A docudrama (or documentary drama) is a genre of radio and television programming, feature film, and staged theatre, which features dramatized re-enactments of actual events. On stage, it is sometimes known as documentary theatre.
In the core elements of its story a docudrama strives to adhere to known historical facts, while allowing a greater or lesser degree of dramatic license in peripheral details, and where there are gaps in the historical record. Dialogue may include the actual words of real-life persons, as recorded in historical documents. Docudrama producers sometimes choose to film their reconstructed events in the actual locations in which the historical events occurred.
A docudrama, in which historical fidelity is the keynote, is generally distinguished from a film merely "based on true events", a term which implies a greater degree of dramatic license; and from the concept of "historical drama", a broader category which may also encompass largely fictionalized action taking place in historical settings or against the backdrop of historical events.
As a portmanteau, docudrama is sometimes confused with docufiction. However, unlike docufiction—which is essentially a documentary filmed in real time, incorporating some fictional elements—docudrama is filmed at a time subsequent to the events portrayed.
Docudramas tend to demonstrate some or most of the following characteristics
- Representation of actual historical events
- Based on what actually happened
- Use of literary and narrative techniques to flesh out the bare facts of an event in history to tell a story
- Some degree of license is often taken with minor historical facts for the sake of enhancing the drama
Docudramas are distinct from historical fiction, in which the historical setting is a mere backdrop for a plot involving fictional characters.
The impulse to incorporate historical material into literary texts has been an intermittent feature of literature in the west since its earliest days. Aristotle's theory of art is based on the use of putatively historical events and characters. Especially after the development of modern mass-produced literature, there have been genres that relied on history or then-current events for material. English Renaissance drama, for example, developed subgenres specifically devoted to dramatizing recent murders and notorious cases of witchcraft.
However, docudrama as a separate category belongs to the second half of the twentieth century. After World War II, Louis de Rochemont, creator of The March of Time, became a producer at 20th Century Fox. There he brought the newsreel aesthetic to films, producing a series of movies based upon real events using a realistic style that became known as semidocumentary. The films (The House on 92nd Street, Boomerang, 13 Rue Madeleine) were widely imitated, and the style soon became used even for completely-fictional stories, such as The Naked City. Perhaps the most significant of the semidocumentary films was He Walked by Night, based upon serial killer Erwin Walker. Jack Webb had a supporting role in the movie and struck up a friendship with the LAPD consultant, Sergeant Marty Wynn. The film and his relationship with Wynn inspired Webb to create what became one of the most famous docudramas in history: Dragnet.
The influence of New Journalism tended to create a license for authors to treat with literary techniques material that might in an earlier age have been approached in a purely journalistic way. Both Truman Capote and Norman Mailer were influenced by this movement, and Capote's In Cold Blood is arguably the most famous example of the genre.
Some docudrama examples for American television include Brian's Song (1971), and Roots (1977). Brian's Song is the biography of Brian Piccolo, a Chicago Bears football player who died at a young age after battling cancer. Roots depicts the life of a slave and his family.
This list is ordered by release date.
- The March of Time (1931–45)
- The Fifth Horseman (radio series) (1946)
- Bandits en automobile (in French) (1912)
- The March of Time (1935–51)
- Call Northside 777 (1948)
- Children of Hiroshima (1952)
- The Wrong Man (1956)
- A Night to Remember (1958)
- The Gallant Hours (1960)
- Judgment at Nuremberg (1961)
- The Longest Day (1962)
- Culloden (1964)
- Cathy Come Home (1966)
- In Cold Blood (1967)
- Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970)
- 10 Rillington Place (1971)
- The Legend of Boggy Creek (1972)
- Edvard Munch (1974)
- The Missiles of October (1974)
- All the President's Men (1976)
- Pumping Iron (1977)
- King (1978)
- Christiane F. – We Children from Bahnhof Zoo (1981)
- The Right Stuff (1983)
- Canada's Sweetheart: The Saga of Hal C. Banks (1985)
- Seacoal (1985)
- Life Story (1987)
- Goodfellas (1990)
- Dien Bien Phu (1992)
- Schindler's List (1993)
