Direct-controlled municipality

A direct-controlled municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by unitary states, with status equal to that of the provinces in the respective countries. A direct-controlled municipality is similar to, but not the same as, a federal district, a common designation in various countries for a municipality that is not part of any state, and which usually hosts some governmental functions. Usually direct-controlled municipality are under central government control with limited power.

Many countries have adopted this system with some different variations. Geographically and culturally, many of the municipalities are enclaves in the middle of provinces. Some occur in strategic positions in between provinces.

CountryMunicipalitiesMain article
 CambodiaKep, Pailin, Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville
 China (PRC)Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, TianjinDirect-administered municipalities of China
 KazakhstanAlmaty, Nur-Sultan, Baikonur
 North KoreaPyongyang, Nampho, RasonSpecial cities of North Korea
 South KoreaSeoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan, SejongSpecial cities of South Korea
 KyrgyzstanBishkek, Osh
 MoldovaChişinău, Bălți, Bender
 PhilippinesHighly urbanized cities: Manila, Angeles, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu City, Davao City, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo City, Lapu-Lapu, Las Piñas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Olongapo, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon City, San Juan, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga City;
Independent component cities: Cotabato City, Dagupan, Naga, Ormoc, Santiago
Independent municipality: Pateros
Cities of the Philippines § Independent cities
 Taiwan (ROC)Taipei,[1] Kaohsiung, New Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, TaoyuanSpecial municipality (Taiwan)
 UkraineKiev, Sevastopol (disputed)
 VietnamHanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Can ThoMunicipalities of Vietnam


  1. Taipei City Government, Taipei Yearbook (2008).

See also

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