.
- Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- Torreano, Bradley. "Exhorder". AllMusic. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- York, William. "Eyehategod – In the Name of Suffering". AllMusic. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- York, William. "Eyehategod – Take as Needed for Pain". AllMusic. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- Huey, Steve. "Crowbar". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- Prato, Greg. "Down biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- York, William. "Soilent Green biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "Modern hardcore music scene". Metalhammer magazine No.32.
- Mahoney, Steve (March 30, 1995). "Acid Bath's not famous but it is one hot band". jsonline.com, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
- Pamfilos, Themis (July 23, 2004). "Review: V/A – Doom Capital Maryland / DC". Metal Invader. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006.
- Henderson, Alex. "Doom Capital: Maryland DC Heavy Rock Underground". AllMusic. Retrieved 2013-05-22.
- Tschetter, Michelle. "Pentagram". Farmageddon Records. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Brandon, Wu. "For Northern Virginia Metal Band Salome, Not All Hope Lies in Doom". Washington City Paper. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- "Hellhound Records Archives – The Obelisk". The Obelisk. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
- "New Jersey Doom Metal". Rock Show Magazine. Archived from the original on 2014-01-25. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
- "The Mix: A Pacific Northwest Metal Goldmine".
- "Crushing Cascadia: Earworthy Metal of the Pacific Northwest -". 28 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Reward in Purpose, by Astrakhan".
- Vanhorn, Teri. "Queens Of The Stone Age At Home In Desert". mtv.com. MTV. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- Prato, Greg. "Normadic Pursuits – Yawning Man". Allmusic. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Steve Appleford (22 October 2014). "Queens of the Stone Age's Josh Homme Is Our Last Real Rock Star". L.A. Weekly.
- "News: StonerRock.com and MeteorCity Part Ways". Bravewords.com. May 19, 2004. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- Morris, Chris (15 January 1994), "Kyuss lands on its feet and keeps climbing", Billboard, p. 1
- Lynskey, Dorian. "Kyuss: Kings of the stoner age". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Fessier, Bruce (June 30, 2014). ""Zach Huskey offering variety show of desert sound"". The Desert Sun. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
- "Slo Burn". allmusic.com. Retrieved on October 5, 2013.
- Dome, Malcolm (16 October 2016). "10 Essential Stoner Rock Albums". Metal Hammer. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Ebner, Arne (25 July 2010). Ästhetik des Doom (PDF) (Bachelor) (in German). Macromedia University of Applied Sciences for Media and Communication – Cologne. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "ITALIAN BLACKENED DOOMSTERS FORGOTTEN TOMB PLAN RELEASE". Terrorizer Online. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Ordo Obsidium – Orbis Tertius Review". About.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Zahn, Thorsten; Schurer, Petra (1 June 2003). "Emotionen in Zeitlupe". Rolling Stone (in German). Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Reviews". Archived from the original on January 28, 1999. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "WOODS OF YPRES RELEASE DISCUSS THE GREEN ALBUM". Terrorizer Online. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- "DEINONYCHUS: 'You Will Get A Pure Black/Doom Metal Album'". Blabbermouth. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Feral House. ISBN 978-1936239757. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- Obstkrieg, Dan. "Nortt – Endeligt Review". Last Rites. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "BETHLEHEM REPLACE LIFELOVER ON BILL FOR KINGS OF BLACK METAL FESTIVAL". Brave Words. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- "Katatonia: 'Brave Murder Day'". Decibel Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Yavuz, Mehmet Selim (September 2015). Dead is dead: Perspectives on the Meaning of Death in Depressive Suicidal Black Metal Music through Musical Representations (MMus). University of London. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Sil, Janet (2013). Ishmael, Amelia; Price, Zareen; Stephanou, Aspasia; Woodward, Ben (eds.). "Open a Vein: Suicidal Black Metal and Enlightenment". Helvete: A Journal of Black Metal Theory. Brooklyn: Punctum Books (1): 5–19. ISSN 2326-683X.
- Patterson, Dayal (2013). Black Metal: Evolution of the Cult. Port Townsend: Feral House. p. 351. ISBN 9781936239757.
- Luedtke, Christopher (February 2, 2016). "Essential Black Metal Listening: XASTHUR Nocturnal Poisoning". Metal Injection. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Kelly, Kim (29 March 2017). "Morast Expertly Synthesize Black, Death, and Doom Metal on 'Ancestral Void'". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Mattia, A. (7 February 2017). "DON'T LOOK BELOW: HARVEST GULGALTHA – 'ALTARS OF DEVOTION' REVIEW + STREAM". Cvlt Nation. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Falzon, Denise (31 October 2012). "Dragged Into Sunlight 'Widowmaker' (album stream)". Exclaim!. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Moore, Doug (31 August 2016). "The Black Market: The Month In Metal – August 2016". Stereogum. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Whelan, Kez (11 June 2014). "Soulburn: Band Of The Day". Terrorizer. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Doom Metal Special: Doom/Death", Terrorizer #142.