- Ed Wood (1994)
- Quiz Show (1994)
- Apollo 13 (1995)
- Nixon (1995)
- Hillsborough (1996)
- Pirates of Silicon Valley (1999)
- The Insider (1999)
- Thirteen Days (2000)
- The Pianist (2002)
- Bloody Sunday (2002)
- The Laramie Project (2002)
- The Story of the Weeping Camel (2003)
- Touching the Void (2003)
- The Last Dragon (2004)
- Cinderella Man (2005)
- End Day (2005)
- Good Night, and Good Luck (2005)
- Bobby (2006)
- Hollywoodland (2006)
- Krakatoa: The Last Days (2006)
- The 9/11 Commission Report (2006)
- United 93 (2006)
- Rescue Dawn (2007)
- Breach (2007)
- Charlie Wilson's War (2007)
- A Mighty Heart (2007)
- Zodiac (2007)
- Che (2008)
- The Beckoning Silence (2008)
- Frost/Nixon (2008)
- John Adams (2008)
- The Lena Baker Story (2008)
- The Informant! (2009)
- Public Enemies (2009)
- The Fighter (2010)
- 127 Hours (2010)
- Fair Game (2010)
- No Place on Earth (2012)
- The Attacks of 26/11 (2013)
- Captain Phillips (2013)
- Enemy of the Reich: The Noor Inayat Khan Story (2014)
- America: Imagine the World Without Her (2014)
- Heaven Is for Real (2014)
- Pride (2014)
- Truth (2015)
- Bridge of Spies (2015)
- 0-41* (2016)
- Nise: The Heart of Madness (2016)
- Snowden (2016)
- Hidden Figures (2016)
- Sachin: A Billion Dreams (2017)
- First Man (2018)
- Culloden (1964)
- The War Game (1965)
- The Missiles of October (1974)
- Death of a Princess (1980)
- Miracle Landing (1990)
- Egypt (2005)
- Space Race (2005)
- The Road to Guantanamo (2006)
- Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire (2006)
- Nuclear Secrets (2007)
- Heroes and Villains (2007-2008)
- House of Saddam (2008)
- Micro Men (2009)
- Moonshiners (2011–14)
- The Men Who Built America (2012)
- Mabo (2012)
- An Adventure in Space and Time (2013)
- Code of a Killer (2015)
- Barbarians Rising (2016)
- The American West (2016)
- Mars (2016)
- Genius (2017)
- Wormwood (2017)
- When We Rise (2017)
- The Detectives (2018)
- Docufiction - A documentary of fiction
- Mockumentary - A parodical or humoristic fictional documentary
- Pseudo-documentary - A fake documentary, often presented as real
- Fly on the wall
- Factual television
- Reality television
- Peter Watkins, a pioneer of docudrama
- List of historical drama films
- List of Asian historical drama films
- Duarte, German A. (2009). La scomparsa dell'orologio universale. Peter Watkins e i mass media audiovisivi. Milan: Mimesis Edizioni. ISBN 978-8857501222.
- Duarte, German A. (2016). Conversations With Peter Watkins/COnversaciones con Peter Watkins. Bogotà: UTADEO PRESS. ISBN 978-958-725-195-1. External link in
- Goodwin, Andrew, et al. Drama-Documentary. London: British Film Institute, 1983.
- Hellmann, John (1981). Fables of Fact: The New Journalism as New Fiction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252008472.
- Hoffer, Tom W. & Richard Alan Nelson. “Docudrama on American Television”, Journal of the University Film Association 30, no. 2 (Spring 1978): 21–7.
- Kazin, Alfred (1973). Bright Book of Life: American Hot Dogs and Storytellers from Hemingway to Mailer. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316484180.
- Lipkin, Steven N., ed. (2002). Real Emotional Logic: Film and Television Docudrama As Persuasive Practice. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2409-5.
- Lukács, György (1962). Mitchell, Hannah; Mitchell, Stanley (eds.). The Historical Novel. London: Merlin Press.
- Paget, Derek (2011). No Other Way to Tell It: Dramadoc/docudrama on television (2nd ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-8446-1.
- Rhodes, Gary Don; Springer, John Parris, eds. (2006). Docufictions: Essays on the intersection of documentary and fictional filmmaking. London: McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-2184-8.
- Roscoe, Jane; Hight, Craig (2001). Faking it: Mock-documentary and the subversion of factuality. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-5641-3.
- Rosenthal, Alan (1995). Writing Docudrama: dramatizing reality for film and TV. Boston, Mass.: Focal Press. ISBN 0240801954.
- Rosenthal, Alan (1999). Why Docudrama?: Fact-Fiction on Film and TV. Carbondale & Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2186-5.
- Siegle, Robert (1984). "Capote's Hand-Carved Coffins and the Nonfiction Novel". Contemporary Literature. 25: 437–451. doi:10.2307/1208055.
- Stavreva, Kirilka (2000). "Fighting Words: Witch-speak in Late Elizabethan Docu-fiction". Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. 30: 309–338. doi:10.1215/10829636-30-2-309.
- White, Hayden (1978). Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801821274.
- British Film Institute paper on British drama-documentary
- Docudrama: the real (his)tory by Çiçek Coşkun (Middle East Technical University, Department of Sociology): unpublished academic paper
- Docudrama at BookRags