- Purcell, Nathalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland & Company. p. 23. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1.
- Davis, Cody. "Funeral Doom Friday: FUNERAL MOURNING's Blackened, Deadly Inertia of Dissonance (A Sermon in Finality)". Metal Injection. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
- Bloodaxe, Mathias (27 July 2011). "Mournful Congregation – The Unspoken Hymns". VoltageMedia. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Hinchcliffe, James (April 2006). "Funeral Doom / Dron Doom: Hearse Play", Terrorizer #143, pp.44–45.
- James Minton, Kim Kelly, and Jenn Selby, "Filth Parade", Terrorizer #188, September 2009, p. 56.
- John Wray, "Heady Metal", New York Times, May 28, 2006. Access date: August 18, 2008.
- Jan Tumlir, "Primal dirge", Artforum, April 2006. Access date: August 22, 2008.
- Brandon Stosuy, "Heavy Metal: It's Alive and Flourishing", Slate, August 19, 2005. Access date: August 22, 2008.
- Jason Jackowiak, "Earth: Hex: Or Printing in the Infernal Method" Archived 2008-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, Splendid, September 14, 2005. Access date: August 23, 2008.
- Hayes, Craig. "Witch Mountain – Cauldron Of The Wild Review". About.com. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Henderson, Alex. "Fear of Infinity". AllMusic. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Candlemass". AllMusic. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Santos, José Carlos (2012). "Epicus Doomicus Metallicus". In Terrorizer 's Secret History of Doom Metal, pp. 60–62, ISSN 2041-2142
- VIRTANEN, MIIKA. "SOLSTICE ANNOUNCE NEW VOCALIST". Zero Tolerance. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- "DOOMSWORD To Release New Album In June". Blabbermouth. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- Sauciuc, Gabriela; Talpalariu, Dan-Radu. "Doom-gothic metal – its perception and interpretation by fans". limbistraine.com. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- Ramirez, Carlos (12 October 2012). "THE FORESHADOWING CRAFT GOTHIC DOOM MASTERPIECES". Noise Creep. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- "Singing In A Gothic-Doom Metal Band". Voice Council Magazine. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- Kelly, Kim (30 April 2018). "Grave Lines Blur the Boundary Between Doom Metal and Gothic Folk". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- Arancio, Dennis. "In the Flowers Shade Review". Soniccathedral.com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-25. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- van der Wal, Kim. "The Silhouette Review". Lordsofmetal.nl. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Fox, Erin. "Interview with Anders Jacobsson of Draconian". Thegauntlet.com. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
- Pratt, Greg (April 15, 2010). "Type O Negative's Peter Steele Dies at 48". Exclaim!. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- "The 9 albums that inspired King Goat's progressive doom sound". Metal Hammer.
- "Full Album Stream: Below The Sun". Decibel Magazine. 23 May 2017.
- "Canada's purveyors of progressive doom metal issue new video". AXS.
- "6 New Metal Albums That Set a Strong Mood". Pitchfork.
- York, William. "Buzzov*en". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- York, William. "Eyehategod – Dopesick". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-09-12.
- York, William. "Acid Bath". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- Henderson, Alex. "Grief". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- Kelly, Kim (19 April 2017). "10 Stoner Metal Albums Ranked by a Metalhead Who Doesn't Smoke Weed". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "10 ESSENTIAL STONER-METAL ALBUMS". Revolver Magazine. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- Ellis, Iain (2008). Rebels Wit Attitude: Subversive Rock Humorists. Soft Skull Press. p. 258. ISBN 1-59376-206-2.
- "Stoner age: Priestess marries metal and melody". Buffalo News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "MusicMight – Kyuss biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
[Kyuss] almost single handed invented the phrase 'Stoner Rock'. They achieved this by tuning way down and summoning up a subterranean, organic sound...
- "Stoner Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
Stoner metal could be campy and self-aware, messily evocative, or unabashedly retro.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Kyuss biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
...they are widely acknowledged as pioneers of the booming stoner rock scene of the 1990s...
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Sleep biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
- Terich, Jeff; Blyweiss, Adam (20 April 2017). "10 Essential Stoner Rock Albums". Treblezine. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Dare, Tom (April 18, 2015). "Lori from Acid King on Desertfest, doom and David Bowie". Metal Hammer. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
Stoner metal pioneers Acid King emerged when the subgenre didn’t really exist yet.
- Kelly, Kim (20 April 2017). "10 Stoner Metal Albums Ranked by a Metalhead Who Doesn't Smoke Weed". Vice. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Distefano, Alex (2 April 2014). "The Top 10 Stoner Metal Bands". OC Weekly. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Anderson, Jason. "Sons of Otis Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Voutiriadou, Maria. "Crowned In Earth". Metal Temple. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
- "Reverend Bizarre". Decibel Magazine. Retrieved 2013-05-20.